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THE IOWA JOUENAL OF HI8T0EY 
AND POLITICS 



THE 

IOWA JOURNAL 

OF 

HISTORY AND POLITICS 



EDITOE 

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 



VOLUME XXI 
1923 



PUBLISHED QUAETEKLY BY 
THE STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY OP IOWA 
IOWA CITY, IOWA 
1923 



COPYEIGHT 1921 BY 
THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 



CONTENTS 
Number 1 — Januaey 1923 

History of tlie Office of County Superintendent 

of Schools in Iowa Jay J. Sherman 3 
An Unworked Field in Mississippi Valley History 

Louis Bernard Schmidt 94 
The Westward Movement of the Corn Growing Industry 

in the United States Louis Bernard Schmidt 112 

Some Publications 142 

Western Americana 146 

lowana 147 

Historical Societies 166 

Notes and Comment 176 

Contributors 179 

Number 2 — April 1923 

A History of the Military Department of the State 

University of Iowa Alan C. Eockwood 183 

Some Publications 313 

Western Americana 316 

lowana 318 

Historical Societies 333 

Notes and Comment 343 

Contributors 344 



vi CONTENTS 

Number 3 — July 1923 
Congregational Life in Muscatine, 1843-1893 

Irving Beedine Richman 347 
The Economic Basis of the Populist Movement in Iowa 

Herman Clarence Nixon 373 
The Development of Trans-Mississippi Political 

Geography Euth L. Hiqgins 397 
A Document Relating to Dutch Immigration to Iowa 

in 1846 Henry Stephen Lucas 457 

Some Publications 466 

Western Americana 469 

lowana 472 

Historical Societies 489 

Notes and Comment 498 

Contributors 504 

Number 4 — October 1923 

The Legislation of the Fortieth General Assembly of Iowa 

John E. Brigqs and Jacob Van Ek 507 

Some Publications 677 

Western Americana 681 

lowana 683 

Historical Societies 697 

Notes and Comment 706 

Contributors 708 

Index 711 



THE 

Iowa Journal 

H i storj^aiYd Politics 



JANUARY 1923 




Published Quao^erlyby 

THE STATE fflSTORICAl SOCIETY OF IOWA 

lowei City lowa^ 



Entered Oeeadlwr 26 1002 at Iowa City Iowa as Mc<md-elaaa matter ander act of Ooagrecs of Jnly 16 1804 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 



Vol XXI JANUARY 1923 No 1 



CONTENTS 



History of the Office of County Superintendent 

of Schools in Iowa Jay J . Sheeman 3 

An Unworked Field in Mississippi Valley 

History Louis Beritaed Schmidt 94 

The Westward Movement of the Corn Growing 
Industry in the United States 

Louis Bernaed Schmidt 112 

Some Publications 142 

Western Americana 146 

lowana 147 

Historical Societies 166 

Notes and Comment 176 

Contributors 179 



Copyright IdtS hy The State Historical Society of Iowa 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

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THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

JANUARY NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY-THREE 

VOLUME TWENTY-ONE NTJMBEE ONE 



VOL. XXI — 1 



HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF COUNTY SUPERIN- 
TENDENT OF SCHOOLS IN IOWA 

[The following account of the development and status of the oflSee of 
county superintendent of schools, by Jay J. Sherman, forms one of a series 
of monographs on county history and government compiled under the direction 
of The State Historical Society of Iowa. The sources used in the compila- 
tion of this article were the laws of Iowa, journals of the House and Senate, 
reports of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, newspapers and 
periodicals, and works such as Aurner's History of Education in Iowa. 

Letters of inquiry were sent to every State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction in the United States — thirty-one of whom replied. Personal visits 
were made to various Iowa State officers, representatives of book publishers, 
and teachers. Questionnaires were sent to each county superintendent in Iowa, 
and by the information secured from the ninety-two replies, the facts dra.wn 
from the other sources and the conclusions derived from them have been 
checked and verified. With a view to making a first hand survey of the work 
done, Mr. Sherman visited twelve counties in which conditions were believed 
to be typical. In this way the practical workings of the office were studied. 
Helpful assistance was also received from the Iowa State Teachers' Associa- 
tion and the Extension Division of the Iowa State Teachers College. — The 
Editor] 

NEED OF THE OFFICE 

Any attempt to maintain a system of public schools with- 
out providing means of enforcing the legal provisions and 
examining those expecting to teach in such schools must 
be futile. The Territorial and early State legislatures, 
feeling the need for such oversight, created township and 
district inspectors. These inspectors, however, failed to 
produce satisfactory results, and their failures convinced 
the people of Iowa that some central authority must be 
created with specific powers and duties. It was not until 
1858, however, that a law was secured which established 
the beginnings of the present system of county supervision. 

Originally the powers and duties of the superintendent 
were nominal — as nominal as was his compensation. But 



3 



4 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



as common school education became more and more cen- 
tralized and developed, the scope of his ofi&ce enlarged. To 
understand this development it is necessary to study the 
history of the common schools in Iowa, noting how some 
powers and duties of the county superintendent became ob- 
solete and others remained as permanent functions of his 
office. 

To-day the county superintendent is the administrative 
and supervisory head of the common schools outside of the 
independent districts. Under the direction of the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction he is the official me- 
dium of communication between the Department of Public 
Instruction and the local school boards and teachers. In 
addition to these functions he is charged with the duty of 
hearing appeals from the decisions of boards of directors 
and with the direction of county certification and teacher 
training. 

LEGISLATI\'E PROPOSALS 

When the congressional survey of what is now Iowa was 
undertaken in 1836 approximately ten thousand people had 
already "squatted" on the public domain. With the same 
disregard for governmental "red tape", these Iowa pio- 
neers had established such schools as they deemed neces- 
sary and felt able to maintain. As early as 1830 a school 
was started; and by 1838, when the First Legislative As- 
sembly of the newly created Territory of Iowa convened, 
the records indicate that there were between forty and 
fifty schools in operation. 

These first schools were for the most part private in- 
stitutions conducted by some person who undertook the 
instruction of such pupils as were sent to his school, re- 
ceiving his compensation from the parents and others who 
believed sufficiently in schools to subscribe to their support. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 5 



Although in some cases the buildings had been erected by 
the community, the schools conducted therein were without 
supervision. It is true that the statutes of the territories 
of Michigan and Wisconsin had been made applicable to 
the Iowa country, but the early settlers had given them 
scant attention. In fact, the population spread too rapidly 
for the successful enforcement of laws concerning the 
length of the school year, the qualifications of teachers, or 
the studies taught. 

With the increase of settlers the need of free public 
schools became more and more apparent. Such men as 
Governor Eobert Lucas realized that if Iowa was to be 
attractive to settlers a system of common schools must be 
created. Accordingly, Governor Lucas in his first message 
to the Legislative Assembly urged the immediate organiza- 
tion of townships, for he was of the opinion that, while the 
county was the unit of local government, the township was 
the logical unit for the organization and administration of 
the public schools. 

Eesponding to this obvious necessity for action the Legis- 
lative Assembly, in an act approved January 1, 1839, pro- 
vided for the formation of districts upon the petition of a 
majority of the voters in the area to be included in the 
proposed school district. The unit being thus organized, 
the electors therein chose three trustees who were to ex- 
amine and employ teachers, have charge of the land be- 
longing to the district, and make reports to the county 
commissioner of the number of children between the ages 
of four and twenty-one years living within the district and 
the number actually in school, together with a certificate? 
of the actual time a school was kept in the district and the 
probable expense.^ Thus it appears that the First Legis- 

iShambaugh's History of the Constitutio-ns of Iowa, pp. 15-16; Horack's 
The Government of Iowa, pp. 2.3, 24; Aurner's History of Education in loiva, 



6 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



lative Aissembly established a system of examining teachers 
and of reporting to some comity authority statistics rela- 
tive to school costs. 

Although there were probably no districts organized 
under this act, it was the forerunner of repeated attempts 
to create a satisfactory agency for the supervision and 
control of common schools. Thus one of the laws passed 
by the Second Legislative Assembly of the Territory was 
"An Act to establish a system of common schools".^ This 
act created a board of district inspectors consisting of 
three members to be elected at the regular township elec- 
tion for a term of one year. Among the powers and duties 
conferred upon the board were the examination of teachers 
and the inspection of the schools. The inspectors were re- 
quired to examine annually all candidates for positions as 
teachers in the primary schools in regard to moral charac- 
ter, learning, and ability to teach ; and if satisfied they were 
to deliver to the person examined a certificate signed by 
the inspectors in such form as the Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction should prescribe. As far as the early re- 
ports indicate, no attempt was made by the Territorial 
superintendent to prescribe the form of certificates issued. 
These certificates were in force for one year; but the in- 
spectors might reexamine a teacher at any time if they 
deemed it advisable and if the teacher was found wanting 
the inspectors could annul his certificate by giving ten 
days' written notice of such action to the holder of the 
certificate and to the township clerk. 

Tlie emplojrment of teachers was left in the hands of the 

Vol. I, pp. 5, 296; Journal of the Council, 1838, p. 6; Laws of the Territory 
of Iowa, 1838-1839, pp. 181-183. 

Licutciuiut Albert M. Lea estimated the population of the Iowa District, in 
1835, to be at least sixteen thousand persons, exclusive of Indians. — Lea's 
Notes on the fl^i-scomin Territory, p. 14. 

2 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1839, Ch. 73. 



THE COUNTY SUPEEINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 7 



district board, the director employing qualified teachers by 
and with the consent of the moderator and assessor, or 
either of them. And any district not employing a qualified 
teacher for at least three months each year was to be 
denied its share of the income from the school fund. 

According to the provisions of the law the inspectors 
were required *'to visit all such schools in their township, 
at least twice in each year .... to inquire into the condi- 
tion, examine the scholars, and give such advice to both 
teachers and scholars as they should deem proper". 

For their services the inspectors were paid one dollar a 
day — this being the first paid school supervision in Iowa. 
An interesting clause of the act provided that if any person 
who had been appointed or elected school inspector re- 
fused to serve without sufficient cause, he forfeited twenty- 
five dollars to the school fund. There is, however, no 
record of any refusals to serve. The inspectors had some 
real authority and in most cases served faithfully, doing 
much to build up the school system. 

The scattered population in the unorganized counties 
and the incompleteness of the laws made it difficult to or- 
ganize school districts and choose the inspectors, and the 
statutes afforded no guidance as to their duties. As a re- 
sult, each one did what he had seen done in his native 
State, or what his own district desired him to do. The 
people who believed that each community should establish 
the kind of school it wished objected to ''outside interfer- 
ence ' ' and disliked the existing law. Moreover, in addition 
to these objections the lack of satisfactory financial pro- 
visions became more and more apparent.^ 

Although the act of 1840 had included a "superintendent 

3 Laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1839, Ch. 63; Aurner's History of Educa- 
tion in Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 13-15; Biennial Beport of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, 1873-1875, p. 16. 



8 



IOWA JOURNAI; OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of public instruction", it made no provision for his selec- 
tion; and not until after 1841 was the office filled through 
appointment by the Governor and approval by the Council. 
His duties were merely clerical. There Avere those who 
thought that the law of 1839 was better fitted to Iowa con- 
ditions than was the act of 1840 ; and so by the legislation 
of 1842 the office of State Superintendent was abolished. 
The Council killed in committee a bill to amend the law of 
1840, the committee declaring that it w^as inexpedient to 
change the school law until Iowa became a State. In 184G 
an act providing for a county school tax was approved by 
the Governor. Under these laws about four hundred dis- 
tricts were organized, making definite central control more 
necessary than ever. 

The First General Assembly in 1847 attempted to clarify 
the school laws by passing an act supplementary to the act 
of January 16, 1840. This statute abolished the board of 
three inspectors, substituting therefor one inspector elected 
for a term of one year. His powers of certification were 
the same as those of the old board of inspectors under the 
act of 1840, as Avere also his duties in regard to dividing 
the township into districts.* By the new legislation lie Avas 
required to visit the schools but once a year, and his com- 
pensation was to be such pay as the township trustees 
thought advisable.' 

By the act of 1847 the office of school fund conmiissioner 
was created, and the inspector Avas required to make his 
reports to that office.® These reports contained much the 
same information as do the present day reports to the 
county superintendents. The uncertainty of the compensa- 
tion under the amended act made the position of inspector 

* Lau-s of Iowa, 1846-1847, Ch. 99. 
^Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, Ch. 99. 
6 Laws of Iowa, 1846-1847, Ch. 99. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OP SCHOOLS 9 



even less desirable than it had been and the provisions of 
the new statute confused the duties of the various school 
officials in a manner not at all conducive to the rapid de- 
velopment of a working school system. 

The inspector was financial agent, organizer, examiner, 
and supervisor for the schools within his district; and 
these manifold duties were to be performed without any 
guiding legislation. Each inspector was a law unto him- 
self. In some counties this situation led to as many varia- 
tions of procedure as there Avere inspectors. Inspectors 
did not know whether to use present or future needs of the 
community as a basis of organization. In certification they 
knew not what subjects to use for examination, for no 
course was prescribed for the primary schools. Nor was 
there any satisfactory method of judging the ability to 
teach — a condition not greatly remedied to this day. In 
many districts there were complaints that certificates were 
issued to persons, especially girls, who were too young to 
undertake the responsibilities of a teacher. These con- 
ditions, together with the lack of taxing power, prevented 
some districts from securing teachers at all. 

No one recognized this confusion and lack of efficiency 
more than did State Superintendent Thomas H. Benton, 
Jr. In his biennial report to the General Assembly in 1848, 
Mr. Benton recommended immediate legislation relative to 
the formation of districts and the authority of directors to 
employ teachers upon the liability of the district. He 
recommended that the subjects for examinations and the 
standards for teachers be stipulated, declaring at the same 
time ''that the duty of examining teachers should be as- 
signed to a county instead of a township officer 'V thus re- 
moving this important function from neighborhood jealous- 

Beport of the Superintendent of Puhlic Instruction in the Journ-al of the 
Bouse of Bepresentatives, 1848, pp. 142-144. 



10 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ies and favoritism. But Mr. Benton was not ready at this 
time to recommend complete county control. 

The Second General Assembly did not accept Mr. Ben- 
ton's recommendations as to certification; but in the new 
school law the oifice of township inspector was abolished 
and many of his clerical duties transferred to the county 
school fund commissioner.* Under its provisions each 
school district was now to elect a board of directors ; and 
this board, before contracting with a teacher, was required 
to examine the candidate in "the following branches of an 
English education: To-wit; spelling, reading, writing, 
arithmetic, geography, history of the United States and 
English grammar", and to appoint a committee from their 
own number to visit the schools." 

This legislation remedied one defect pointed out by Mr. 
Benton, in that both the district board and the applicant 
were now to be advised as to what subjects were required 
for examination. At the same time no standards or pass- 
ing" grades had been established for certification. There 
stUl remained, also, the old difficulty of electing a board of 
directors capable of really examining applicants for the 
school, interested enough in the welfare of the pupils to 
lay aside personal prejudices, or far-seeing enough to grant 
certificates to and employ the best applicant rather than 
the cheapest or, perhaps, the immature daughter of some 
influential neighbor. 

A, clause making the visiting of schools mandatory upon 
a committee of board members destroyed almost complete- 
ly the value of such procedure. The members of the com- 
mittee were compelled to visit the schools without pecu- 
niary compensation — a duty for which the former in- 

8 Laws of Iowa, 1848-1849, Ch. 80. 

9 Laws of Iowa, 1848-1849, Ch. 80. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 11 



spectors were paid. Under the committee plan the visiting 
or inspection of schools usually became a mere form — if, 
indeed, the directors even attempted to obey this provision 
of the law. Occasionally, it appears, such visits became a 
sort of inquisition for an unfortunate young man or im- 
mature girl who had in some way incurred the displeasure 
of an "influential" director or some "important" patron. 
It is doubtless true also that some school committees, proud 
of their power and authority, may have used the "visits" 
to display their own knowledge and superiority. 

Thus up to 1850 each succeeding legislature seems to 
have made it more and more difficult to secure adequate 
certification of teachers or inspection of schools. Even 
when the officers to whom these powers were delegated 
were capable men — men who understood the theory of 
education and the needs of Iowa schools — the lack of suit- 
able compensation made it impossible for them to give 
sufficient time to inspection for the work to be at all 
efficient. 

It is apparent that the certification of teachers had made 
more progress than inspection — possibly because the 
people realized more fully the necessity of some standard 
for the knowledge of teachers. Of course the examinations 
may have been given by men of meager learning who, at 
first, had no guides as to what should be asked of a teach- 
er. Many of them may have made the examination a mere 
form, asking a few simple and often irrelevant questions. 
There may have been those who knowingly admitted to the 
rank of teacher persons who were under age and illy pre- 
pared simply because they were influential, had influential 
relatives, or would teach at the lowest wage. At the same 
time it is significant that all teachers submitted to some 
type of examination and received some form of certificate. 



12 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The stipulation of subjects was a step forward, but there 
remained much to be done. Examinations were not uni- 
form; grades were not standardized; and petty jealousies 
still affected results. Many persons, including some legis- 
lators, must have felt that in the eyes of the pioneer tax- 
payers the saving in expense counteracted all sins of omis- 
sion or commission in the supervision of instruction. 

EXECUTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS 

From 1850 to 1856 the General Assembly remained com- 
paratively silent upon the subject of school administration. 
The management — or rather mismanagement — of the 
school lands and school funds was the main topic of dis- 
cussion. Many of those in charge of the lands and funds 
were criminally careless if not corrupt. During this period 
the General Assembly made several attempts to remedy 
the condition, although there is some evidence to show that 
some of the legislators were themselves anxious to get a 
chance at the fertile lands so nearly given away. Various 
repeals, substitutions, and amendments were enacted, but 
such legislation had little effect upon matters purely ad- 
ministrative and supervisory. Perhaps it was felt that 
little could be done until the financial affairs were more 
definitely settled. The more conservative element seemed 
to entertain the theory that **what is, is right"; or they 
honestly doubted if under the general conditions of the 
State anything could be accomplished by legislation. 

On the other hand, educators and school patrons were 
not so indifferent to the situation. Directors continued to 
hire teachers who were not qualified — some of them girls 
far too young and men fully as incapable. The lack of 
standards for certification was held to be one of the chief 
draAvbacks. Those interested felt that it did little good to 
examine a person unless the examiner knew what was the 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 13 



lowest grade on which he could grant a certificate. Stu- 
dents of the problem believed that salaries should be grad- 
ed according to the certificate held by the teacher. They 
believed that it was unfair to all concerned — patrons, 
pupils, and teachers — to pay the same remuneration to a 
teacher who received his certificate almost by the "grace 
of the examiner", as was paid to a teacher who passed 
with excellent grades. 

Many boards of directors had shown themselves incap- 
able of managing schools: the members had little if any 
schooling and knew practically nothing of school problems 
and educational procedure. They wanted enough school to 
afford the younger pupils the rudiments of learning, to 
give the older boys a chance to go to school during the 
winter months, and to draw the district's portion of the 
income from the school fund. They did not want an ex- 
pensive school, nor one in which the teacher insisted that 
attendance be regular. The reports to the State Depart- 
ment were incomplete and inaccurate, as can be seen from 
the reports of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. And, while no definite remedy is proposed in the 
early reports, the dissatisfaction of the State superintend- 
ents is evident. In his biennial report for 1854 Superin- 
tendent Eads says : ' ' The returns made to this department 
up to the first of November of the present year are in- 
complete, several counties having failed to make any re- 
turns in accordance with the requirements of the law."^" 

In his inaugural address on December 9, 1854, Governor 
James W. Grimes urged that the common school Fund of 
the State should be scrupulously preserved, and a more 
efficient system of common schools than we now have 
should be adopted. The State should see to it that the 

loBeport of the Superintendent of Pullic Instruction, 1854, p. 23. 



14 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



elements of education, like the elements of universal nature, 
are above, around, and beneath all."" 

In his message addressed to the extra session of the 
Fifth General Assembly on July 3, 1856, Governor Grimes 
further observed that it "is to be regretted that the joint 
resolutions, passed by the House of Representatives, at 
each of its two last sessions .... failed to receive the ap- 
proval of the Senate. No one, who gives the subject a 
moment's consideration, can doubt the necessity for a 
thorough revision of the whole subject. With a large and 
constantly increasing school fund, our school system is 
without unity and efficiency, and is, in my conviction, dis- 
creditable to the State. It reaches so many interests, it 
runs into so many details, and it is so important in its in- 
fluences, that it seems to me impossible for the General 
Assembly to perfect the necessary amendments and reduce 
them to a harmonious system, in the limited period of fifty 
days — and I, therefore, recommend three competent per- 
sons be selected to revise all the laws on the subject, and 
submit their revision to the next General Assembly."" 

The recommendations of Governor Grimes were not 
overlooked by the legislature: an act, passed on July 14, 
1856, directed the Governor to appoint within thirty days 
a committee to revise the school laws. It was in accord- 
ance with this act that Horace Mann, of Oliio ; Amos Dean, 
President of the State University of Iowa; and F. E. 
Bissell, of Dubuque, were appointed to serve on such a 
committee.^* 

The report of the commission was not ready when the 

11 Shambaugh'a Messages and Proolamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. II, p. 7. 

Journal of the Senate, 1856 (Special Session), p. 11. 
13 Laws of Iowa, 1856 (Extra Session), Ch. 31. Shambaugli's Messages 
and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. II, p. 36. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 15 



General Assembly convened, and the first reconunendation 
using the present title, ''County Superintendent", occurs 
in the biennial report of James D. Eads, Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, which bears the date of December 
1, 1856. If Mr, Eads had seen the forthcoming report of 
the Mann Commission, he makes no mention of the fact. 
At the same time he suggests a title for the county officer 
recommended by the commission. His words are well 
worth quoting for in many ways they are as pertinent to- 
day as they were seventy years ago: 

I would propose to you that the County Superintendent .... be 
required, in addition to the present duties of School Fund Com- 
missioners, to visit and examine each School in his county at least 
once every six months. He should have general supervision in his 
county over all matters relating to the government, course of in- 
struction, and the general condition of the Schools and School 
houses in his county. By investing the County Superintendent 
with these and other proper functions and powers, (subject, of 
course, to the general control of the State Superintendent) you 
elevate the office by conferring on its incumbent the interest at- 
taching to one having in keeping to a certain extent, the educa- 
tional progress and mental culture of all the children within its 
jurisdiction. Objection may be made that we have not the proper 
material in the different counties capable of so great a trust and 
such peculiar duties. But I am satisfied that, no matter how high 
you elevate the standard of requirements for such a station, the 
proper person will always be found by the people, capable and 
willing to discharge its duties .... 

I do not hesitate to express and put on record the opinion that 
every organized county in the State possesses one or more citizens 
capable of creditably discharging the duties I propose attaching to 
the office of County Superintendent, and that in most cases, if not 
all, such would be chosen by the people. 

I would quote from a report of a committee of the New York 
Legislature, (1843) on this subject: 



16 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"It can produce a complete and efficient supervision of all the 
schools of the State .... 

' ' It can do much towards dissipating the stolid mdifCerenee which 
paralyses many portions of the community .... by systematic and 
periodical appeals to the inhabitants of each school district .... 
"It can be made to dismiss from our schools all immoral and in- 
competent teachers, and to secure the sei-vices of such only as are 
qualified and efficient, thereby elevating the grade of the school 
master, and infusing new vitality into the school!" 

And in closing Mr. Eads says: "I would renew my for- 
mer recommendation that this office be placed on the same 
basis with other county offices, and that the incumbent be 
paid for his services from the county treasury."" 

THE HORACE MANN COMMISSION 

After the commission to revise the school laws had been 
appointed, F. E. Bissell found it impossible to serve; so the 
report was prepared by Horace Mann and Amos Dean. 
Mr. Mann's varied experience as secretary of the board of 
education which revised the school laws and reorganized 
the common school system of Massachusetts — 1837-1848, 
as a member of the Massachusetts legislature, and in Con- 
gress, as well as his studies of public education throughout 
the world, made him particularly desirable as chairman of 
the Iowa commission and give his name to the report. Mr. 
Dean also had had considerable experience and was recog- 
nized as an authority on education. Both of these men 
were therefore seriously interested in designing a satisfac- 
tory school sj^stem for Iowa. 

The Report of the Commission. — Although the commis- 
sioners at once entered upon their duties, they were unable 
to complete the task before the next session of the legis- 

1* Biennial Bcport of the Superintendent of Pvblic Instruction, 1856, pp. 
11, 12, 13. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 17 



lature. Their report — which did not reach the General 
Assembly until December 12, 1856, about ten days after 
the report of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion — stated, among other things, that the two commis- 
sioners * 'found the previous legislation of this State upon 
this great subject, in the main, judicious in its provisions, 
but fragmentary in its character, lacking in general aims, 
and entirely wanting in unity or completeness." 

Some sections of the report submitted by the Mann 
Commission may be given in part: 

In consulting the experience of other States upon this subject, 
they found a multitude of provisions; many of them analogous in 
character ; some of them peculiar .... and all of them the gradual 
growths of time and necessity. . . . 

Here, for the first time, a great State .... demands a system 
of public instruction adequate to the full development of its great 
physical resources, and of the intellect and moral power of its 
people. . . . 

To complete a perfect system of education, three elements are 
necessary. These are the organizing, the financial, and the educa- 
tional. The first two are only important as they effect the last, 
and the first is wholly expended in the advancement of the other 
two. . . , 

The commissioners have been desirous of making a liberal pro- 
vision for adequate common school instruction. . . . 

They have organized the district, the county, the State, and the 
special organizations. . . . 

In regard to county organizations, your commissioners have 
centered in one individual, the county superintendent of public 
instruction, all the actual power exercised for school purposes, over 
the whole county. He unites the financial and visitorial power, 
and stands intermediate between the State and district organi- 
zations.^^ 

Beport of the Commissioners of Eevision of the School Laws in lotva 
Legislative Documents, 1856, Appendix, pp. 191-196. 

VOL. XXI — 2 



18 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



TJie Recommevtdations Ignored. — In spite of this recom- 
mendation of the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion and the report of the Mann Commission no action was 
taken by the legislature except the passage of one act mak- 
ing reorganization optional in certain populous districts. 
Should a district reorganize under the provisions of this 
act, the board of education was, within twenty days of its 
election, to appoint "three competent persons, citizens of 
said district, to serve as school examiners". These ex- 
aminers, or any two of them, were to examine all applicants 
to teach in the schools of the district. If the inspectors, in 
their opinion, found the applicant qualified to teach and 
govern a school, and to be of good moral character, they 
Avere to issue a certificate stating just what subjects the 
holder was qualified to teach. 

The examiners, or any two of them, had power to annul 
the certificate of a teacher. Such action, of course, pre- 
vented the former holder from teaching in the district. The 
act stated that "said examiners shall also separately or 
otherwise, together with said board of education, or any 
of them, or such person as they may appoint, or invite, visit 
said schools as often as once in each school month, and o])- 
serve the description [deportment?], mode of teaching, 
progress of the pupils, and such other matters as they 
deem of interest, and make suggestions, and reports there- 
upon to said board as they may think proper, Avhich report 
may be published at the discretion of said board. 

CREATION OF THE OFFICE OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT 

In the next biennial report of the State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, Maturin L. Fisher again urged the 
revision of the school laws and the creation of a county 

i« Laws of Iowa, 1856-57, Ch. 158. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 19 



superintendent of schools to ''establish school districts and 
determine their boundaries; to examine teachers and grant 
certificates of qualification; to visit every school in the 
county at least twice during the year ; to prepare the statis- 
tical statements, with regard to schools, and return them 
to the Superintendent of Public Instruction; to make an- 
nually, a general and detailed report of the condition of 
the schools of his county. ' ' Mr. Fisher was moved to urge 
the adoption of the plan proposed by the commissioners 
because of the conditions which he shows in his report. In 

1856 there were 2850 organized school districts in the State, 
of which 142 maintained no school during the year. In 

1857 of the 3265 organized districts only 2708 maintained 
schools. All these districts received their apportionment 
of the school money despite the constitutional requirement 
that a district must hold school at least three months each 
year to share in the apportionment. 

He closes his report on schools by saying: '*in general, 
my inquiries lead me to believe that our common schools 
are in a very unsatisfactory state. There is usually no ex- 
amination of teachers, and frequently most unsuitable per- 
sons are employed as instructors, and there is seldom any 
visitation of schools, to insure fidelity on the part of teach- 
ers, and to inspire emulation on the part of pupils."" 

DISPUTE OVER JURISDICTION 

The demand for school legislation became so urgent and 
SO general that the Seventh General Assembly in 1858 made 
a start soon after the opening of the session. A bill for the 
establishment of a common school system was introduced 
into the Senate and referred to the Committee on Educa- 
tion, This was the same committee which had drafted the 
bill. The chairman of the committee, J. B. Grinnell, in a 

17 Eeport of the Superintendent of Pullic Instruction, 1857, pp. 13, 16. 



20 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



letter appearing in the Montezuma Bepuhlican and sum- 
marized in The Iowa Citizen writes that at the time the bill 
was drawn there Avas doubt as to the authority of the 
General Assembly to legislate concerning the schools. How- 
ever, since the State Superintendent had received 1400 
letters in a single year in reference to provisions of a for- 
mer law, action, at this time was deemed imperative.^* 

The long-drawn-out debates and the numerous proposed 
amendments made it impossible to pass the act until well 
toward the close of the session. Its enemies were numer- 
ous. Some held that under the Constitution all power to 
legislate for the schools was vested in the Board of Edu- 
cation which had been created by the Constitution of 1857. 
Others felt that there was danger in making the township 
a school district. And still others insisted that any form 
of county control would become obnoxious. 

THE ACT OF MARCH 12, 1858 

Uncertainty concerning authority and the best system 
threatened to defeat all proposed legislation. Finally, 
however, on the twelfth day of March, 1858, the Governor 
approved "An Act for the Public Instruction of the State 
of Iowa". The provisions of this measure indicate that it 
was substantially the bill submitted to the General Assem- 
bly by the Mann Commission. According to its terms the 
civil towTiship was to be the school district, but towns of 
one thousand or more inhabitants were privileged to or- 
ganize independent districts. A county school tax of *'not 
less than one mill and not more than two and a half mills" 

18 The Iowa Citisen (Des Moines), December 22, 1858. 

A contributor signing himself "Vox Populi" writes: "For the last three 
years there has been a general clamor in our state for a radical change in 
our school laws .... Tt is reasonable to suppose that the school bill now in 
the hands of the committees of the General Assembly is such a one as the 
poople want." — T/if Iowa Citizen, Vol. Ill, No. 1, February 17, 185S. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 21 



was to be levied; and the office of county superintendent 
was created — the most important provision of the entire 
act, for it placed the county legally in control of the com- 
mon school system. 

Sixty-four years have elapsed since the creation of the 
office of county superintendent, and during this time many 
changes have come about. The time and manner of elec- 
tion are entirely different; the term of office has been 
lengthened; the compensation has become more adequate; 
and the powers and duties, as well as the responsibility, 
have been increased many fold. Yet, the office of to-day 
is the office created by the act of March 12, 1858, with the 
same aims, hopes, and possibilities, with the same objec- 
tions and strong points; and with about the same propor- 
tion of enemies and friends who claim and predict the same 
results as in 1858. 

The First Elections. — In accordance with the prevailing 
notion of the time, the office was made elective. No doubt 
the members of the legislature would have viewed with con- 
cern a plan of selection similar to the one now in force. 
That the office might be as far removed as possible from 
all political influences, the incumbent was to be chosen for 
his fitness, and the time of election was to be the first 
Monday in April in 1858 and thereafter biennially on the 
second Monday in March, almost seven months prior to the 
general election. While this method of securing a non- 
partisan election has been advocated many times, it was in 
effect only from March, 1858, to December of the same 
year. In 1913, when the present system of selection be- 
came a law, a similar provision relative to the time of elec- 
tion was included. 

For some reason publication of the law was not com- 
pleted until Saturday, March 20, 1858, so there remained 



22 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



but sixteen days including Sundays before the election, 
which occurred on April 5th. The legislature, forseeing 
that several counties might fail to receive the notice in time 
to hold an election, hastily passed a supplemental act ap- 
proved on March 19th allowing any counties failing to elect 
a county superintendent on the specified day to hold their 
elections on the first Monday in May. Thus all counties 
were enabled to select county superintendents ; and as soon 
as the successful candidates had qualified the work of the 
office began," 

Activities of County Superintendents. — The eighty-four 
men who were chosen county superintendents at this time 
seem to have taken up their duties with a determination to 
make the office a real power for good in education. The 
superintendent of Johnson County published a summary 
of the law in the local papers and with it a set of instruc- 
tions for the guidance of the various district officers in the 
county. In May, 1858, the county superintendent of 
Dubuque County issued a circular containing the school 
law and the proceedings of the county board of education 
during its first session. At this meeting committees were 
appointed on the county high school, qualifications of teach- 
ers, on "branches of learning", and on several other sub- 
jects including settlement of property between districts 
under the old organization and the new, a problem which 
proved to be difficult to adjust in some cases. 

At a meeting of the Iowa City To^^^lship board on May 
15th a special committee was appointed to ascertain the 
rate of taxation necessary to maintain a school in each sub- 
district for a period of eight months each year. There is 
evidence that many counties took similar steps to carry out 

19 Journal of the Senate, 1858, pp. 98, 246, 255, 4G2 ; Laws of Iowa, 1858, 
Chs. 52, 81. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS S3 



the provisions of the act in regard to the organization, tax- 
ation, and establishment of schools.'" 

The First State Convention of Superintendents. — The 
county superintendents held their first State convention at 
Iowa City in September, 1858. A committee from this 
body submitted a report on the branches taught in the com- 
mon schools and also for the county high schools which it 
was hoped would be established. Since the chief concern 
of this convention, which had been called by State Superin- 
tendent M. L. Fisher, was the interpretation of the new 
school laws, it was unlike any previous assembly in the 
State. A committee arranged all the questions concerning 
the new law into some sixty-four queries. These were 
evidently answered, since the convention declared that the 
new law "fully meets our approbation". Superintendent 
Fisher expressed the opinion that this was truly an educa- 
tional council. 

CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE LAW 

But just as the county superintendents were getting the 
machinery of their offices established as provided for by 
the legislature, two lawsuits were begun. One of these 
was commenced at Dubuque with a view to preventing the 
money then in the hands of the old district from being 
transferred to the treasurer of the new district as orga- 
nized or reorganized under the law of 1858. The case was 
appealed to the Supreme Court; but before the case had 
been decided the Board of Education of the State of Iowa 
assembled in Des Moines on Monday, December 5, 1858, 
for its first session. 

After the Board had effected its organization and en- 

20 Jowa City Bepaihlican, April 21, 1858; Becords of the Board of Educa- 
tion, Iowa City Township, 1858-1871, summarized in Aurner's Eistory of 
Education in Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 57, 58. 



24 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tered upon its labors, T. B. Perry offered a resolution on 
Wednesday morning stating that it was the opinion of the 
Board that all the educational interests of the State, in- 
cluding the common schools, were under its management, 
and that the Board possessed exclusive original jurisdic- 
tion to legislate upon the subject of common schools. Judge 
John F. Dillon, of the seventh judicial district, was of the 
same opinion, and early in the session urged the Board to 
pass a curative act legalizing the proceedings of school 
officials under the law of March 12, 1858.'^ 

THE SUPREME COURT DECISION 

Whether or not the Supreme Court was influenced by the 
resolution of the Board of Education is perhaps of no great 
importance; but its decision, handed down on December 
9th, upheld the claim of the Board. The Supreme Court 
declared the law ''void in its essential features", holding 
that under the Constitution the State Board of Education 
alone possessed the primary power to provide for the pub- 
lic instruction of the State ; while the legislature had power 
only to amend, revise, and repeal acts of the Board of 
Education and to pass legislation necessary to put into 
force the Board's acts. The Court did not attempt to 
point out the particular parts which were valid or invalid ; 
but said that the Board, being in session at the time, could 
apply an immediate remedy, and obviate, to a great extent, 
any confusion or injury resulting from the decision.*^ 

THE OPINION OP THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. 

Immediately following the decision of the Supreme 
Court, A. B. F. Hildreth, member of the Board of Educa- 

21 The Voice of Iowa, Vol. Ill, pp. 4S-59, 71-78; Journal of the Staie 
Board of Education, 1S58, pp. 10, 14. 

22 The District Township of the City of Dubuque v. The City of Dubuque, 
7 Iowa 262. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 25 



tion from the tenth judicial district, offered a resolution 
asking that the Attorney General be requested to furnish 
an opinion upon the following questions concerning the 
validity of the new school law: 

1st — Is the act entitled "An act for the public Instraetion of 
the State of Iowa", approved M^-reh 12th, 1858, null and invalid, 
in whole or in part? If partly, what part? If wholly, then are 
the acts of former dates pertaining to schools, of any validity or 
binding force? 2d — Is it competent for this Board to enact a 
law that shall legalize or render valid the transactions which have 
taken place under, and were authorized by, the School Law of 
1858?" 

On December 13, 1858, Samuel A. Eice, the Attorney 
General, rendered his opinion upon these questions as 
follows : 

It is the duty of the Board to enact ^11 laws and make all rules 
and regulations that may be necessary to put into operation a 
thorough system of common schools .... and, with the exception 
of the financial part, to regulate the entire machinery by which 
the system shall be carried into effect. . . . 

The General Assembly has power to amend, revise, or appeal 
any law passed by the Board. . , . They are to pass all laws which 
provide for the raising of means in order to carry the system into 
operation. . . . 

It is held by the Supreme Court .... that so much of the afore- 
said act .... as ... . goes beyond the financial department of 
the system .... is unconstitutional and void. . . . 

I am of the opinion .... that with the exception of such parts 
of the late act as I have stated are in force we have been destitute 
of any legal school system. . . . 

Considering the magnitude of the interests involved, the un- 
fortunate condition of our school system, and the almost irrepar- 
able injury that will result .... unless the late laws are in some 

23 Journal of the State Board of Education, 1858, p. 14. 



26 IOWA JOUKNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



measure legalized .... I would recommend the passage of a 
curative act.-* 

Not only did the Board of Education seek an opinion 
from the Attorney General ; it addressed a resolution to the 
Supreme Court asking for an opinion as to the subjects 
upon which the Board could enact legislation. This opinion 
the Supreme Court refused to give, stating that such a 
course ' ' would be as unusual, as it would be without author- 
ity or precedent". 

THE CURATIVE ACT 

Meanwhile, T. B. Perry had, in accordance with the sug- 
gestion of the decision, introduced a bill for a curative act 
which sought to legalize elections, acts, and contracts under 
the legislative act of March 12th. The Board of Education 
passed this act on December 15, 1858, to go into effect from 
and after publication in The loiva Weekly Citizen, the State 
Journal, and the loiva Statesman. 

Although the Supreme Court had upheld the contention 
that the General Assembly had no power to enact school 
legislation, the law that had been passed by the legislature 
was the basis for the action by the Board of Education and 
had provided funds to carry out such legislation. 

Two courses were open: the Board could reenact the 
provisions of the legislative -act, or it could enact new 
legislation. Before the decision no one had kno\\Ti what 
to do. A petition from Washington and Cedar counties 
asking that the law be retained in its essential features had 
been presented to the Board. On December 7th, F. M. 
Connelly of the Board of Education moved that the school 
law be committed to the Committee on Revision, which 
motion was agreed to. On the same day that Mr. Perry 

2* JownwX .of the State Board of Education, 1858, pp. 22, 23, 24. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 27 



had introduced the bill for the curative act, the Committee 
on School District Organization and Elections, consisting 
of S. F. Cooper, 0. H. P. Roszell, and G. P. Kimball, re- 
ported a bill for an "Act for the Public Instruction of the 
State of Iowa, by a System of Common Schools". Three 
days later the Committee on Revision reported a bill em- 
bodying many of the provisions of the act of March 12th, 
entitled "A Bill for an Act to provide a System of Com- 
mon Schools". The Board considered these bills, usually 
in committee of the whole, and finally the first bill became 
merged in the bill for "an Act to provide a System of Com- 
mon Schools" adopted on December 24, 1858.^'' 

During the consideration of these bills the office of county 
superintendent of schools received little attention. Charles 
Mason introduced an amendment establishing the compen- 
sation of the office, which was incorporated as section forty- 
four of the bill. The county certification of teachers re- 
ceived brief notice. Otherwise there appears to be little 
evidence of discussion within the Board on the office of 
county superintendent. Yet there must have been con- 
siderable agitation outside the Board, for a Des Moines 
editor wrote that it "is strongly urged in some quarters 
of the State that the office of County Superintendent ought 
to be abolished, as entailing a useless tax upon the School 
Fund".'« 

Comparison of the Acts. — As reenacted the law pro- 
vided that the county superintendent of schools should be 
elected on the second Tuesday of October, 1859, and at the 
general election thereafter. The incumbents elected under 

25 Journal of the State Board of Education, 1858, pp. 8, 9, 18, 19, 26, 33, 
51, 54, 69; Acts, Besolutions and Forms adopted hy the State Board of Edu- 
cation (First Session), 1858, Act No. 2. 

^6 Journal of the State Board of Education, 1858, pp. 52, 62; The Iowa 
Weekly Citizen (Des Moines), December 8, 1858. 



28 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the old law were to serve until their successors were elected 
and qualified, but their rate of compensation was to be that 
provided for in the new law. Thus the first steps were 
taken in reducing the efficiency of the office. The can- 
didates Avould henceforth claim the votes of members of 
their respective political parties, and the office would be- 
come a sop for disgruntled politicians. 

By the legislative act the county superintendent was to 
receive quarterly a sum equal to one-half the amount paid 
the clerk of the district court, and such further sum an- 
nually as might be allowed by the presidents of the town- 
ship boards; but in no case was his annual salary to be 
more than one-eighth greater than the clerk's salary, nor 
less than fifty dollars. The act of the Board of Education 
determined his salary in the same way, but the limits were 
changed. There was no fixed minimum and the maximum 
was an amount equal to the clerk's salary. The new law 
did specify a fee of one dollar from each applicant for a 
teacher's certificate when the examination was taken on 
other than the regular day. It is probable — although 
there are no authentic records of collections — that the 
county superintendent's salary was increased but little by 
these examination fees. 

It was the duty of the county superintendent, with two 
assistants whom he selected, to examine all candidates pre- 
senting themselves, as to their ability to teach orthography, 
writing, arithmetic, geography, and English grammar, and 
such other branches as might in special cases be necessary. 
If the examinations were satisfactory and the applicant 
was of good moral character, the county superintendent 
issued a certificate in duplicate stating that the bearer Avas 
qualified to teach the statutory subjects and such others as 
the case might be. A register of the certificates issued and 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 29 



the date thereof was to be kept by the county superintend- 
ent. The duplicates were filed with the secretaries of the 
districts in which the holders taught. The superintendent 
was required to give public notice of the time and place 
for holding examinations. 

One very interesting feature of the law of March 12th in 
regard to certificates was the provision that *'a certificate 
from the Professor of the Normal Department of the State 
University shall give to its possessor all the legal rights, 
powers, and privileges of a certificate from any school 
officer providing the person receiving such certificate has 
completed a course in the State University, satisfactory to 
the Professor of the Normal Department of the State 
University". 

The act of December 24, 1858, stipulated the same sub- 
jects as those prescribed in the former law, but set as the 
day of examination the last Saturday of every month. The 
appointment of assistants was made optional. Examina- 
tions were to be held at the seat of justice or at such other 
place as occasion might require, the county judge being 
notified of the place of meeting. This act said nothing 
about the certification of persons completing the course of 
the Normal Department of the State University. The 
Board of Education must have felt that examination was 
the only satisfactory method of determining fitness for 
certificates; and although it was often urged that certi- 
ficates be granted upon graduation from certain schools no 
real provisions were made until the present laws were en- 
acted. The legislative act had allowed the county superin- 
tendent to annul a teacher's certificate for immorality or 
incompetency, and the new act contained the same power 
stated a little differently. Moreover, under the new law 
the board of directors had power to discharge a teacher for 



30 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



cause, whereas revocation of certificates had been the only 
method of deposing a teacher under the original act. 

The act of March 12th provided for a meeting of the 
presidents of the district boards to be held on the second 
Monday in April at such place as the county superintendent 
might designate, or at such other time as the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction might designate. The board 
thus constituted appears to have been vested with some 
authority in regard to the qualifications of teachers, branch- 
es to be taught in the schools of the county, the selection 
of equipment, and textbooks. 

From the point of view of a county superintendent, one 
of the most important powers of this board must have been 
that of allowing him such sum in addition to the statutory 
salary as the members thought best. Like provisions were 
retained in the law as reenacted by the Board of Educa- 
tion. In this connection it is interesting to note that to-day 
the county superintendent is elected by a convention simi- 
larly constituted, and that originally the convention had 
the power of supplementing the salary of its appointee. 

Both acts made the visiting of schools one of the duties 
of the office. The county superintendent was to visit each 
school personally at least twice a year. These visits were 
to be in the nature of inspections, and by the legislative act 
the county superintendent had power to appoint a com- 
mittee to make special inspections in his stead. In both 
acts, also, he had the duty of approving plans for new 
school buildings, but neither act made his disapproval a 
bar to the erection of the building. 

The legislative act provided that the count}^ superintend- 
ent should hear and decide appeals from decisions of the 
district boards, except cases involving money considera- 
tions. This limitation the Board of Education act omitted 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 31 



— indicating that the county superintendent had jurisdic- 
tion in cases involving financial transactions. 

Both acts stipulated that reports should be made to the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. These reports, ac- 
cording to the legislative act, were to consist of a digest of 
the reports from the district boards, suggestions for the 
improvement of the schools, and such other matter as the 
county superintendent might think pertinent and material. 
To these items the act of the Board of Education added an 
abstract of the number of youths betAveen the ages of five 
and twenty-one years residing within the various districts 
of the county. The reports for the county high school were, 
of course, no longer necessary for the Board omitted any 
provision for such schools. 

County High Schools. — According to the legislative act 
of March 12th, county high schools were to be established. 
The county superintendent was to be a member of the 
board of trustees of such schools wherever established, the 
nine other members of the board being elected at the meet- 
ing of the presidents of the district boards, for a term of 
three years, one third retiring each year. This board of 
presidents had the power to determine whether such a 
county high school should be established. 

When established the county high school was to be visit- 
ed by the county superintendent and the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction; and the secretary of the 
board of trustees made his annual reports to the county 
superintendent. These institutions — first recommended 
by Thomas H. Benton, Jr., in his report as Superintendent 
of Public Instruction and by the Horace Mann Commission 
as an integral part of the free school system — were never 
opened, the Board of Education omitting any reference to 
them in the act of December 24, 1859. 



32 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Several counties, however, had made preparations early 
in 1858 to comply with the provisions and establish county 
high schools. The records of Dubuque County show the 
proceedings in detail ; and the leader and counsellor in the 
movement was William Y. Lovell, the county superintend- 
ent of schools. He had called the meeting of the presi- 
dents, and seventeen townships were represented. Seven 
special committees were appointed to consider various 
phases of the project. Mr. LoveU seems to have doubted 
the wisdom of beginning school in 1858 under an offer from 
the Dubuque public schools, and before all the prelimi- 
naries were settled the act of the Board of Education put 
an end to the county high school project. 

The county superintendents appear to have taken great 
interest in these anticipated county high schools, for in 
their first State convention held at Iowa City in September, 
1858, they recommended a course of study for county high 
schools. This course was to be preparatory to the State 
University.*^ 

By the legislative act each district board was to select 
the male student ranking highest in ability, attainments, 
and capacity for teaching for the scholarship in that dis- 
trict. This scholarship gave the pupil seventy-five dollars 
a year for three years while in the county high school. Up- 
on completion of his course he was assigned as a teacher 
to a common school by the county superintendent, who was 
authorized to sanction the use of the scholarship in schools 
other than the county high school. 

Teachers' Institutes. — Section 56 of the legislative act 
made Iowa's first provision for teachers' institutes. The 
sum of one thousand doUars was appropriated to be ex- 
pended as follows: one hundred dollars was to be dra's\ai 

27 The Voice of Iowa, Vol. Ill, pp. 50, 51. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 33 



by the Superintendent of Public Instruction for aiding each 
teachers' institute where reasonable assurance was given 
by the county superintendent that thirty or more teachers 
would be in attendance for at least six working days. The 
revision by the Board left all the provisions the same ex- 
cept that the money was forwarded directly to the county 
superintendent whose institute had been approved, instead 
of being drawn by the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. The Board of Education, of course, had no power to 
appropriate one cent of money so that part of the act re- 
mained the same. 

Had the legislature's proposal of one hundred dollars 
for each approved institute been carried out, only ten 
county superintendents could have received State aid, or 
the amount would have had to be prorated among them. 
Secretary Benton evidently decided on the latter course, 
since his report for 1859 shows that he had appropriated 
fifty dollars for one institute held in 1858, and fifty dollars 
each for fourteen institutes held or to be held in 1859 ; and 
he states that he had satisfactory applications on hand for 
the remaining money.^* 

The minimum of six working days for the county in- 
stitute was destined to be one of the most permanent feat- 
ures of our school law, remaining the same until 1913. The 
State aid was reduced by the next legislature to fifty dol- 
lars which sum is still appropriated each year. 

OPPOSITION TO THE OFFICE 

The passage and publication of the curative act appears 
to have allayed some of the suspicion which had been 

28 Acts, Besolutions and Forms adopted by the State Board of Education 
(First Session), 1858, Act No. 8, in the Journal of the State Board of Edu- 
cation, 1858-1862; Laws of Iowa, 1858, Ch. 52; Beport of the Secretary of 
the State Board of Education, 1859, pp. 18, 19. 



VOL. XXI — 3 



34 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



aroused against the Board of Education. The Dubuque 
Weekly Times, on December 30, 1858, praised the Board of 
Education for its quick action. It is doubtful, however, 
whether sentiment toward the county superintendent be- 
came much more friendly, many people still firmly believ- 
ing that the office should be abolished. 

One county superintendent wrote: ''Kepeal the whole 
system and give us one more easily understood, and abolish 
the office of County Superintendent." Another wrote that 
his idea relative to the school legislation was ''that it 
would hardly be possible to enact a law that w^ould be less 
adapted to the wants of the people, or that would be more 
unpopular". A third county superintendent appears to 
have sensed the fundamental objection, as he reports that 
"under the present law the schools have greatly improved. 
The system is cheaper and better than the old; yet the 
present act is deficient in many respects, and is unpopular. 
The office of county superintendent must be abolished, or 
it will be at half -pay and disregarded; not that the office 
is unnecessary or useless, but because it has a salary. Very 
many of the voters of this country will put down anything 
in the shape of a tax, however useful." 

Even the county superintendents who favored the office 
seem to have felt that a definite salary should be stipulated 
and that the office should be taken out of politics. The 
county superintendent of Lucas County declared: "// 
political feeling would let it alone, it would soon be an 
efficient one". That national politics also affected the 
office is evidenced by the statement of a Des Moines editor 
who had been defeated by the Democratic candidate: "We 
shall not abate one jot or tittle of our hostility to the 
Le Compton Locofocoism of this ungodly age"; and the 
same editor a week later gloats over the fact tliat the re- 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 35 



turns received up to that date showed eight Eepublicans 
to four Democrats safely elected to the office of county 
superintendent of schools.^® 

FACTORS OF OPPOSITION 

No doubt much of the opposition to the county superin- 
tendents arose from the fact that they, as a whole, favored 
the school law as enacted by the State legislature and as 
reenacted by the Board of Education. The plan and work 
of the Board was not popular owing to a feeling on the 
part of the public that it took the schools out of the hands 
of the people. The members of the Board themselves did 
not entirely agree on the question of districts. Several 
were convinced that the old independent district w^as the 
best solution of the common school problem; that the in- 
dependent district meant freedom from outside supervision, 
or "interference" as the opponents of school centralization 
called it. Others felt that the county superintendent had so 
little power that the office was useless. Another factor 
which strengthened the hostility against the county super- 
intendent was the often mentioned tendency to grant cer- 
tificates to teachers at the solicitation of political friends. 
And to all of these objections must be added the plea of 
economy. The State of Iowa had not entirely recovered 
from the financial panic of 1857, and the lopping off of any 
salary meant to the burdened farmers less taxes. The 
enemies of the office made the most of this proposed saving. 

Perhaps the greatest menace to the office of county 
superintendent of schools, however, came from the lack of 
understanding of what supervision really meant and what 
real benefits would be derived from efficient supervision. 

Weekly Times (Dubuque), December 30, 1858; Eeport of Secretary of 
the State Board of Education, 1859, pp. 33, 42, 43, 48; Iowa Citisen (Dea 
Moines), April 7, 1858. 



36 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



When the Board of Education abolished the ofi&ce of Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction — although the incumbent 
had been elected by the people and his term had yet a year 
to run — the change did not help the cause of the county 
superintendents. 

The reports of the Secretary of the Board of Education, 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., for the year 1859 indicate that the 
county superintendents were rather indifferent and un- 
interested in their work. Only thirty-one counties were 
represented at the meetings held by Mr. Benton in the 
various judicial districts during the months of August, 
October, and November, 1859. Three were reported sick. 
Mr. Benton, however, excuses many of the absentees on 
financial grounds, saying that many county superintend- 
ents knew they were to be superseded at the October 
election, or they had been retired at the time the later 
meetings were called. These men could not, and would not, 
afford to attend under such conditions and without re- 
muneration for actual expenses incurred.^" 

During the campaign of 1859 not a few of the prominent 
newspapers of the State favored the abolition of the of- 
fice ; and for a time it looked as though the Board of Edu- 
cation would take this step. On the eve of the second 
session of that body, however, sentiment changed some- 
Avhat, and The Iowa Weekly Citizen expressed the hope 
that **the of&ce of County Superintendent will not be 
hastily abolished .... there is need of a supervisory 
power ".^^ 

The report of Thomas H. Benton, Jr., as Secretary of 
the Board of Education showed that the salaries paid all 
the county superintendents was $5840.84 less than the 

soEeporf of the Secretary of the State Board of Education, 1859, pp. 5, 6. 
31 The Iowa Weekly Citizen (Dcs Moines), December 14, 1859. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 37 



amount paid to the school fund commissioners in a similar 
period under the old law. He used these statistics as one 
of his arguments for the retention of the office. This part 
of Mr. Benton's report was referred to a special commit- 
tee, which after consideration recommended that the office 
be abolished. Their plan was to substitute a county ex- 
aminer to discharge the more important duties. This ex- 
aminer was to receive two dollars per day. On the other 
hand, the Committee on School District Organization and 
Elections recommended that the county superintendent be 
taken out of politics and the office filled by the boards of 
the several district townships. 

Two bills were introduced and each was considered by 
the Board in committee of the whole ; but later in the ses- 
sion the Committee on School District Organization and 
Elections reported a substitute for both. A third bill im- 
posing upon the county judge the duty of making the an- 
nual report to the Secretary of the State Board of Educa- 
tion was indefinitely postponed, and the substitute bill was 
passed on December 20th by a vote of eight to two and 
approved by the President on December 24th, as Part VIII 
of the School Laws." 

RESULTS OF THE UNCERTAINTY 

The efficiency of the office of county superintendent of 
schools was seriously affected by this act. He was no 
longer required to visit schools, and should a county super- 
intendent decide to do so, neither salary nor expenses were 
paid him for such work. He now drew compensation for 
the time necessarily engaged in official duties, visitation of 
schools being regarded by the Board of Education as 

32 Report of the Secretary of the State Board of Education, 1859, p. 14; 
Journal of the State Board of Education, 1859, pp. 11, 18, 20, 24, 29, 35, 
36, 42; Educational Laws of the State of Iowa, 1860, p. 23. 



38 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



unnecessary. The county superintendent had become a 
clerk who conducted teachers' examinations two days each 
month. 

The compensation of the superintendent was fixed at 
two dollars a day ; and under ordinary conditions he might 
not exceed twenty-eight dollars a year, for his reports were 
usually made out and other business transacted on exami- 
nation days. He had in addition an uncertain income from 
the fees of one dollar charged to applicants who came for 
examination at other than the regular days. It may be 
noticed also that in order to collect this meager stipend the 
county superintendent had to file with the county judge a 
statement of his account, the correctness of which was 
attested by oath. 

The annual reports of the county superintendent re- 
mained practically the same. On or before the 5th day of 
October he was to transmit to the Secretary of the Board 
of Education digests of district reports, together with such 
other material, including recommendations, as he thought 
valuable. The abstract of the number of youths of school 
age was still sent to the county judge. Should the super- 
intendent fail to make either report, he forfeited fifty dol- 
lars to the school fund — about twice his annual salary. 
This penalty is still included in the statutes governing the 
office, and is one of the few provisions which have remained 
unchanged throughout the history of the office. 

THE LEGISLATURE OPPOSES THE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

When the Eighth General Assembly met in 1860, Gov- 
ernor Kirkwood in his inaugural message advised that the 
school laws be left alone. Since the Constitution had al- 
most wholly \Wthdra"v\Ti the power from the legislature, he 
thought it would bo prudent to interfere with the Board's 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 39 



recent action only where examination showed "an over- 
powering necessity for so doing"/^ 

The General Assembly, however, attempted to get at the 
matter from a different angle. A bill was passed to post- 
pone the next meeting of the Board of Education until 
December, 1865. The legislators seem to have reasoned 
that while Section 15 of Article 9 of the Constitution did 
not give the General Assembly power to abolish the Board 
of Education until "after the year 1863", the fourth sec- 
tion of the same article gave the General Assembly the 
power to fix the time and place of all meetings of the 
Board after the first ; so why not postpone the next meeting 
of the Board until after such time as the legislature might 
constitutionally abolish it. 

Governor Kirkwood vetoed the bill on the ground that 
it conflicted with "the spirit if not the letter of the Con- 
stitution": such an act would deprive those members 
elected by the people at the next election of their whole 
term of service, and in addition would jeopardize the 
school system, leaving it without constitutional authority 
to legislate.^* 

The Board of Education met in December, 1861, for its 
third and final session. The old question of what to do 
with the county superintendent was introduced early and 
discussed thoroughly. Finally the Board enacted a rather 
complicated law "Defining the duties and regulating the 
Compensation of County Superintendents." It set the 
election of superintendents for the second Tuesday of 
October, 1863, and thereafter at the general election, re- 
quired them to give bonds, and provided that they should 

33 Shambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
II, p. 230, 

3* Shambaugh 's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
II, pp. 359, 360. 



40 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



visit each school in person at least once a year and should 
deliver an address in each township sometime during the 
year. The dates of teachers' examinations were to be on 
the second Tuesday of April and September — except that 
in case an institute was held in the county during the year, 
one of these dates should be changed so that examinations 
occurred during the institute. The compensation was 
placed at two dollars a day and mileage — the total smn 
not to exceed three dollars per school in any one year. 

This act of the Board was to go into e&ect on April 1, 
1862 ; but before that date it was repealed by an act of the 
General Assembly which contained much of the Board's 
plan, but left the days for examination of teachers the 
same as before and limited the compensation to an amount 
not to exceed fifty dollars per year in counties having less 
than twenty-five schools, and not more than two dollars 
per district in counties having more than twenty-five 
schools. No provision was made for the visiting of schools. 
This time it appears that the office of county superintend- 
ent suffered not only from the attacks made upon it, but 
also from the animosity of the legislature toward the 
Board of Education.*^ 

During the next session of the General Assembly the 
attack upon the Board of Education was renewed with 
vigor. The time set by the Constitution for experimenting 
with such a board had passed, and the General Assembly 
proceeded to resume control of the educational interests 
by abolishing the Board on March 19, 1864. 

PEEIOD OF UNCEETAINTY 

Contrary to the expectations of supporters on both sides 
of the struggle for control of the educational system, the 

3i The Iowa Instructor, Vol. Ill (1861-1862), pp. 146-148; Laws of Iowa, 
1862, Ch. 172. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 41 



Tenth General Assembly in 1864 did little with the office of 
comity superintendent of schools except to fix his compen- 
sation at two dollars per day, pro^dded he visited each 
school at least once a year. Thus, the duty of visiting 
schools was reenacted, but pay for such services was op- 
tional with the board of supervisors.^® 

Chapter 143 of the acts of the P]leventh General As- 
sembly, in 1866, amended sixteen sections of the school law 
of 1862. Little of the new act affected vitally the office of 
county superintendent, except that section which fixed his 
compensation at three dollars per day for time actually 
spent in his official duties — provided he should visit the 
schools at least once a term, and spend at least one-half 
day in each visit. For this visiting he was to receive such 
additional compensation as the board of supervisors might 
allow. 

How this law worked out is well shown in the report of 
the State Superintendent for 1867 when he said it was a 
common and just complaint that in many counties, after 
the superintendents had filed the sworn statements as re- 
quired by law, the board of supervisors insisted upon cut- 
ting down their accounts. **In some instances supervisors 
raised technical objections, refusing to allow an account 
at aU, because the Superintendent had not visited every 
school each term; when, perhaps, owing to the number of 
schools and the short time for which they were taught, a 
literal compliance with the law was impossible. ' 

In 1868 the General Assembly made but few changes in 
the school law. In two respects the county superintendent 
was affected: the State Superintendent was given power 
to call conventions of the county superintendents at such 

36 Laws of Iowa, 1864, Ch. 52. 

ST Laws of Iowa, 1866, Ch. 143; Biennial Beport of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, 1867, p. 49. 



42 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



times and places as he deemed best ; and the county super- 
intendent was to receive a copy of the report of the Adju- 
tant General for the year 1867.** 

The next session of the legislature did little better. A 
school for the blind having been organized, the county 
superintendent was required to report to the superintend- 
ent of that institution the number, names, and addresses 
of the blind in his county. Two other acts were passed 
which gave the county superintendent more power: the 
first provided the method for attaching territory in one 
county to a school district in another county; and the sec- 
ond established county high schools and made the county 
superintendent not only a member but also president of 
the board of trustees. The same act set forth the manner 
of securing school sites.*® 

In his History of Education in Iowa C. E. Aurner sums 
up the situation as follows: 

For fifteen years the office of county superintendent was really 
a temporary institution, and a disposition to abolish it was fre- 
quently manifested. One may trace this opposition to its ultimate 
source in the old independent district system and to the inherent 
unwillingness to submit to any outside interference or even over- 
sight. About 1872 the opposition to the office of county superin- 
tendent reached its height. 

The legislature again became the battleground, and sev- 
eral bills affecting the office were introduced. Some pro- 
posed to change the duties, some regulated the compensa- 
tion, and one at least aimed to abolish the office. These 
bills, however, were killed in committee. Two insignificant 
acts were the product of this attempted legislation: one 
required the county superintendent to investigate before 

38 Laws of Iowa, 1868, Chs. 17, 162. 

39 Laws of Iowa, 1870, Chs. 31, 79, 94, 116. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 43 



revoking the certificate of any teacher, and the other pro- 
vided for an annual report to the Superintendent of the 
Iowa Institution for the Deaf and Dumb similar to the one 
made to the School for the Blind/** 

The Code of 1873 added the provision that the county 
superintendent should hold no other office nor be a member 
of a district school board. The next General Assembly 
continued the policy of tinkering with the school laws and 
after considerable debate decided to require that each 
teacher registering in a teachers ' institute should pay a fee 
of one dollar.*^ 

The State Teachers' Association in 1875 recommended 
that the county superintendent be appointed by a county 
board of education consisting of the presidents of the 
school boards in the county, and that aspirants to the of- 
fice be required to hold a State certificate or a life diploma. 
This report suggests the present system. 

THE OFFICE OF SUPEEINTENDENT OPENED TO WOMEN 

An interesting election contest occurred in 1875 — a con- 
test destined to decide the future personnel of the office. 
At the election Howard A. Huff was defeated by Elizabeth 
S. Cook for the office of county superintendent in Warren 
County. Mr. Huff contested the election on the grounds 
that a woman was ineligible, claiming the office for himself. 
Judge John Mitchell of the circuit court decided that Miss 
Cook could not qualify since a woman was ineligible to the 
office of county superintendent; but he ruled also that Mr. 
Huff could not claim the position as he had not received a 
majority of the votes cast at the election. 

40 Aumer 's History of Edvxation in Iowa, Vol. II, p. 78 ; Journal of the 
House of Eepresentatives, 1872, pp. 92, 104, 111, 267, 405, 435, 446 ; Laws of 
Iowa, 1872 (Public), Chs. 114, 133; Journal of the Senate, 1872, pp. 186, 217. 

*i Code of 1873, Sec. 1776 ; Laws of Iowa, 1874, Ch. 57. 



44 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



When Miss Cook appealed the case to the Supreme Court 
the decision was awaited with great interest in every 
county in Iowa. Women had held the office in various 
counties since 1869 when Julia C. Addington was appointed 
county superintendent of Mitchell County and then elected 
to the office at the general election. At that time the Attor- 
ney General ruled that the laws of 1862 contained no ex- 
press provision making male citizenship a test of eligibil- 
ity. Since women were citizens as well as men they were 
entitled to privileges as such. Miss Addington, of course, 
continued to hold the office, and in 1871 two other women 
were elected. This success encouraged more women to seek 
the office, and at the time Miss Cook was elected, women 
had been chosen to fill the office in five counties. 

Before the Supreme Court could render its decision, the 
General Assembly enacted a law providing that women 
were eligible to the office and making the provisions of the 
act retroactive. The Supreme Court, therefore, did not 
pass upon the original question at issue but did affirm the 
power of the legislature to admit women to this office and 
to legalize past elections. 

The immediate effect of this decision was to double the 
number of women elected to the office of county superin- 
tendent in 1876. The number has steadily increased since 
that time with the exception of the years 1878, 1880, 1882, 
and 1888. The election of 1921 placed sixty-one women in 
the office, six of whom succeeded men, while only four 
women were succeeded by men. 

Since the regular elections of 1921 there have been six 
changes in the personnel of county superintendents. In 
these changes three women succeeded women, two men suc- 
ceeded women, and one woman succeeded a man.*^ 

*2Aunier's Ilistory of Education in Iowa, Vol. II, p. 80; Laws of Iowa, 
1862, Ch. 172; Gallaher's Legal and Political Status of Women in Iowa, pp. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 45 



DISCUSSION AND MINOR CHANGES 

Judged by tlie absence of vital legislation and by the lack 
of notice in the press, the county superintendent of schools 
was almost forgotten during the decade following the ad- 
mission of women to the office. During the campaign of 
1877 there was a feeble attempt to raise the issue of 
abolishing the office. At the next session of the General 
Assembly, legislation proposed in the House of Kepresen- 
tatives took the form of bills to reduce the salary and 
abolish the visiting powers of the superintendent. While 
all of these measures failed of enactment, the Senate suc- 
ceeded in passing a bill in regard to county institutes, and 
another in regard to the manner of holding teachers' ex- 
aminations — both of which were really compromises upon 
legislation attempted at the last session.*' 

The Eighteenth General Assembly, in 1880, enacted no 
legislation affecting the county superintendent, although 
five bills were introduced in the House of Eepresentatives.** 
During the Nineteenth General Assembly, the House of 
Representatives killed three bills lowering the compensa- 
tion of the office. Several bills of minor importance were 
enacted during the session: one made it the duty of the 
county superintendent to report the names and the number 
of feeble-minded children to the superintendent of the in- 
stitution provided by the State for their care; a second 
gave the county superintendent power to call the attention 
of school directors to the law that trees must be planted 
on the grounds; a third provided for the registering of 
State certificates and the method of entering complaints 

228-232; Laws of Iowa, 1876, Ch. 136; Huff v. Cook, 44 Iowa 639; reports 
from county superintendents affected. 
*3 Laws of Iowa, 1878, Chs. 54, 143. 

** Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1880, House File Nos. 71, 82, 
269, 399, 465. 



46 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



for the revocation of such certificates; and a fourth made 
visiting schools discretionary with the county superintend- 
ent, except that, when requested to do so by a majority of 
the board of directors, he must visit a school at least once 
during the term. The compensation for such visiting was 
increased to four dollars a day. The legislature must have 
been convinced that there were times when such work was 
expedient. 

The sum total of educational legislation in 1884 was an 
act forbidding the erection of barbed wire fences about the 
school grounds; while the Twenty-first General Assembly 
added physiology and hygiene to the list of subjects to be 
taught in county institutes.*'' 

A COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION 

The Twenty-third General Assembly provided for the 
organization of a county board of education of which the 
county superintendent was to be chairman, the other mem- 
bers being the comity auditor and members of the county 
board of supervisors. This board was created to carry out 
the provisions of the law allowing counties to adopt uni- 
form textbooks for use in all the common schools outside 
of independent town or city districts. To adopt this plan 
a petition signed by one-half of the school directors in any 
county must be filed in the office of the county superintend- 
ent thirty days before the annual school elections in 
March. The county superintendent as soon as possible 
notified the county auditor and the board of supervisors 
in writing, and within fifteen days they met and provided 
for the submission of the question to the voters at the next 
annual meeting. If the question carried, this board of 
education proceeded to select the books by advertising at 
least three weeks for bids and samples. The books selected 

<s Laws of Iowa, 1882, Chs. 23, 40, 161, 167, 1884, Ch. 103, 1886, Ch. 1. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OP SCHOOLS 47 



by the board were placed on sale in various depositories 
throughout the county. 

The present county board of education as created by the 
Thirty-eighth General Assembly assumed this authority to 
select the uniform textbooks and the reports of county 
superintendents indicate that the newly constituted board 
is much more efficient and helpful than the old in selecting 
suitable texts. 

No legislation affecting the office of county superintend- 
ent was passed by the Twenty-fourth General Assembly; 
but at the last session there was enacted a bit of special 
legislation making it a part of the duties of the county 
superintendent to receive the reports of pupils in training 
schools. This applied, at that time, only to Black Hawk 
County because the only training school was in connection 
with the State Normal School at Cedar Falls.*® 

The law governing examinations for teachers' certificates 
was revised by the Twenty-sixth General Assembly. Eco- 
nomics and civics were added to the list of subjects for a 
first grade certificate, and teachers in kindergartens were 
required to have certificates. 

A REVIVAL OF INTEREST 

While legislators and party newspapers had ceased to 
pay much attention to the office, the work of the county 
superintendents had gone on with more or less success. 
Among their number were well qualified, industrious in- 
dividuals who tried to keep abreast of the times. Written 
examinations had almost become the rule. Teachers were 
compelled to attend the county institute. In the conven- 
tions of the county superintendents and at the sessions of 
the Iowa State Teachers' Association the problems con- 
nected with the office were ably discussed. 

46 Laws of Iowa, 1890, Ch. 24, 1894, Ch. 40, 1919, Ch. 56. 



48 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The editor of the Iowa Normal Monthly urged longer 
service, and insisted that the office should not be abolished. 
The same paper during the year 1893-1894 conducted a 
sjTiiposium on "How Can the County Superintendency Be 
Made More Effective?" Among the contributors were two 
county superintendents, R. C. Barrett and J. B. Knoepfler, 
both of whom were afterwards elected to the office of State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. While the contri- 
butors differed widely in their advocacy of methods for 
accomplisliing the desired results, all advocated higher 
qualifications, non-partisan elections, longer terms, better 
pay, additional powers, and sufficient office help, with, per- 
haps, assistants for the supervision of teachers in service.*^ 

In his biennial report for 1891, State Superintendent 
Henry Sabin opened his discussion of the office by saying 
that it was **a subject for congratulation that it is no long- 
er necessary to adduce arguments in favor of retaining the 
county superintendency. We believe this office to be in- 
dispensible to our school system." He urged that the law 
in regard to qualifications and selection of county super- 
intendents be amended along the lines of the Pennsyl- 
vania or Indiana plan, and that they be granted more 
power and authority.** 

The adoption of the Code of 1897 made no changes in the 
status of the county superintendent, but the next General 
Assembly tinkered with the institute fund and the certi- 
fication of teachers.*® In 1900 vocal music was added to 
the list of institute subjects ; the county superintendent was 
given power to select library books for the districts; and 
he was placed in charge of the uniform textbooks should 

47 Laws of loxoa, 1896, Chs. 38, 39 ; Iowa Normal Monthly, Vol. I, pp. 3, 
126, Vol. XVII, pp. 474-481. 

48 Beport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1891, pp. 23-25. 
*9Laws of Iowa, 1896, Chs. 85, 86, 87, 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 49 



such system be adopted by his county.'"' This law indicated 
a growing recognition of the county superintendents as the 
proper ofi&cers for the performance of such duties. 

In 1902, for the first time in its history, the office was 
placed on a salary basis. The legislation provided a salary 
of $1250 per year, plus postage, office expense, and travel- 
ing expenses to meetings called by the State Superintend- 
ent. No remuneration, however, was provided for visit- 
ing schools.®^ By another law the county superintendent 
was required to furnish to the board of supervisors on 
January 1st of each year an itemized statement of the 
financial transactions of his office. 

A single act requiring the county superintendent to pub- 
lish a summary of the financial affairs of his office was the 
sum total of the legislation affecting the office in 1904.^^ 

CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS 

During the next few years the question of the training 
and certification of teachers began to receive more atten- 
tion from the public, and the proceedings of the Iowa State 
Teachers' Associations contain many papers and discus- 
sions upon this important phase of public education. The 
biennial reports of the Department of Public Instruction 
also contain much material upon the subject. Educators 
felt that the county superintendents were too liberal in 
granting certificates to friends, personal and political. It 
appears that very often teachers holding first grade certi- 
ficates in one county could get but a second grade in an 
adjoining county — a condition which indicated a lack of 
uniformity to say the least. 

The county superintendent might compel a teacher to 

50 Laws of Iowa, 1900, Chs. 109, 110, 112. 

51 Laws of Iowa, 1902, Ch. 124. 

52 Laws of Iowa, 1902, Ch. 123, 1904, Ch. 113. 

VOL. XXI — 4: 



50 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



attend the full institute or suffer the indignity of failing 
to receive a certificate. One teacher, who styled herself ' ' a 
Village Schoolma'am", rather humorously ridiculed this 
plan in an article entitled * ' The Institute or Summer Vaca- 
tion, Which?". In this account she told of passing all the 
examinations required by an Iowa county superintendent 
only to be told that no certificate would be issued until 
after county institute, and none then unless she attended 
the full time. She added that the institute occurred on the 
dates she had planned to take advantage of a summer ex- 
cursion rate.°^ 

In an attempt to secure more uniformity, the State 
Superintendent began to send out monthly lists of ques- 
tions, the use of which was optional. Evidently some people 
must have objected to the use of these uniform questions 
for there occurs in the school reports of 1902 an opinion 
from the Attorney General that the State Superintendent 
has authority to prescribe the conditions under which 
county superintendents shall issue certificates as well as 
the grades and character of such certificates. In harmony 
with this opinion State Superintendent Eichard C. Barrett, 
on September 15, 1902, prescribed a set of rules and regu- 
lations for uniform examinations.'* 

LACK OF FAITH IN THE OFFICE 

By 1906 the public had again almost lost its faith in the 
county superintendent. The qualifications had been in- 
creased somewhat by the requirement that the incumbent 
should hold a State certificate, a life diploma, or a two year 
certificate, and the salary and expense allowance had been 
increased in a measure. Yet the office was not showing 
favorable results. In many counties the superintendent 

58 Iowa Normal Monthly, Vol. XVI, p. 72. 

54 Biennial Eeport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1902-1903, 
pp. 52-55. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 51 



did not maintain an office worthy of the name. He spent 
as little of his time as possible in his office, and, it is prob- 
able, made as few visits to the schools of his county as his 
conscience would permit. For all of this the office and not 
the man should be blamed. In reality the criticism should 
be upon the legislators whose economical ideas when car- 
ried out by still more penurious boards of supervisors 
destroyed the efficiency of the office. 

In his annual report for 1905 State Superintendent John 
F. Biggs conmiented upon the situation by saying that "a 
large and important part of the county superintendent's 
work is necessarily away from the county seat. That Iowa 
county superintendents within the biennial period have 
made 12,646 visits to schools and have conducted 795 edu- 
cational meetings is an eloquent tribute to their integrity 
and energy, in view of the fact that such work is optional 
and not obligatory. The law oifers a premium for in- 
activity since the superintendent is at far less expense in 
his office than when out among the schools." Mr. Riggs 
then recommended that * ' the law should require the county 
board of supervisors to audit and allow claims for travel- 
ing expenses for this officer within definite limits for any 
month". 

The law had provided that the county superintendent 
should hold an examination for teachers' certificates two 
days a month, obey the instructions of the State Superin- 
tendent, and visit the schools when requested to do so by 
a township officer and at such other times as he desired. 
But the visits and other outside matters required traveling 
expenses which had to be paid out of the superintendent's 
salary. In other words the more a county superintendent 
did the less pay he received. Why should he work 

55 Biennial Beport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1904-1905, 
p. 16. 



52 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



THE OFriCE AFTER 1906 

The people who were interested in the common school 
system realized that radical changes must be made in the 
certification of teachers and the inspection of schools. Re- 
peated failure of the General Assembly to heed urgent de- 
mands for revision and amendment made the sponsors of 
this new movement the more determined. Candidates for 
the Thirty-first General Assembly were sounded as to their 
opinions, and while the enactments of this Assembly were 
not startling, they constitute the beginning of fifteen years 
of legislation which has made the office a new power in 
common school education. 

NEW QUALIFICATIONS, POWEKS, AND DUTIES 

Almost as soon as the Thirty-first General Assembly had 
organized Senator M. F. Stookey introduced Senate File 
No. 3, a bill to amend the section of the Code relating to 
certificates so that upon certain conditions a certificate 
issued in one county would be good in any county in Iowa. 
This bill was referred to the Committee on Elections. Ten 
days later Mr. Stookey asked that it be withdrawn from 
the Committee on Elections and re-referred to the Com- 
mittee on Schools. This was agreed to by the Senate. 
Later Mr. Stookey introduced Senate File No. 296, a bill 
to repeal various sections of the Code and of the supple- 
ment to the Code, to definfe the powers and duties of the 
Educational Board of Examiners, and to encourage train- 
ing in the science and art of teaching. This bill was re- 
ferred to the Conunittee on Schools, wliicli reported un- 
favorably, and the measure was indefinitely postponed. 

Senate File No. 30, introduced by Senator J. L. Warren, 
was referred to the Committee on Schools on January 16th. 
Having been reported by the committee with amendments 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 53 



the bill was deferred, made a special order, amended, de- 
bated, and so on for several days. Senator J. H. Jackson 
introduced a substitute which after some consideration was 
rejected. Finally Senator Warren's bill passed the Senate 
and went to the House of Representatives. There it was 
again amended. The Senate agreed to the House amend- 
ments and the bill went to the Governor on April 3rd.^® 

This act, which was to go into effect on October 1, 1906, 
radically changed the office of county superintendent. Sec- 
tion two provided that the superintendent should be the 
holder of a first grade certificate as provided in the act, 
or a State certificate, or a life diploma. During his term 
he was to be ineligible to the office of school director or 
membership on the board of supervisors. He was required 
to visit the schools at least once a year and at such other 
times as requested by a majority of the directors of any 
school corporation, and he was to give personal instruction 
to the pupils at least one quarter of a day. On the first 
Monday of each month, he was to file with the county 
auditor an itemized and sworn statement of his actual ex- 
penses incurred in visiting schools and attending educa- 
tional meetings within his own county during the previous 
month, and such expenses were to be allowed by the board 
of supervisors but not in an amount in excess of twenty 
dollars a month. 

County Uniform Certificates. — Until October 1, 1906, 
county superintendents conducted examinations for teach- 
ers on the last Friday and Saturday of each month, and 
read the papers themselves. According to the law enacted 
by the Thirty-first General Assembly, which went into ef- 
fect on this date, four regular examinations Avere provided. 

5^ Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1906, pp. 838, 839; Journal of 
the Seriate, 1906, Senate File Nos. 3, 30, pp. 655, 946, 1036, 1083. 



54 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



To this number the Thirty-sixth General Assembly added 
a fifth. The regular examinations now occur on the last 
Friday of January, June, July, August, and October and 
the Wednesday and Thursday preceding. They are held 
at the county seat, although the county superintendent may 
at his discretion provide for examinations to be held other 
places at the same time. For Black Hawk County the June 
and July examinations are usually held at Cedar Falls as 
well as at Waterloo. The board of supervisors is required 
to furnish rooms suitable for conducting the exami- 
nations, and must provide such assistance as the county 
superintendent requires. 

Questions are made out by the Educational Board of 
Examiners and all examinations are conducted under the 
rules of this board. The papers, except those in didactics, 
are corrected in Des Moines by readers employed by the 
Educational Board of Examiners. Until 1921 ten of these 
readers were to be county superintendents who were called 
head readers and received only necessary traveling ex- 
penses. A fee of one dollar is charged for each applicant, 
one-half of which goes into the county institute fund. 

One of the requirements for renewing uniform county 
certificates is that the candidate shall read at least one pro- 
fessional book each year. These books are selected by the 
Heading Circle Board, which consists of the State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction and six county superin- 
tendents elected by the county superintendents at their 
November meeting for a term of two years. Two members 
are elected each year. The State is divided into six dis- 
tricts and the board member from each district is reading 
circle manager for his own district while the county super- 
intendent is manager for liis OAvn county. 

County superintendents must approve all applications 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 55 



for renewal of uniform comity certificates under the rules 
of the Board of Educational Examiners. Uniform county 
certificates of first and second grade may be renewed any 
number of times, but third grade certificates may be re- 
newed but once. 

All certificates are to be registered in the office of the 
superintendent of the county in which the holder teaches. 
The fee for such registration was at first one dollar, which 
went into the county institute fund, but this fee has been 
abolished. Third grade certificates are not to be registered 
if the county superintendent feels there are enough teach- 
ers with higher certificates to fill the educational needs of 
the county. When sufficient teachers with certificates can 
not be secured the Board of Examiners may, upon request 
of the county superintendent, provide for a special ex- 
amination in such county to be conducted in the same 
manner as regular examinations. Provisional certificates 
are then issued by the Board. Provisional certificates are 
also issued upon college credits when requested by the 
county superintendent. Provisional certificates are valid 
only in the county from which they are issued, and must be 
registered with the county superintendent. All other certi- 
ficates are valid in any county upon registration. 

The county superintendent must satisfy himself that all 
applicants for certificates are of good moral character. He 
is to keep a record of all examinations taken in the county 
with the name, age, and residence of each applicant, and 
the date of examination. On the first Monday in Septem- 
ber of each year, he files with the president of the Educa- 
tional Board of Examiners a list of all persons who for the 
preceding year held certificates and have attended the nor- 
mal institute, with the number of days of attendance in 
each case. A similar report is to be made of smnmer 



56 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



school attendance. The law provides the method of re- 
voking certificates and gives the county superintendent 
large discretionary powers in the matter. The same act 
provides that the county superintendent may appoint a 
deputy to act in his stead except in the matter of visiting 
schools or trying appeals. 

Ainother act provided for the election of county superin- 
tendents in the year 1906 and thereafter biennially. A 
third act made the first real provision for consolidated in- 
dependent districts, although central schools had been or- 
ganized and in operation for several years. Now it was 
made necessary that the approval of both the county super- 
intendent and the State Superintendent should be secured 
before presenting the petition for consolidation. An act 
amending the section on school district organization made 
the reports of the county superintendent due the last Tues- 
day in August." 

RESULTS OF FIRST YEAR 

The new legislation put new life into the office of county 
superintendent, and the results were gratifying, especially 
along the lines of the certification of teachers and the visit- 
ing of schools. 

State Superintendent John F. Riggs said in summariz- 
ing the results of the first year that : ' ' Contrary to general 
report, the county superintendent still exercises large pow- 
ers in the licensing of teachers. He alone passes upon the 
general fitness and moral character of each applicant. If 
he withholds his recommendation of an applicant a certi- 
ficate is not granted. . . . 

"The putting into force of the new system of certifying 
the teachers which directly affected 26,000 persons, could 

Laws of Iowa, 1906, Clis. 30, 122, 136, 1915, Ch. 291 ; Midland SclwoU, 
Vol. XXXVII, p. 122, December, 1922. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 57 



not be done without some friction. Naturally the adminis- 
tration will work more smoothly from this time on. The 
law so far as tested is regarded as successful by those best 
able to judge. 

INCREASED RESPONSIBILITY 

Because of the change to biennial elections, the next ses- 
sion of the General Assembly was held in 1907, when two 
minor acts were passed adding to the powers and duties of 
the county superintendent: he was empowered to call 
special elections for filling vacancies on the boards of direc- 
tors if the number of members fell below a quorum and 
had no secretary, and he was given authority to enforce 
the compulsory education law. The same Assembly passed 
an act authorizing a commission to revise the school laws, 
but the report of this commission did not prove acceptable 
to the legislature. 

Since 1907 the General Assembly has made various 
changes in the laws of 1906. The Thirty-third General 
Assembly gave the board of supervisors power to fix the 
bonds of the county superintendent.'^® By the Thirty-fourth 
General Assembly the work of county superintendents was 
considerably increased. In districts not maintaining four 
year high schools of an approved character provision was 
made for the payment of the tuition in an approved high 
school of those pupils presenting a certificate showing com- 
pletion of the eighth grade. 

The county superintendent is to furnish such certificates 
of proficiency in the common branches. This means con- 
ducting eighth grade examinations as well as providing and 
issuing tuition certificates. Although this law has been 
amended several times, it is still a vital factor in public 

58 Beport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1906-1908, pp. 31, 35. 

59 Laws of Iowa, 1907, Chs. 150,154, 222, 1909, Ch. 75. 



58 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



school work. Examinations are given in February and 
May of each year, and "usually in August, the questions be- 
ing sent out by the Department of Public Instruction. Some 
county superintendents insist that all applicants shall write 
the examinations at the county seat ; others allow the pupils 
to write under the direction of the superintendent of the 
town or city system nearest them ; and a few county super- 
intendents allow the rural teachers to give the examina- 
tion to their own pupils. Most of them grant certificates 
without examination to tuition pupils who complete the 
eighth grade of an approved school. 

Some superintendents have followed the plan of admit- 
ting to high schools, with the approval of the city superin- 
tendents and high school principals, certain pupils who 
failed to pass in one or more of the common branches, but 
whose age and general fitness makes them likely to do work 
in high schools. At the end of a six weeks or three months 
period the legal certificate is issued, if the high school 
principal can certify satisfactory progress on the part of 
the pupil. This view of the county superintendent's pow- 
ers has given many young people a chance to receive a high 
school education where a strict observance of the law 
would have deprived them of such opportunity. Others 
have combined examinations and daily grades in issuing 
certificates. 

The establishment of normal training high schools gave 
the county superintendent an added duty of conducting the 
examinations, checking results, and certifying certain items 
to the State Department of Public Instruction. The re- 
newal of certificates requires testimonials of successful 
teaching, the reading of professional books, and general 
fitness.®" 

60 Laws of Iowa, 1911, Chs. 130, 131, 143, 146. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 59 



ELECTION BY CONVENTION 

The Thirty-fifth General Assembly again took up the 
problems of educational legislation. Many bills were in- 
troduced in both houses, and as regards the office of county 
superintendent six or seven are important. The most radi- 
cal change was in the time and manner of selection — the 
new act providing that on the first Tuesday of April in the 
year 1915, and each third year thereafter, and whenever a 
vacancy occurs in the office of county superintendent of 
schools, a convention shall be held at the county seat for 
the purpose of electing a county superintendent of schools, 
at which convention each township, city, town or village 
independent district and each independent consolidated 
district in the county shall be entitled to one vote. Each 
such school corporation shall be represented by the pres- 
ident of the school board, or in his absence or inability to 
act, by some member of such school board to be selected by 
the board. It is further provided that where a congression- 
al township is composed in whole or in part of rural in- 
dependent districts that such rural independent districts 
shall be entitled to one vote in the convention, which vote 
shaU be cast by such person as may be selected by the pres- 
idents of the component rural independent districts within 
such township. All representatives shall serve untU a 
county superintendent is elected and qualified. 

The convention for the election of superintendent is 
called by the county auditor by mailing a written notice to 
each president and secretary at least ten days before the 
day of meeting and publishing a notice in the official news- 
papers of the count>\ The county auditor serves as secre- 
tary of the convention. He calls the convention to order 
and submits a list of the school corporations entitled to 
participate. The convention then selects a chairman and 



60 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



proceeds to the election of a county superintendent who 
must possess the legal qualifications. The person selected 
then serves for three years or until his successor is elected 
and qualified. The convention may choose a committee of 
five members to investigate and report on the candidates 
at a subsequent date to which the convention may adjourn, 
or it may by a three-fourths vote authorize such committee 
to elect a county superintendent of schools and file the 
name of its choice with the county auditor, whereupon such 
person is deemed duly elected to the office. In the conven- 
tion a majority of the representatives provided for con- 
stitutes a quorum. The representatives are paid ten cents 
a mile one way for the distance necessarily traveled in 
reaching the place of the convention. 

The act raised the compensation of the superintendent to 
$1500 a year, made provision for necessary office station- 
ery, postage, expenses incurred in attending meetings 
called by the State Superintendent, and such further com- 
pensation as the convention might deem proper. The board 
of supervisors might also allow him still further compen- 
sation. The salary was to be paid monthly, and all claims 
for expenses were to be made by verified statements filed 
with the county auditor who drew a warrant for the 
amount. The same method of election still exists, but the 
compensation has been changed several times during the 
past ten years. 

In another section of the law the qualifications and duties 
of the county superintendent were clearly outlined and the 
sum he might collect for expenses incurred within his own 
county was limited to $250 a year. Superintendents then 
in office were to hold over until September 1st — the pres- 
ent time for making changes in the office, the elections 
occurring every three years. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 61 



Another radical change was in the manner of conducting 
county institutes. Instead of the old six-day institute held 
during vacation, each county now has at least one two-day 
session at such time as the schools of the county are regu- 
larly in session. These are popularly known as inspiration- 
al institutes. All teachers of the county are required to 
attend the entire two days unless excused by the county 
superintendent. In city systems employing twenty-five or 
more teachers the city superintendent may, with the ap- 
proval of the county superintendent, plan his own series 
of lectures. 

Several laws of minor importance affecting the office of 
county superintendent were enacted at this session. The 
county auditor had for many years sold copies of the school 
laws, but a new act gave the county superintendent author- 
ity to furnish a copy to each school officer and to other 
persons who requested copies. A report of all deaf per- 
sons under the age of thirty-five years was to be made to 
the Superintendent of the School for the Deaf. The exten- 
sion of normal training in high schools added to the work 
of county superintendents. From four to six weeks sum- 
mer school was authorized in counties where the county 
superintendent deemed it advisable, but few counties have 
held such schools since 1914. The college summer sessions 
have removed all necessity for such county teacher train- 
ing.^^ 

The Thirty-sixth General Assembly passed an act amend- 
ing the qualifications of the county superintendent so that 
their certificates must meet the new requirements at once. 
Another act provided for an examination in August at 
which those who received their normal training in summer 
schools might write.*^ 

«i Laws of Iowa, 1913, Chs. 107, 225, 232, 239, 242, 249, 256. 
62 Laws of Iowa, 1915, Chs. 129, 291. 



62 IOWA JOUKNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



FURTHER POWERS AND DUTIES 

In 1917 the law governing tuition pupils was amended, 
the county superintendent being given power to determine 
the amount due the creditor corporation, subject to an ap- 
peal to the district courts. The law on the consolidation 
of schools was rewritten, but the powers and duties of the 
county superintendents w^ere not materially affected there- 
by. Other acts made it necessary for the county board of 
supervisors to give approval in writing before a deputy 
county superintendent could be appointed; and gave the 
county superintendent power to appoint appraisers for 
new school sites.*'^ 

The Thirty-eighth General Assembly passed some forty 
acts in revision of the school laws. Several of these af- 
fected the office of county superintendent. The salary de- 
pended upon the population of the county, varying from 
$1600 to $2500 and expenses as heretofore provided. But 
no salaries were to be increased until June 30, 1921; and 
no one then receiving more than the schedule salary 
through action of the board of supervisors was to be re- 
duced in his salary. Expenses for visiting schools were to 
be allowed up to $400 a year, the deputy's salary was to 
be fixed by the board of supervisors but was not to be less 
than $750 per year. 

Many miscellaneous duties were now placed upon the 
county superintendent, such as enforcing the compulsorj'^ 
education laAV and the law providing for the teaching of 
secular subjects in English; reporting rural schools which 
meet the requirements of "standard" schools; assisting 
such schools in the use of their appropriation; appointing 
a board of directors in school corporations where no direc- 
tor qualified; endorsing the record of successful teaching 

63 Laws of Iowa, 1917, Chs. 26, 156, 317, 432. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 63 



upon teachers ' certificates so that the holder might receive 
the benefits of experience under the minimum wage law; 
receiving a copy of the contract between the State colleges 
and districts having demonstration schools. 

The Thirty-eighth General Assembly also provided for 
a new county board of education, which was to take over 
the selection of uniform textbooks, hear appeals on cases 
arising from the organization or dissolution of consolidat- 
ed schools, and act as an adviser to the county superin- 
tendent in all school matters. 

This new board of six members is to be chosen by the 
same convention which elects the county superintendent 
and after April, 1919, at the same session. Members may 
be of either sex, but must at the time of selection be quali- 
fied voters of the county. The county superintendent is 
chairman of the board of which but one member, outside of 
the county superintendent, may be from the same school 
corporation. Meetings are held on the second Monday of 
August and September of each year and at the call of the 
county superintendent, or upon the written request of any 
three members.** 

One of the most important pieces of legislation during 
the session of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly in 1921 
was the act governing consolidated school organizations. 
The old plan was entirely rewritten, the details being made 
very much clearer. Another act of the same session placed 
the upper limit of the salary at $3000 per year. A third 
act, in the nature of a blanket repeal, did away with the 
head readers, that is, the ten county superintendents who 
had been called by the Educational Board of Examiners to 
read the papers submitted by candidates for uniform 
county certificates. 

64 Laws of Iowa, 1919, Chs. 56, 187, 201, 293, 303, 311, 340, 351, 364. 



64 IOWA JOUiKNAL OF HISTOKY AND POLITICS 



The success of the county superintendent's office during 
th<i past fifteen years seems to indicate that this office does 
have a real part and place in the educational system of 
Iowa, and that with judicious amendments and additions 
to the present law, the county superintendent may become 
the officer hoped for by those who worked out the school 
system in 1858.®^ 

SUMMARY 

Qualifications. — In creating the office of county super- 
intendent in 1858 the legislature seems to have had no 
thought that this office would require a person with special 
training and qualifications differing from those of other 
county or district officers ; and down to the adoption of the 
Code of 1873 no additional requirements or limitations 
were placed upon candidates. The Code of 1873 provided 
that the county superintendent could not be a member of 
the board of directors or of the county board of super- 
visors. In 1876 the General Assembly expressly made 
women eligible, but in no way changed the qualifications 
of the office. Until the codification of the laws in 1897, a 
county superintendent was not required to hold a teacher's 
certificate. 

The Code of 1897 provided that the county superinten- 
dent might be of either sex, and must hold a first class 
certificate, a State certificate, or a life diploma. The plan 
of certification in Iowa changed within the next few years 
so that the Supplement of 1902 provides that the county 
superintendent must be the holder of a two year certificate, 
a State certificate, or a life diploma. The act of 1906 fur- 
ther increased the necessary qualifications by requiring a 
first grade (three year) certificate, a State certificate, or a 

65 Laws of Iowa, 1921, Chs. 74, 112, 175, 209. 



THE COUNTY SUPEEINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 65 



life diploma. In 1913 the question of qualifications again 
arose, and at present the superintendent must hold a regu- 
lar five year State certificate and have had five years of 
experience in teaching or superintending, provided that 
any county superintendent holding office then was to be 
considered eligible for reelection. 

This bill to increase the qualifications of the county 
superintendent was introduced into the House of Eepre- 
sentatives by J. E. Bruce. It proposed to require a regu- 
lar five year State certificate, at least two years training 
above the high school, and five years experience in teach- 
ing. The Connnittee on Schools and Textbooks reported 
an amendment inserting the words Normal or College" 
before the word training, and the words "or superintend- 
ing" after teaching, and recommended that the bill so 
amended be passed. When the bill was considered T. Al 
Kingland, of Winnebago County, offered a substitute 
amendment, which was adopted, and the bill passed in its 
final form. Walter P. Jensen explained his vote for the 
amendment in part as follows: "I believe that in 99 cases 
out of 100 the person who holds a five year state certi- 
ficate has also had at least two years' work of normal or 
college training above the high school, and if the 100th 
person has succeeded through his own efforts in qualify- 
ing himself for a state certificate and has demonstrated 
his ability by doing so, I am willing that he too should be 
eligible to the office of county superintendent. I therefore 
vote aye on the amendment." 

^ The truth of this comment is seen in the data recently 
compiled. Of those serving as county superintendents in 
1922 more than two-thirds have attended normal schools 
and colleges for two years or longer. Of this number, 
fourteen hold two and three year degrees and diplomas, 

VOL, XXI — 5 



66 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



forty-one have bachelor's degrees, while seven hold the 
graduate degree of M. A. or M. S. Several have studied 
law, one at least holding a law degree. Several others have 
done special work in art. 

Of the county superintendents reporting in connection 
with this study, practically all had far exceeded the mini- 
mum requirement in experience. Three had had only the 
required five years, the others ranging from six to twenty 
years in public school work. Several report experience as 
teachers in normal schools and colleges, one man having 
been a normal school president for several years. A very 
few of those serving in 1922 had had experience in super- 
vising or teaching special subjects alone. 

As regards the grade of certificate held, reports in- 
dicate less than ten per cent hold certificates other than 
first or second grade State certificates. 

These figures indicate that the qualifications of the 
county superintendents are becoming higher,^® 

Election. — County superintendents were elected by the 
qualified voters from the time the office was created in 1858 
until 1915 when the recent law went into effect. The argu- 
ments for and against popular election are too numerous 
and too well known to need discussion here. The new plan 
of having the county superintendents chosen by a meeting 
of the representatives of the school corporations is not 
without its faults, yet it has many advantages. One of the 
first of these is the fact that the person chosen does not 
have to be a resident of the county. The convention may 
look over the State and select the best qualified individual 
it can find. In at least one instance a superintendent has 
resigned his office in one county to accept a position in an- 

Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1913, pp. 218, 364, 726, 727; 
Laivs of Iowa, 1913, Ch. 107; data from questionnaires sent out in November, 
1922. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 67 



other county.^^ Until the Thirty-ninth General Assembly 
limited the salary a convention was able to offer adequate 
compensation to competent persons. 

The presidents of the school corporations are better in- 
formed on educational needs, and can secure more data on 
the applicants than the electors at a general election. The 
convention is likely to be more interested in the schools 
than is a county board of supervisors. It is true that some 
candidates secure votes on pleas of sympathy or through 
other unprofessional means, and that a ''machine" may 
rule the convention, but these same objections may be 
raised against selection at a general election. Another 
valid reason for favoring the present form of selection is 
that so many people feel that the office of county superin- 
tendent is unimportant. Such lack of interest allows unfit 
candidates to slip into office almost unobserved. 

Data secured in November, 1922, indicates that not only 
does the present method of selection give greater oppor- 
tunity to secure the best candidates, but it gives the rural 
districts the virtual selection of the county superintendents. 
Assuming that the presidents of the various school cor- 
porations would be the delegates as implied in the law and 
that conventions were to be held prior to March, 1923, the 
farmers' vote would be three times the combined vote of 
business and professional men or women. Eeports from 
ninety-two counties show 1829 farmers, 446 business men, 
120 professional men, and 4 women as the probable mem- 
bers of such conventions. 

Another interesting fact may be gleaned from the same 

«^ H. C. Moeller, the county superintendent of Black Hawk County, holds 
the distinction of being the first county superintendent chosen under the new 
law. He was elected at a special convention in Buena Vista County, to serve 
an unexpired term in 1913, and was reelected at the regular convention in 
1915, but declined, in order to accept election in Black Hawk County. 



68 IOWA JOUKNAI. OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



reports. In the ninety-two counties reporting, the average 
election cost to the successful candidates averaged less 
than six dollars while forty-five report that they spent no 
money. The expenses of the counties for advertising and 
mileage averaged less than thirty dollars a county and in 
a few counties no claims were filed. These costs compared 
with the cost of primary and general elections show con- 
clusively that the present system is in the interests of 
economy as well as efficiency.®* 

Bonds. — The early county superintendents were not re- 
quired to furnish bonds. But the Code of 1873 included 
this officer in the list of those officials who should give 
bonds. The board of supervisors fixes the amount of the 
superintendent's bond which can not exceed five thousand 
dollars. The usual bond required is one thousand dollars.®^ 

Tenure of Office. — One of the most important factors in 
determining the success of an administrative official is 
tenure of office. The old plan of choosing county superin- 
tendents biennially at the general election made the tenure 
both uncertain and short. A candidate was successful or 
defeated, depending largely upon the strength of his party. 
Politicians are fond of declaring ''two terms, and out"; 
but the reports of the Department of Public Instruction 
indicate that under the old law many county superinten- 
dents left office at the close of their first term. Frequent 
changes gave energetic county superintendents no oppor- 

68 In Novemter, 1922, questionnaires were mailed to each county superin- 
tendent of schools in Iowa. To those failing to respond second and third 
requests were maUed, but at the time of going to press replies are lacking 
from seven counties — Boone, Clayton, Delaware, Dickinson, Hardin, Marion, 
and Van Buren. Chas. F. Pye, Secretary of the Iowa State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, finds similar results. — Midland Schools, Vol. XXXVII, No. 5, Janu- 
ary, 192.3, pp. 141, 142. 

69 Code of 187S, Sec. 678 ; Code of 1897, Sec. 1185 ; Compiled Code of 1919, 
Sec. 619. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 69 



tunity to carry out their plans. No successful business con- 
cern would attempt to change managers every two or four 
years. 

The present plan of electing by a convention for a three 
year term is a step toward efficiency. It has removed the 
office from the party scramble at the general election, and 
gives the county superintendent one year longer to carry 
out his policies. 

The law is too recent to show clearly what its effect up- 
on tenure will be, but the 1920 and 1922 reports indicate 
that there is a stronger tendency toward reelection, al- 
though a majority have served less than two terms. There 
is, however, a growing number of those serving many 
terms. Clarence Messer has served in Humboldt County 
since 1899; E. C. Linn in Lee County since 1904; and 
Estelle Coon in Poweshiek County and W. L. Peck in Alla- 
makee County since 1906. Several others have served four 
and five terms.^" 

Salary. — From the first the county superintendent has 
been hindered by the meager stipend paid for his services. 
The act creating the office limited the compensation to not 
more than one-«ighth more than the clerk of the district 
court received and not less than fifty dollars. Later the 
Board of Education specified that the salary was not to ex- 
ceed that of the clerk of the district court. In 1859 the salary 
was fixed at two dollars per day — the total not to exceed 
one-half the pay of the clerk of the district court. In 1861 
the Board provided two dollars a day and necessary mile- 
age — the total in any year not to exceed three dollars per 
school. The legislature of 1862 set the salary at two dol- 

10 Laws of Iowa, 1913, Ch. 107; Biennial Beport of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, 1918-1920, pp. 239, 240, 241; data from questionuaiies 
sent out in November, 1922. 



70 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



lars per day — the whole compensation not to exceed fifty 
dollars per year in counties having less than twenty-five 
districts, and not to exceed two dollars per district in all 
other counties. 

The Tenth General Assembly made the salary two dollars 
a day, except for visiting schools, compensation for which 
was to be fixed by the county boards of supervisors. 

A forward step was taken by the General Assembly of 
1866 when it fixed the salary at three dollars per day, pro- 
viding the county superintendent visited each school once 
each term and spent at least one-half day in each visit. The 
county board of supervisors had the option of granting 
additional compensation. In the Code of 1873 provision 
was made for three dollars a day, stationery, postage, and 
such additional compensation as the board of supervisors 
might allow. The compensation was increased to four dol- 
lars per day in 1882; and the Code of 1897 provided for 
the same per diem together with stationery, postage, and 
expenses to meetings called by the State Superintendent. 

The Twenty-ninth General Assembly placed the compen- 
sation on a fixed salary basis for the first time in the his- 
tory of the office, establishing the salary of $1250 per year, 
with postage and expenses for called meetings. In 1906 
this was increased by pajnnent of expenses incurred in 
visiting schools, not to exceed twenty dollars a month. No 
further change was made untU 1913 when the law provided 
the county superintendent should receive all necessary of- 
fice stationery and postage and expenses incurred in at- 
tending called meetings, not to exceed $250 a year for ex- 
penses incurred within his o^^^l county. His salary was 
fixed at $1500 a year, and in addition such sum as the 
representatives of the school corporations might allow. 
The board of supervisors might increase this sum but 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 71 



could not decrease it. In 1919 a new graded salary sched- 
ule was enacted, all increases to take effect on June 30, 
1921, with the provision that no superintendent should be 
reduced in salary during his present term. The expense 
allowance for activities within the county was increased to 
$400 a year. 

The Thirty-ninth General Assembly amended the salary 
law making the minimum salary $1800, and the maximum 
$3000 with the necessary expenses as before provided. The 
excess over the minimum is granted now by the county 
board of supervisors and not the school corporation repre- 
sentatives. This law went into effect on April 5, 1921. 

During the biennial period, 1919-1920, one superinten- 
dent received $1600, one $3000, and forty-five between 
$1700 and $1800. The median salary was $1750 for twelve 
months." 

Removal from Office. — The acts relative to the estab- 
lishment of the office of county superintendent of schools 
and those concerning its later status contain nothing con- 
cerning removal from office. Neither has any county super- 
intendent been removed. Therefore there are no judicial 
decisions upon which an opinion may be based. There is a 
feeling in some quarters that the Code provisions for re- 
moval of county officers apply. Others feel that the county 
superintendent does not come under the list of elective 
officers because of the manner of his selection. 

Many students of the problem doubt also if the lapse or 
revocation of a county superintendent's certificate would 

71 LoMS of Iowa, 1858, Ch. 52, 1862, Ch. 172, 1864, Ch. 102, 1866, Ch. 143, 
1902, Ch. 124, 1906, Ch. 122, 1913, Ch. 107, 1919, Chs. 293, 303 ; Acts, Besolu- 
tions and Forms adopted hy the State Board of Education (First Session), 
1858, Act No. 8 ; Educational Laws of the State of Iowa, 1860, Pt. VIII, pp. 
7-23; The Iowa Instructor, Vol. Ill, pp. 146-148; Code of 1873, Sec. 1776; 
Code of 1897, Sec. 2742; Biennial Beport of the Superintendent of Public 
Lastruction, 1918-1920, pp. 31, 32. 



72 IOWA JOU[RNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



remove him from office; although, without a doubt, such a 
condition would prevent reelection. Luckily, there is little 
likelihood of any method of removal being used." 

Deputy County Superintendent. — During the first five 
years of the office the county superintendent was allowed 
assistance only at the time of holding examinations. The 
Ninth General Assembly provided for the appointment of 
a deputy when for any cause the county superintendent 
was unable to attend to his duties. This deputy could per- 
form any duty devolving upon the county superintendent 
except that of visiting schools and trying appeals. Until 
1913 this provision remained unchanged, the county super- 
intendent being supposed to appoint a deputy only when 
he was unable to attend to the duties of his office. No pro- 
vision was made for the compensation of such deputies. 
The board of supervisors have, since 1862, been allowed to 
grant the county superintendent such additional compen- 
sation as it deemed proper, and there is evidence that in 
some counties deputies have been maintained for many, 
years. 

By the legislation of 1913 the county superintendent 
**may appoint a deputy, for whose acts he shall be respon- 
sible" — a provision of law which was amended in 1919 to 
require the written permission or approval of the board of 
supervisors. The salary is now to be fixed by the board 
of supervisors at not less than $750 a year. The reports 
of the State Department of Public Instruction for 1918- 
1920 indicate that in eleven counties the supervisors allow 
no regular deputy. The highest salary paid in 1920 was 
$1320 and the lowest $720 — thirty dollars less than the 
legal minimum. Deputies may be required to give bond, 
but this does not release the county superintendent from 

72 Compiled Code of 1919, Sees. 133, 642, 651, 2479. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 73 



responsibility and liability for the wrongful acts of the 
deputy. 

The law should be so amended as to require a deputy 
in each county, who should be qualified and allowed to 
visit schools, so that this important duty might be carried 
on throughout the year." 

Visiting Schools. — Before the creation of the office of 
county superintendent of schools the inspectors and com- 
mittees from the boards of directors were expected to visit 
and inspect the various schools of their own districts. By 
the creative act this duty was given to the county super- 
intendent. He was expected to visit each school at least 
twice each year, and was given authority to appoint a com- 
mittee to visit in his stead.^* The Board of Education in 
1861 provided that the county superintendent should per- 
sonally visit each school, and should deliver a lecture in 
each township; but the legislation of 1862 failed to men- 
tion such a duty, or to provide compensation for the work. 
Accordingly the superintendent was not required to visit 
schools. By the legislation of 1864 he was required to 
visit each school once each year.''^ 

The Eleventh General Assembly required the county 
superintendent to visit the schools once each term, spend- 
ing half a day in each. No further mention of this duty 
is made until there appeared in the Code of 1873 the pro- 
vision that the county superintendent might appoint a 
deputy for all duties, except that of visiting schools and 

73 Laws of Iowa, 1862, Ch. 172, 1913, Ch. 107, 1919, Ch. 311 ; Code of 1897, 
Sees. 2734, 2735; Biennial Beport of the Superintendent of Puhlio Instruc- 
tion; 1918-1920, pp. 239-241. 

74 For definite provisions of the requirements see notes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 
9, 16, 28. 

75 Tfte Iowa Instructor, Vol. Ill, pp. 146-148; Lams of Iowa, 1862, Ch. 
172, 1864, Ch. 102. 



74 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



trying appeals. At the same time this Code made no men- 
tion of such visits as among the duties of the superintend- 
ent. In 1882 the General Assembly made visiting schools 
discretionary, unless a majority of the board members of 
a school requested it. For what visits he made he was to 
receive the new compensation of four dollars per day.''® 

This plan was retained until 1902 when the provision for 
compensation was omitted. The act of 1906 again included 
this duty, the superintendent being required to spend at 
least one-fourth of a day in each school once a year, and 
oftener if requested to do so by a majority of the board. 
In this one quarter of a day he was **to give personal in- 
struction to the children". Expenses for such visits were 
limited to twenty dollars a month, which in many counties 
would amount to less than seventy-five cents a day. Com- 
pensation for such work was included in his salary. Under 
the laws of 1913 the total yearly expense was not to exceed 
$250, but in 1919 this amount was increased to $400 per 
year, the superintendent being required to visit each school 
at least once a year — a requirement almost impossible of 
fulfiUment." 

Certification of Teachers. — Certification of teachers was 
without a doubt one of the most important questions con- 
nected with the office of county superintendent down to 
1906 when the authority was given to the Educational 
Board of Examiners. The creative act specified examina- 
tions in the ''Three E's", orthography, English grammar, 
and "such other branches as may in special cases be re- 
quired". The county superintendent was to announce the 
place of holding examinations. By the Board of Educa- 

■t^Laws of Iowa, 1882, Ch. 161. 

TT Laws of Iowa, 1902, Ch. 124, 1906, Ch. 122, 1913, Ch. 107, 1919, Ch. 
303. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 75 



tion's reenactment the time and place were fixed as the last 
Saturday of each month at the county seat. The final 
session of the Board cut down the number of regular ex- 
aminations to two — on the second Tuesday of April and 
September — provided one of said examinations should be 
at the time of the county institute. No examinations were 
held under these provisions, since the next General As- 
sembly in repealing the Board's act changed the date back 
to the last Saturday of each month, and required, in addi- 
tion to the examinations, good character and ability. These 
examinations were to be public.''^ 

In 1866 United States history was added to the list of 
subjects, but no further changes were made until 1878 when 
the county superintendent was permitted to examine 
teachers of music, drawing, penmanship, bookkeeping, 
German or other languages, and to issue a certificate for 
one or more of these special branches. By the Code of 1897 
two grades of certificates were provided, where before each 
county superintendent had used his own plan of certifica- 
tion. Some issued one, some two, and some three or four 
kinds of certificates. The State Superintendent had, in 
1877, limited the age to nineteen for men and seventeen for 
women, and so it remained until 1906 when the age of 
eighteen was established for both.''^ 

At first examinations were either written or oral — 

78 Loads of Iowa, 1858, Ch. 52, 1862, Ch. 172 ; Acts, Resolutions and Forms 
adopted iy the State Board of Education (First Session), 1858, Act No. 8; 
Acts of State Board of Education, 1859, Pt. 8; act of State Board of Edu- 
cation, 1861, published in the Iowa Instructor, Vol. Ill, pp. 146-148. 

79 Laws of Iowa, 1866, Ch. 143; Code of 1897, Sec. 2737; Biennial Beport 
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1876-1877, p. 51; Begulations of 
Educational Board of Examiners. 

The various acts, laws, and official documents refer to this board as the 
"Educational Board of Examiners" and the "Board of Educational Ex- 
aminers" interchangeably and synonymously, and the writer has so used the 
terms in reference to this board. 



76 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sometimes both. After the State Board of Educational 
Examiners was established on a working basis, their writ- 
ten examinations practically compelled coimty superintend- 
ents to adopt the same plan. Much of the grief during 
the period before 1906 was due, however, not to the county 
superintendent, but to the people of some communities who 
would even go so far as to petition the county superintend- 
ent to grant a certificate to some person utterly incapable 
of passing the examinations, and if a certificate was re- 
fused the person in question kept school anyway, the law 
providing no penalty for the payment of salaries to such 
persons. This condition led to the lax methods of examina- 
tion and certification discussed elsewhere, and the result- 
ing agitation brought about the present system.*" 

Teachers' Institutes. — The first teachers' institute was 
held in Dubuque in 1849 with Superintendent Benton in 
attendance. As a result of the success of this institute, 
perhaps, Mr. Benton recommended that teachers' insti- 
tutes be made a regular part of the school system and that 
a State appropriation be made for their maintenance. In 
1856 an institute was held at Tipton. The organization 
here included a president, vice president, secretary, assist- 
ant secretaries, and a treasurer — a form which persisted 
several years. The success of these institutes led State 
Superintendent M. L. Fisher to recommend to the General 
Assembly in 1858 that liberal provision be made for their 
support. 

Legislation in 1858 made practically the same provisions 
for institutes as had been recommended in the report of 
the Mann Commission. Annual institutes Avere to be held 
for six working days, and $100 was allowed by the State 

so Biennial Eeport of the Superintendent of Puilic Instruction, 1876-1S77, 
p. 5; Aunior's Ilistonj of Education in Iowa, Vol. I, p. 304. 



THE COUNTY SUPEEINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 77 



to those approved by the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion — $1000 having been appropriated for such purposes. 
Mr. Benton allowed but $50 to each institute. At the date 
of his biennial report he had paid this sum to fifteen in- 
stitutes, and he reports that there were applications on file 
for the remainder. Thus, it may be assumed that twenty 
counties received State aid during the year 1859. In 1860 
the legislature cut the appropriation to $50 for each in- 
stitute. Thirty-four institutes were held that year, and 
thirty-five in 1861. I'rom that time on the increase in the 
number of institutes held and in the attendance was 
rapid.*^ 

About 1871 or 1872 some counties began to hold normal 
institutes as well as teachers' institutes, the normal insti- 
tutes being in session from two to four weeks. In 1874 a 
normal institute was required in every county, to be held 
at such time as the schools of the county were generally 
closed. The teachers attending were charged an institute 
fee of one dollar, which with the State aid of fifty dollars 
constituted the institute fund. These institutes continued 
to grow in attendance and results were gratifying until 
about 1903 when the effect of summer schools held at col- 
leges and universities began to be felt. The summer 
schools, giving credit toward graduation, made great in- 
roads upon the number of teachers attending the county 
institutes. It was soon apparent that Iowa had outgrown 
the institute for which the teachers paid a fee. This fee 
had long been an objectionable feature — Jonathan Piper 
having pointed to the fact that the State paid the militia 
to learn how to shoot, but taxed teachers to learn to teach.*^ 

siAnmer's History of Education m Iowa, Vol. II, pp. 151-186; Beport of 
the Secretary of the Board of Education, 1859, pp. 18, 19. 

«^Laws of Iowa, 1874 (Public), Ch. 57. Practically each report of the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction contains a lengthy discussion of in- 
stitutes. — Aumer's History of Education in Iowa, Vol. II, p. 185. 



78 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



In 1912 the Better Schools Commission proposed to 
abolish the institute and to substitute in its stead "short, 
inspirational" institutes to be held during the school year, 
with compulsory attendance and no loss of pay. The law 
enacted in 1913 follows this recommendation, permitting 
not more than two such institutes each year and requiring 
one. These institutes are in session two days, and teachers 
must attend or forfeit the ''average daily salary" during 
the time they were absent — a plan that has been followed 
since July 1, 1914. The favorite time of the year seems to 
be October or February, although in counties containing 
large cities the first week in September appears to be pre- 
ferred. 

The institute fund now consists of the $50 of State aid, 
one-half of aU the examination fees collected in the county, 
and $150 appropriated by the board of supervisors in 
counties having thirty thousand population or less, or $200 
in counties having over thirty thousand — ten in number. 
This fund may be used only for institute purposes. 

All city independent districts having less than twenty- 
five teachers in the schools must close for the time of the 
institute and the teachers must attend. In districts having 
twenty-five or more teachers the county superintendent 
shall cooperate with the city superintendent to secure the 
lectures and work most fitted to the city teachers. In some 
counties the city schools close, in others they have their 
own series of lectures. In Polk County, as well as several 
other counties, the two are held together during the first 
week in September. 

The county superintendent issues to each teacher a cer- 
tificate showing the days attended, without which certifi- 
cate the teacher can not collect that portion of her salary.*' 

s^Beport of the Better Iowa Schools Commission, 1912, pp. 53, 64; Laws 
of Iowa, 1913, Ch. 225. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 79 



Consolidated Schools. — Some of the most recent and yet 
most important powers and duties of the county superin- 
tendent of schools are those connected with consolidation 
of schools. This movement began in Iowa within the past 
twenty years, but one central school being organized prior 
to that time. The growi;h has been especially rapid during 
the past five years. In the 1920 report of the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction it appears that the number of 
consolidated schools increased from 238 in 1918 to 430 in 
1920. At the time of that report but five counties — Lyon, 
Winneshiek, Howard, Chickasaw, and Monroe — had no 
consolidation. This means that practically every county 
superintendent has had one or more consolidated school 
problems during his term. 

The laws governing the organization and dissolution of 
consolidated school districts have given to the county super- 
intendent large discretionary powers as well as many 
specific duties, among which are the hearing of objections 
and appeals. The decline in prices of farm products and 
the increased taxation of farm property have made peti- 
tions for consolidation almost certain forerunners of ap- 
peals. Such appeals, together with the other duties in 
connection with consolidation, occupy the attention of the 
county superintendent for at least three months — about 
the minimum time necessary to complete an organization 
as may be shown by the hypothetical schedule appearing 
at the close of this chapter. 

As a result of this situation the Thirty-ninth General 
Assembly practically rewrote the law. The new statute 
contains forty-two sections, several of which are new. It 
sets forth each detail of procedure for the organization 
and the dissolution of consolidated independent districts, 
providing that all districts in process of organization at 



80 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the time the act went into effect were to complete their 
organization under the prior law and that the act in no 
way affected pending litigation. 

Consolidated independent school corporations may be 
formed for the purpose of maintaining a central school, 
and the existing corporations dissolved in the manner pro- 
vided by this act. There must be an area of not less than 
sixteen government sections of contiguous territory in one 
or more counties. A petition describing the boundaries of 
the proposed district and asking for the establishment of 
a school corporation when signed by one-third of the voters 
residing within the proposed district may be filed with the 
county superintendent of the county in which the greatest 
number of qualified voters reside. Such petition must be 
accompanied by an affidavit showing the number of quali- 
fied electors living within the territory described and 
signed by a qualified elector residing within said territory, 
and if the territory described is situated in ditferent 
counties the number of qualified electors in each county 
shall be given separately. This affidavit shall be taken as 
true unless objections are filed on or before the time fiixed 
for filing objections. 

Within ten days after the petition is filed the county 
superintendent shall fix a final date for filing objections in 
his office, and give public notice for at least ten days by 
one publication in a newspaper published within the terri- 
tory described in the petition ; or if there be none published 
therein, in the nearest town or city in any county in which 
any part of the territory described is situated. Objections 
must be in writing in the form of affidavits and may be 
made by any person residing or OMTiing land within the 
territory described, or who would be injuriously affected 
by the organization of the new corporation. This, in fact, 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 81 



gives any one who may feel that the new corporation mil 
be injurious the right to file an objection. These objec- 
tions must be on file not later than twelve o'clock noon of 
the final day fixed for filing objections. 

On this date interested parties may present evidence and 
arguments. The county superintendent reviews the matter 
on its merits, and within five days after the conclusion of 
any hearing rules on the objection and either enters an 
order fixing such boundaries for a proposed school cor- 
poration as will in his judgment be for the best interests 
of all persons concerned, having due regard for the wel- 
fare of adjoining districts, or he dismisses the petition. 
The county superintendent is required to publish this order 
immediately in the same newspaper in which the original 
notice was published. 

Within ten days after the publication of such order, any 
petitioner, objector, or any other person living or owning 
land within the territory described in the petition may ask 
for a hearing before the county board of education by serv- 
ing notice on the county superintendent. Within five days 
after a hearing has been asked, the county superintendent 
shall file with the county board of education all the original 
papers together with his decision, and fix a time and place 
for hearing and give notice to each applicant by registered 
letter. If more than one person has signed the application 
for a hearing before the county board, notice to the first 
three signers shall be considered notice to all. The time 
fixed for such hearing shall be not less than five nor more 
than ten days after the time for asking for said hearing 
has expired. 

If the territory described in the petition for the proposed 
district is wholly in one county, the county board of that 
county shall hear said objections at the time and place 



VOL. XXI — 6 



82 IOWA JOUKNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



fixed by the county superintendent, and within five days 
after the submission thereof shall either determine and fix 
such boundaries for the proposed school corporation as, 
in his judgment, will be for the best interests of all con- 
cerned, without regard to existing district lines, or dismiss 
the petition, which shall be final. If the territory described 
in the petition lies in more than one county, the county 
superintendent with whom the petition is filed shall fix the 
time and place and call a joint meeting of all the county 
boards of education to act as a single board for hearing 
such objections. A majority of the members of all said 
boards shall constitute a quorum and it shall proceed as in 
section eight. But no member of a county board of educa- 
tion who lives or owns land within the proposed district 
or who lives or owns land within a school corporation, a 
part of which is included in the proposed district, shall take 
any part in determining any matter coming before such 
county board or joint board. 

In case the county superintendent's proposed boundaries 
are not objected to or the county board of education or the 
joint board fixes such boundaries of the proposed school 
corporation, the county superintendent with whom the peti- 
tion is filed shall call a special election in such proposed 
school corporation within thirty days from the date of the 
final determination of such boundaries by giving notice by 
one publication in the newspaper in which previous notices 
have been published, which publication shall be not less 
than five days nor more than ten days prior to the election. 

No notice for election can be published until the time for 
appeal has expired, and in the event of an appeal, not until 
the same has been disposed of. The county superintendent 
shall appoint the judges for said election, and such judges 
shall be qualified electors of the territory whose boundaries 
have been determined by the county superintendent, the 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 83 



county board, or joint board. The judges of election shall 
count the ballots, make return to the county superintendent, 
and deposit the ballots with him. The returns shall then 
be on record in his office. If a majority of the votes cast 
by the qualified electors are in favor of the proposition, a 
new school corporation shall be organized, except that in 
cases where separate ballot boxes are required by law, a 
majority of the votes cast by the qualified electors from 
their respective territories shall be required. 

If the proposition carries, a special meeting shall be 
called by the county superintendent, by giving notice by 
one publication in the same newspaper in which the former 
notices were published and he shall appoint the judges. 
The judges shall make return to the county superintendent 
who shaU enter the return on record in his office, notify the 
persons who are elected directors, and set the date for the 
organization of the school board. The county superintend- 
ent shall then certify to the board of supervisors all ex- 
penses incurred by him and the county board of education 
in connection with the proceedings in organizing the dis- 
trict, including the election of the first board of directors, 
and this the board of supervisors shall audit and, if ap- 
proved, order the same to be paid from the general fund 
of the county. 

The next duty of the county superintendent is to re- 
organize the territory left after the new corporation has 
been formed. Where one or more parts of the territory 
of a school township is left outstanding each part shall 
constitute a rural independent district, unless two or more 
contiguous subdistricts are left, in which event each shall 
constitute a school township. The county superintendent of 
the county in which the territory is situated calls an elec- 
tion by giving proper notice in each remaining piece of 
territory for the purpose of electing officers as the law pro- 



84 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTOKY AND POLITICS 



vides for rural independent or school townships as the case 
may be. 

The organization of all new boards under this act is to 
be completed on or before the first day of June following 
the election. Ten of the sections providing for the method 
of dissolution of consolidated school corporations are new. 
The method is practically the same as for organization. 
The petition describing the boundaries of the district — 
which shall not be less than four government sections — and 
signed by a majority of the voters residing within the cor- 
poration is filed with the superintendent of the county in 
which the greater number of qualified electors reside. The 
affidavits, notices of final date, filing of objection, and hear- 
ing are the same as for organization, except that those 
signing petitions must be qualified voters of the corpora- 
tion, and those signing objections must be residents or 
landowners of the district.** 

The following schedule shows the steps in procedure and 
the dates of the same, making allowance for one day's 
hearing only in case of appeal. County newspapers are 
usually published on Thursday of each week. 

Monday, June 12. — Petition filed with the county super- 
intendent. 

June 12 to June 21. — County superintendent fixes final 
date for filing objections to petition. 

June 15 or June 22. — Notice published in newspaper. 

JuMe 26 to July 3. — Final date for filing objections. 

June 26. — Objections filed up to 12 o'clock noon. Hear- 
ing all afternoon. 

84 Biennial Ticport of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 191S-1920, 
pp. 45-50; Laws of loiva, 1921. Ch. 175. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 85 

June 26 to July 1. — County superintendent rules on the 
objections, boundaries approved. 

July 7. — Order fixing boundaries published. 

July 7 to July 16. — Appeal and request for hearing be- 
fore county board of education filed with the county super- 
intendent. 

July 7 to July 12, and up to July 21. — County superin- 
tendent files original papers and his decision and fixes time 
and place. Gives notice by registered letter. 

July 12 to July 26. — Date fixed for hearing. 

July 17. — Hearing before county board of education. 

July 17 to July 22. — County board determines the 
boundaries. 

July 18. — County superintendent calls special election, 
fixing date for August 18. 

August 10. — Notice of such election published. 

August 18. — Election. Carried. 

August 19. — Eeturn of order filed and recorded. 

August 25. — Notice for meeting for election of directors 
published. 

Monday, September 5. — Special meeting of electors. 

September 6. — Eeturns made to county superintendent. 
County superintendent notifies those elected. 

September 12. — Board organized. 

Appeals. — Probably the most unpleasant duty of a 
county superintendent is that of hearing appeals by *'any 
person aggrieved by a decision or order of the board of 



86 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 



directors of any school corporation in a matter of law or 
fact." Formerly this included appeals in cases growing 
out of the organization or dissolution of consolidated 
school districts, but these cases may now come before the 
county board of education as may other questions. 

The county superintendent has power to issue subpoenas 
for witnesses, and compel their attendance and testimony 
as the district court may. Expenses are assessed by the 
county superintendent upon the corporation from which 
the case is brought unless he feels that there was no ground 
for the appeal, in which case costs are assessed against the 
appellant to be collected as are district court costs. 

An appeal may be taken from the decision of the county 
superintendent to the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction in the same manner and under the same restric- 
tions as appeals to the county superintendent. 

However, neither the county superintendent nor the 
State Superintendent have jurisdiction to hear cases in- 
volving a money consideration nor to render a judgment 
for money. This restriction practically nullifies most of 
the judgments rendered; and the courts, while refusing to 
entertain cases before they have been heard by the county 
superintendent, as a rule assume jurisdiction and try the 
cases. 

Another disadvantage of this jurisdiction in appeals lies 
in the fact that it often places the county superintendent 
in the unfortunate position of entertaining an appeal from 
a decision of a board of directors which is the direct re- 
sult of advice given by the county superintendent. 

The present county board of education has proved itself 
very helpful in hearing these appeals and, by their advice 
and counsel, in preventing them.^^ 

85 Compiled Code of 1919, Sees. 2478, 2524, 2590, 2591, 2592, 2593 ; Laws 
of Iowa, 1921, Ch. 175. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 87 



The Comity Board of Education. — For many years 
students of the rural school problem have felt that the 
county rather than the township should be the unit of 
school administration and that the county superintendents 
should be chosen by the county board of education. Iowa, 
in common with other western States clung to the general 
election plan until 1913 when the convention of school cor- 
poration representatives was created to select the county 
superintendent. Advocates of a county board of education 
still hoped for such a body in Iowa and continued to agi- 
tate the proposition. Such agitation resulted in a law 
enacted in 1919 providing for the election of a county 
board by the same convention which selects the county 
superintendent. This bill was drawn by Senator Byron W. 
Newberry and while it did not go as far as the friends of 
the bill or as its author would have liked, all thought that 
it was a step in the right direction and might ultimately 
lead to the desired goal — a county unit — and that this 
board would succeed the more clumsy convention of school 
corporation representatives. 

The present county board of education has but two real 
duties or functions, the selection of textbooks in counties 
having county uniformity, and the hearing of appeals in 
consolidated school cases. In addition to these specific 
duties — which arise but occasionally — their function is 
purely advisory. 

In spite of these limitations a large majority of county 
superintendents find their boards very helpful, in fact out 
of ninety-two counties replying to a recent inquiry, but ten 
state that the board is useless, and these report the need 
for a board with real powers, duties, and responsibilities. 

There is no doubt that the present county boards of edu- 
cation, composed of men and women interested in the 
schools and willing to do what they can is much more 



88 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



efficient in selecting textbooks than the board of supervis- 
ors could have been. Neither can there be any doubt that 
the plan secures careful and intelligent hearing of appeals 
and sympathetic cooperation in planning the work for a 
county. Yet the opportunities of this board are so limited 
and its powers so restricted that many county superintend- 
ents hesitate to call upon it unless required by law to 
do so. 

There is a real need and a real place for a permanent 
county board with definite powers and responsibilities.^® 

County Uniformity of Texthoohs. — The Twenty-third 
General Assembly enacted a law making possible county 
uniformity in textbooks. According to this law, when a 
petition, signed by one-half of the school directors of a 
county, was filed with the county superintendent of schools 
asking that a uniform series of texts be adopted, the county 
superintendent as soon as possible notified in writing the 
county auditor and the members of the county board of 
supervisors. These men, constituting the county board of 
education, met within fifteen days to provide for the sub- 
mission of the question to the electors of the county at the 
next annual meeting in March. If the proposition carried, 
the board of education proceeded to select a list of text- 
books, which when adopted was to be used for five years 
in all the schools of the county, except in independent town 
or city districts. 

Before making contracts for textbooks, the board of edu- 
cation was required to advertise for bids by publishing a 
notice in one or more newspapers. This notice was to con- 
tain a list of classes and grades of texts wanted, and the 

86 Information received from letters from school officials in thirty-one 
States and from data in questionnaires sent out in November, 1922 ; Laws of 
Iowa, 1919, Ch. 56, 1921, Ch. 175; letter written to Benj. F. Shambaugh, by 
Senator Byron W. Newberry, the author of the bill. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 89 



time up to which bids would be accepted. Publishers and 
agents were required to submit samples of all textbooks 
included in their bids, accompanied by a list of the lowest 
wholesale prices. These sample copies and the price lists 
were to remain in the office of the county auditor, accessible 
to the inspection of any one who desired to see them, and 
be transmitted to his successor in office. The county board 
was empowered to purchase and sell at the contract price, 
and to appoint agents to handle the books. Such agents or 
depositories gave bond to protect the county against loss. 
In choosing the list of textbooks the county board of edu- 
cation was to consult the county superintendent of schools, 
and be guided by his opinion. The Twenty-fifth General 
Assembly made the board rather than the presidents of the 
district boards responsible for the books, while the Twenty- 
eighth General Assembly provided that the county super- 
intendent should have charge of the books and their dis- 
tribution. The Twenty-eighth General Assembly also made 
it necessary for but one-third instead of one-half the school 
directors to sign the petition for submission of the ques- 
tion, and the Thirty-eighth General Assembly created the 
present county board of education upon whom the duties 
of the old board now fall." 

Of the ninety-nine counties in Iowa, fifty-eight have 
county uniformity under the provisions of these laws. Five 
others — Crawford, Osceola, Montgomery, Story, and 
Wapello — have uniformity secured by the following plan. 
The county superintendent secured the consent of all dis- 
trict boards to aUow the recommendation of a list of text- 
books. The county superintendent then advertised the re- 
quired length of time, and received samples and bids. "When 
the list had been selected each district entered into separ- 

87 iaws of Iowa, 1890, Ch. 24, 1894, Ch. 35, 1900, Chs. Ill, 112, 1919, 
Ch. 56. 



90 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ate contracts with the successful bidders. In these counties 
competition has remained open to all publishers. 

Several of the remaining thirty-six counties have virtual 
uniformity through agreement and have signed contracts 
wdthout the required notice and taking of bids — there be- 
ing no real opportunity for open competition. In many of 
the so-called "open counties" the list of texts is selected 
by the county board of education while in others the county 
superintendent chooses the books.*® 

The textbook question has been one of the bugbears of 
the ofiice. Many a county superintendent has lost his in- 
fluence through unfortunate circumstances connected with 
textbook adoptions. Others have seen the county board 
override their recommendations, filling the schools with 
out-of-date books. In the counties not having county uni- 
formity, unless the county superintendent is very aggres- 
sive the teachers find it hard to get pupils supplied with 
the same kind of books, to say nothing of up-to-date texts. 
The law should be changed to give the county superintend- 
ent the power to select the list and to make county uni- 
formity mandatory in each county. 

Extra-legal Activities. — In addition to the regular func- 
tions and duties the county superintendents in Iowa are 
instrumental in organizing and carrying on numerous and 
varied activities. In A Survey and Report of the County 
Superintendent and the Consolidated Schools presented at 
the consolidated school conference held at the Iowa State 
Teachers College, on December 7 and 8, 1922, County 
Superintendent H. C. Moeller of Black Hawk County in- 
dicated that there are forty-seven different activities being 
sponsored by county superintendents in Iowa at this time. 

88 Information received through personal conversation and correspondence 
with agents having contracts in "open counties", and from questionnaires 
sent to county superintendents in November, 1922. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 91 



It is obviously impossible to list each of these but among 
the most popular are health crusades, community meetings, 
athletic contests, spelling and declamatory contests, parent- 
teacher associations, Smith-Hughes work, and rural gradu- 
ation days. Some of the more recent are citizenship class- 
es for aliens, superintendents' clubs, organized work in 
tests and measures, acting as purchasing agent for rural 
and consolidated schools, standard schools, and State 
scholarships. 

In addition to these activities, almost every county super- 
intendent is making use of the Extension Division of the 
Iowa State Teachers College in securing study centers, 
credit extension classes, and the services of experts in 
making school surveys, organizing play days, and parent- 
teacher associations. 

Several other county superintendents are using the serv- 
ices of the Extension Division of the State University of 
Iowa in connection with tests and measures and school 
surveys and this work is becoming more popular each year. 
In 1921, Professor Earle L. Waterman of the Extension 
Division of the State University made a sanitary survey 
of rural school houses in Louisa County. Many more 
county superintendents would avail themselves of this 
sanitary service were it not for the almost insurmountable 
technicalities of the laws and rules governing public health 
work in Iowa. 

County superintendents are assisting the county agents 
and demonstrators in club work of various kinds under the 
auspices of the Extension Division of the State College at 
Ames. i 

There is no doubt that these extra-legal activities are 
among the most important services of the county superin- 
tendents and it is perhaps not unreasonable to prophesy 
that the time will come when many of them will be required 



92 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



by law and the county superintendent be furnished suffici- 
ent assistance to carry on the new duties/^ 

Conventions of County Superintendents. — The first con- 
vention of county superintendents in Iowa was held at 
Iowa City in September, 1858, less than six months after 
the office was organized. The Superintendent of Public 
Instruction and forty-one county superintendents were in 
attendance. Most of the time was spent in interpretation 
of the law, and the proceedings indicate that it was a valu- 
able meeting. The Board of Education, however, provided 
that their Secretary should hold a county superintendents' 
convention in each judicial district. Two years experience 
with these district conventions seems to have convinced 
Thomas H. Benton, Jr., Secretary of the Board of Educa- 
tion, that such meetings were impractical. Some scheme, 
he felt, must be devised to meet the expenses, for few 
superintendents could afford to pay their own. Neither 
did Mr. Benton like to make each county bear the expense 
because that penalized those farther away. He proposed 
that the expenses be paid by the State.®" 

The Twelfth General Assembly provided that the con- 
ventions were to be held at such points as the State Super- 
intendent might find most convenient. This provision ex- 
ists to-day. The Code of 1897 provided that the necessary 
expenses of county superintendents incurred in attending 
these called meetings was to be paid by the county. Dif- 
ferent superintendents have used various plans of dividing 
the State. During the past few years, however, they have 

89 Condensed Beport of the Extension Division (Bulletin of the Iowa State 
Teachers College, 1921-1922, Vol. XXXIII, No. 3, Pt. 2.) ; data received 
from questionnaires returned by county superintendents; information fur- 
nished by the Extension Division of the State University of Iowa. 

90 The Voice of loioa. Vol. Ill, pp. 51, 52 ; Beport of the Secretary of the 
Board of Education, 1861, pp. 10-13; Aunier's History of Education in Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 298, 299. 



THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 93 



been held usually in connection with the State Teachers' 
Association at Des Moines, the Normal Training Confer- 
ence at Cedar Falls, or at Ames."^ 

During the early years of the office several special con- 
ventions of county superintendents outside these called 
meetings were held. One such met in Cedar Rapids in 
August, 1866, one in Des Moines in April, 1869, and an- 
other in Des Moines in 1870. During the next fifteen years 
the county superintendents held what have been called lake 
conventions — State meetings held at Clear Lake, Okoboji, 
and other lake towns. "While some of these meetings did 
not occur at the same time as those of the Iowa State 
Teachers' Associations, they were in reality a part of the 
movement. 

In 1883 the new constitution of the Iowa State Teachers ' 
Association was adopted, and for the first time a county 
superintendent held the office of President of the Iowa 
State Teachers' Association, L. L. Klinefelter of Cerro 
Gordo County being thus honored. Seven county superin- 
tendents have since been elected to this office.®^ 

These sessions of the county superintendents have really 
been a power for good in the State. Those attending have 
discussed the problems, suggested reforms, and urged their 
legislative friends to take definite steps. Indeed, several 
of the best laws now upon the statute books of Iowa were 
first proposed at conventions of the county superintendents. 

The State University op Iowa Jj^Y J. SherMAN 

Iowa City Iowa 

91 It was the privilege of the writer to attend the called meeting of county 
supertatendents held in Des Moines, November 1-4, 1922. 

92iaws of Iowa, 1868, Ch. 162; Code of 1897, Sec. 2742; Iowa Normal 
Monthly, Vol. Ill; Proceedings of Iowa State Teachers' Association, 1883- 
1922 ; Iowa Instructor and School Journal, Vol. VIII, pp. 30, 31 ; Iowa School 
Journal, Vol. X, pp. 263-270, Vol. XI, pp. 216-221; Aurner's History of 
Education m Iowa, Vol. II, pp. 82, 83, 249, 396-398. 



AN UNWORKED FIELD IN MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

HISTORY^ 



The Mississippi VaUey occupies a place of transcendent 
importance in the history of the American nation, but until 
a few years ago its significance was not recognized by his- 
torians. Only occasionally did students catch a glimpse 
into that great imperial domain and the treatment they 
accorded it in their writings served only to emphasize their 
provincialism. Then came Parkman, Winsor, McMaster, 
and Roosevelt who discovered the Mississippi Valley as a 
field of research and in their writings accorded this region 
a place of fundamental importance in the history of the 
nation. The old tradition of studying and writing Ameri- 
can history from the eastern, or more strictly New Eng- 
land, point of view was discarded by these writers. The 
West was henceforth to receive more of its proportionate 
share in the study of our national development. 

It was Frederick J. Turner, however, who sounded the 
true keynote to the study of our national history. In his 
paper on The Significance of the Frontier in American 
History, read before the American Historical Association 
in 1893, Mr. Turner showed that the westward movement 
is the key to the study of American development ; that the 
great problems of the nation have grown out of the coloni- 

1 This paper was presented at the fifteenth annual meeting of the Missis- 
sippi Valley Historical Association held in Iowa City on May 11 and 12, 
1922. It is based in part on the writer's paper, The Economic History of 
American Agriculture as a Field for Study, which was published in Tlie 
Mississippi Valley Historical Beview for June, 1916. Several portions of this 
paper have been incorporated in the present study, the purpose of which is 
to define somewhat in detail the economic history of agriculture in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley as a field for research. 



94 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 95 



zation of the West; that the AVest has had a profound in- 
fluence on our whole national life; and that to study the 
West is to study the really American part of our history. 
Under the direction of this original and critical scholar, a 
new school in economic interpretation has been founded 
which is destined to revolutionize the study and writing of 
American history. 

This new school of American historians has opened up 
many important problems in the history of the Mississippi 
Valley. Some of these problems have already received 
considerable attention; others have been given only super- 
ficial consideration or else been completely ignored and 
neglected. Among the latter the economic history of agri- 
culture in the Mississippi Valley may be mentioned as a 
problem which presents an inviting field for study and 
research. 

This subject includes much more than a mere account of 
progress in the technique of agriculture. It includes a con- 
sideration of all the facts, forces, and conditions which 
have entered into the development of agriculture from the 
beginning of the first settlements to the present time. Thus 
considered, it includes a study of physiographic conditions 
— topography, soil, climate, rainfall, and drainage sys- 
tems ; Indian economy ; the migration of settlers ; the occu- 
pation of woodland and prairie country; the disposal of 
the public lands ; systems of land tenure and tenancy ; and 
the types of farming developed in each new area reached 
in the course of westward migration. It includes further 
a study of the westward movement of crop and live stock 
areas ; the introduction and popularization of labor saving 
machinery; the development of specialized farming; the 
transportation of farm products; the growth of markets; 
and the establishment of agencies for the promotion of 
scientific knowledge relating to agriculture. And finall}^, it 



96 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



includes a study of the relation of agriculture to other in- 
dustries — flour milling, meat packing, and transporta- 
tion; the problems engaging the attention of the rural 
population in the different periods — transportation, mar- 
kets, currency, banking, and taxation; the relation of the 
farmer to politics and to legislation; the relation of the 
State to agriculture; and the influence of agriculture on 
our whole national life. Thus interpreted, the economic 
history of agriculture is closely interwoven with other 
phases of Mississippi Valley history. It is a constituent 
part of the history of the entire people. To define this sub- 
ject in this way is, therefore, to direct attention not to a 
separate or distinct phase of American history but to em- 
phasize a new point of view in the study of our national 
development. 

These considerations show the broad scope of the eco- 
nomic history of agriculture in the Mississippi Valley as a 
field of research. "What then are some of the more specific 
problems inviting the attention of the historian? The 
limits of this paper will permit but a brief statement of 
these problems. 

The History of the Public Lands. — The first question in 
the agricultural history of any country or region is the 
relation of the farmer to the land. Fifty years ago there 
was little or no occasion for a careful consideration of this 
question. There was a superabundance of virgin land 
which could be had for nothing and Congress was not much 
concerned over the methods of its disposal. The rapid 
transference of this vast heritage from public to private 
owership constitutes an important chapter in American 
history. It has been involved with other public questions 
and it has been an important issue in American politics. 
The land question has now entered upon a new and com- 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 97 



plex phase. Tlie speculative spirit which has been fostered 
by a liberal land policy seems to have become an ingrained 
American characteristic. It has contributed largely to an 
inflation of land values and to the present high rate of 
tenancy. In undertaking a study of the land question under 
both public and private o"v\Tiership it should be remembered 
that the rapid disposal of the public lands is closely linked 
with the rapid growth of population, the change from ex- 
tensive to intensive farming and the increased cost of 
living. 

The History of Leading Agricultural Industries. — 
Among these studies the grain growing, live stock, and 
cotton industries may be mentioned as of special interest 
and significance. Such studies should include a consider- 
ation of soil and climate, land tenure and tenancy, labor, 
the use of improved farm machinery, transportation, mar- 
kets, and prices. The westward movement of production 
should be studied in relation to the westward movement of 
population and the accessibility of markets. The influence 
of agricultural prices on national politics and finance 
should receive careful study. The relation of these indus- 
tries to other related industries such as flour milling, meat 
packing, and textile manufacturing establishments should 
also be considered. 

Similar studies should be made of the dairy, tobacco, 
poultry, and fruit growing industries. The history of the 
range is a subject of unusual interest and importance in 
the history of the Mississippi Valley. It still remains, how- 
ever, a ''no man's land" of the historian who seems to 
have been content to leave this subject to the novelist, the 
essayist, and the poet. This is show by the fact that when 
the editors of The Chronicles of America planned for a 
volume on this subject, they were compelled to ask a novel- 

VOL. XXI — 7 



98 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ist to prepare it. The time has come for a critical study 
of the range and its relation to our whole national develop- 
ment. Among the newer agricultural industries, the sugar 
beet industry may also be mentioned. These studies sug- 
gest other agricultural industries which await the labors of 
the historian. 

The History of Agriculture in the Various States. — 
Such studies should include a consideration of economic 
geography, Indian agriculture, land policies, early settle- 
ments, relations with the Indians, pioneer farming, early 
trade routes, use of improved machinery, development of 
specialized farming, transportation, and markets. Studies 
of this kind should include, further, a consideration of the 
systems of land tenure and tenancy, size of farms, land 
values and rentals, and the laws governing the inheritance 
of farm property. Attention should also be given to the 
sources of immigration, the types of farmers, the methods 
of farming, and the social phases of farm life, including 
education, religion, amusements, and entertainments. Cur- 
rency and banking facilities, rural credit, rates of interest, 
farmers' organizations, and the relation of the farming 
population to national politics and legislation are likewise 
among the important subjects to be considered. Finally, 
the economic history of agriculture in any given State 
should include an historical and comparative study of the 
problems confronting the agricultural class. Similar studies 
may, indeed, be profitably made of larger geographic areas 
or regions like the Middle West. 

The History of the Transportation and Marketing of 
Agricultural Products. — Among studies of this kind the 
history of the grain trade may be mentioned as worthy of 
primary consideration. Grain has ahvays been the leading 
item entering into the internal commerce of the country. 



FIELDS OP MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 99 



As an article of export it attained first place after the 
Civil War, thus superseding cotton which formerly con- 
stituted the leading export product. This subject should 
include a study of the geographic distribution of grain pro- 
duction in the United States; the change in the areas of 
surplus production ; the various routes — river, lake, canal, 
and rail — by which grain has been carried to market ; the 
evolution of the leading primary grain markets ; the trans- 
portation lines connecting the primary grain markets with 
the consuming States of the East and South; the develop- 
ment of the Atlantic and Gulf ports as local distributing 
and export centers for western grain and flour ; and ocean 
steamship lines connecting these ports with the markets of 
Europe, South America, and the Far East. Attention 
should also be given to market conditions, price quotations 
and fluctuations, freight rates, terminal facilities, and 
charges for the handling of grain. Commercial agencies 
such as boards of trade and produce exchanges, their 
functions and the part they have played in the develop- 
ment of the grain trade, should be considered. 

The history of the grain trade is the history of a com- 
petitive struggle between commercial centers for the sur- 
plus grain and flour of the Middle West destined for the 
consuming States of the East and the South and for the 
countries of western Europe. It is also the history of a 
competitive struggle between the water and rail routes and 
in turn between the raU routes themselves for this traffic. 
The inadequacy of our present transportation system for 
the handling of this traffic, combined with excessively high 
freight rates, has brought the entire Middle West into 
active support of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence water- 
way project which is opposed by the commercial interests 
of Buffalo and New York City. These interests foresee in 
the construction of that route and the consequent develop- 



100 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ment of Chicago and Duluth as seaports, the destruction of 
a monopoly of the western grain traffic which they have 
held since the construction of the Erie Canal. This serves 
to illustrate the fact that the history of the grain trade of 
the United States, viewed in one way, is the history of the 
development of water, lake, canal, rail, and ocean trans- 
portation. To study the grain trade, therefore, is to study 
one of the fundamental problems in the history of the 
nation during the last one hundred years. 

Similar studies should be made of the history of the 
provision trade — live stock and animal products ; the his- 
tory of the cotton trade; the history of the tobacco trade; 
and the history of the fruit trade. These subjects all oc- 
cupy a place of fundamental importance in the history of 
the Mississippi Valley. They should, therefore, be studied 
by the historian. Moreover, such studies would furnish the 
necessary historical background for the consideration of 
present problems in the transportation and marketing of 
farm products which are engaging the attention of the 
economist and the lawmaker. 

The History of Farmers' Organizations. — Studies of 
this kind may be divided into two groups: first, the or- 
ganizations that seek to promote some special end or in- 
dustry, among which may be mentioned the farmers ' eleva- 
tor companies, the meat producers' associations, the wool 
growers' association, and the cooperative creamery asso- 
ciations ; and, second, those organizations that seek to unite 
the farmers as a class, as for example the Grange, the 
Farmers ' Alliance, and the American Farm Bureau Feder- 
ation. In this group are included also political organiza- 
tions such as the Greenback and Populist parties, which 
were principally western and to a large extent agricultural 
in origin. Such a study should include an investigation in- 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 101 



to the causes of agrarian discontent ; the origin, formation, 
and groAvth of the organization; its functions and activi- 
ties — political, economic, social, and educational ; and its 
achievements and failures. The influence of the organiza- 
tion on State and national politics should be given due 
Aveight. Studies of this kind should receive considerable 
attention in view of the recent active interest 'which has 
been developed in the various forms of farmers' organiza- 
tions — local. State, and national. They will contribute 
very materially to a proper understanding of the farmers' 
cooperative movement in this country and they will help 
to point the way to more successful and fruitful coopera- 
tion in the future. 

The History of Agricultural Education. — This subject 
offers a variety of problems for study and investigation. 
Mention should be made especially of agricultural societies 
and fairs, the agricultural press, farmers' organizations, 
the United States Department of A'griculture, the various 
State departments of agriculture, and the agricultural col- 
leges and experiment stations, including rural extension 
work, the introduction of agriculture into the high schools, 
and the recent development of the county agent work. 
These agencies have all been potent factors in the pro- 
motion of scientific knowledge relating to agriculture. They 
have contributed in no small measure to the rapid trans- 
formation of American agriculture from a primitive, pio- 
neer, largely self-sufficing type of agriculture into a modern 
business organized on a scientific, capitalistic, commercial 
basis. We are still without a satisfactory treatment of any 
of these agencies, the importance of which is now coming 
to be recognized as the nation is entering upon the period 
of intensive development. These subjects, therefore, await 
the attention of the historian. 



102 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Biographies of Leading Men Who Have Contributed 
to the Advancement of Agriculture. — Our agricultural his- 
tory is not devoid of the personal element. Reference need 
only be made to George Washington whose extensive farm- 
ing interests and activities and numerous writings on the 
subject of agriculture are sufficient to give him a prominent 
place in American history as one of the foremost agricul- 
turists of his time. Consider also the place of Eli Whitney 
and his invention of the cotton gin in the history of the 
cotton industry and of Cyrus Hall McCormick and his in- 
vention of the reaper in the history of the wheat growing 
industry; of J. B. Turner and Justin fl. Morrill in the 
movement for the establishment of colleges of agriculture 
and mechanic arts ; of Oliver Hudson Kelly in the organiza- 
tion of the Grange; of James B. Weaver in the organiza- 
tion and history of the Greenback and Populist parties ; of 
Seaman Knapp in the popularization of scientific farming 
in the southern States; of James Wilson in the extension 
and development of the activities of the United States 
Department of Agriculture; and of "Uncle Henr}^" Wal- 
lace in the promotion of scientific knowledge relating to 
agriculture. These names suggest at once a history of 
scientists, inventors, journalists, public men, and practical 
farmers who have rendered conspicuous service in the ad- 
vancement of agriculture and who therefore deserve as 
prominent places in American history as our soldiers and 
our statesmen. The economic history of agriculture is 
therefore rich in the personal element. 

The economic history of agriculture in the Mississippi 
Valley, as thus outlined, presents an inviting field for study 
and investigation. Although historians have not given this 
phase of our national life the attention and the emphasis 
which it deserves, it is encouraging to note an awakening 
interest in this direction. In evidence of this fact mention 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 103 



should first be made of the leading State historical societies 
of the Mississippi Valley. These societies are doing an 
important work in the collection and classification of the 
historical sources, many of which have a direct bearing on 
agricultural history. Several societies have made provision 
for researches in this field and a number of papers have 
been published; while two State agricultural histories are 
now in course of preparation. The departments of history 
and economics in some of the colleges and universities of 
the country have begun to direct graduate students to this 
field, as shown by the annually published lists of masters' 
and doctors' dissertations; and some good monographs 
have been published. Some of the departments of history 
are now offering courses in agricultural history. The De- 
partment of Economics and Sociology of the Carnegie In- 
stitution at Washington has promised a comprehensive 
history of .American agriculture which is to be published 
in the near future. 

Mention, should also be made of the recently formed 
Agricultural History Society which has become aflfiliated 
with the American Historical Association. This society has 
become an active agency for the promotion of scientific 
work in the economic history of agriculture, as shown by 
the topics listed on the programs of the society and the 
volume of papers which has just been published by the 
American Historical Association. Finally, reference should 
be made to the Mississippi Valley Historical Association 
which is an important agency for the encouragement of 
productive work in agricultural history. 

These activities, however, represent only the pioneer 
undertakings which will need to be supplemented by numer- 
ous studies if the economic history of agriculture in the 
Mississippi Valley is to be properly recorded. 

With the foregoing considerations in mind the reasons 



104 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



for giving special attention to this hitherto neglected phase 
of American history may be briefly stated. 

Agriculture as the Leading Orxupation. — Viewed in one 
way, the history of the United States from the beginning 
has been in very large measure the story of rural com- 
munities advancing westward by the conquest of the soil 
and developing from a state of primitive self-sufficiency in- 
to a capitalistic and highly complex agricultural organiza- 
tion. Moreover, the great majority of the American people 
have always dwelt in rural communities. The United States 
census of 1910 showed that 54.2 per cent of the entire popu- 
lation was stni classed as rural, the term rural population 
being interpreted to include towns having fewer than 2500 
inhabitants, since such towns are directly dependent on the 
surrounding farming population. An analysis of the dis- 
tribution of population over ten years of age and engaged 
in gainful occupations shows that 33.2 per cent of sucli 
persons were engaged in the occupation of agriculture, 
forestry, and animal husbandry — a larger percentage than 
was engaged in any other occupation. The United States 
census of 1920 is the first to show that the greater portion 
of the population no longer lives in rural communities. 
According to this report 48.6 per cent of the population is 
classified as rural. It is also the first census to show that 
agriculture can no longer lay claim to the largest percent- 
age of persons over ten years of age engaged in gainful 
occupations. That is to say, while 26.3 per cent of those so 
employed were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and animal 
husbandry, 30.8 per cent were engaged in manufacturing 
and mechanical industries. These facts show that agricul- 
ture has until the last few years played a larger part in the 
life of the American people than any other occupation, in- 
dustry, or profession, and that this alone is sufficient to 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 105 



give it a place of predominant importance in the study of 
our national development. 

Relation of the Economic History of Agriculture to the 
Political and Constitutional History of the United States. — 
National politics and legislation have to a large extent been 
concerned with the problems that have been evolved by a 
rapidly expanding agricultural empire. Among these prob- 
lems may be mentioned territorial acquisitions, Indian 
wars and treaties, the public lands, internal improvements 
— roads, canals, and railroads — the extension of cotton 
and slavery, banking, currency, and foreign affairs. A 
study of agricultural history shows, for example, that it 
was the demand of the southwestern farmers for the free 
and unrestricted use of the Mississippi River as an outlet 
for the surplus products and the use of New Orleans as an 
export trade center that led directly to the acquisition of 
Louisiana; that it was the interference with our agricul- 
tural export trade during the Napoleonic wars that con- 
stituted one of the principal causes of the Second War of 
Independence; that it was the grain and wool producing 
States, in support of the home market argument, that en- 
abled the protectionist forces under the leadership of Henry 
Clay to enact the high tariff of 1824; and that it was the 
contest between two opposing systems of agriculture — the 
one aristocratic, with large plantations, slave labor, and 
cotton, the other democratic with small holdings, free labor, 
and diversified farming — for the control of the West and 
for supremacy in the national government that dominated 
national politics and legislation for nearly a generation and 
finally led to the Civil War. lA-Tiile it is generally conceded 
that cotton was the economic weapon with which the South 
hoped to secure British recognition of the Confederacy, it is 
no less significant that England's imperative need of north- 



106 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ern wheat, due to the failure of the home and continental 
supplies, operated effectively to keep the British govern- 
ment officially neutral during the continuance of the 
struggle. Nor should we omit reference to the homestead 
law, enacted in 1862, the law providing for the establish- 
ment of colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, the law 
creating the United States Department of Agriculture, and 
the law providing for a huge grant of land to aid in the 
construction of the Union Pacific Eailroad. These laws 
represented a great triumph of the agricultural West in 
its demand for those agencies which were designed to pro- 
mote the interests of the farming class. 

The revolution in agriculture during the latter half of 
the nineteenth century gave rise to many problems which 
became the subject of national politics and legislation. New 
parties were formed which gave expression to agrarian de- 
mands. The Greenback and Populist parties became the 
rallying ground for the more discontented and radical 
farmers who believed that needed legislation could be se- 
cured only by inaugurating a revolt against the major 
parties and organizing new parties dedicated to the cause 
of the farmer and the laboring man ; whUe the majority of 
the farmers realized that their demands could be more 
effectively presented and secured through the major 
parties. The latter group, represented in the seventies by 
the Grangers and in our time by the Non-Partisan League 
and the American Farm Bureau Federation, remained in 
the old parties, nominated and elected candidates pledged 
to secure agrarian reforms, and incorporated their de- 
mands in the major party platforms, with the result that 
they contributed in no slight degree to the enactment of 
legislation designed to promote the interests of the farmer. 
Among these measures may be mentioned the enactment in 
1887 of the Hatch Act providing for the establishment of 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTOEY 107 



agricultural experiment stations, and in 1888 of the law 
advancing the United States Department of Agriculture to 
the rank of a cabinet office; the passage of the Interstate 
Commerce Act in 1887, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 
1890, and the Federal Keserve Act in 1913; and the more 
recent agricultural legislation which has been enacted 
largely through the influence of the American Farm 
Bureau Federation, not to mention the formation of the 
agricultural bloc in Congress and the calling of the agricul- 
tural conference in Washington. These illustrations are 
sufficient to emphasize the fact that a proper interpretation 
of politics and legislation is dependent in no small measure 
on the study of agricultural history. 

The Economic History of Agriculture as a Necessary 
Background for the Development of a Somid and Far- 
sighted Rural Economy. — Economic history bears about 
the same relation to economic science that political history 
bears to political science. The value of political history to 
the political scientist is so obvious as to require no defense. 
History is the school of experience in which political theo- 
ries are tried out and tested; and so it becomes the first 
duty of the student of government to inform himself con- 
cerning the nature and workings of political experiments 
in the past in order that he may draw upon these experi- 
ments in the formulation of theories, the soundness of 
which must in turn be tested in the school of experience. 
"I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided", said 
Patrick Henry, '*and that is the lamp of experience". To 
which he added: "I know no way of judging the future 
but by the past". The value of the historical approach to 
the study of present day problems has recently been fur- 
ther emphasized by James Harvey Robinson thus: "Cer- 
tain generally accepted historical facts, if permitted to play 



108 lOAVA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



a constant part in our thought, would automatically elimi- 
nate a very considerable portion of the gross stupidity and 
blindness which characterize our present thought and con- 
duct in public affairs and would contribute greatly to the 
remaking and expansion of the mind." 

This argument applies to the economist with quite as 
much force as it does to the political scientist. That is to 
say, the economist needs to be familiar with the economic 
life of man in the past in order to understand and appre- 
ciate the organic nature of society. He needs to be his- 
torically minded if he would deal efficiently with the prob- 
lems of the present. It goes without saying that too many 
economists are not properly trained in the historical 
method which constitutes the only safe and sane approach 
to the solution of present day problems. Too many econo- 
mists have been content to work in the realm of abstract 
theories without giving adequate attention to the teachings 
of history. As a consequence economic theories have been 
advanced which ignored the lessons of experience ; whereas, 
if these lessons had been understood and appraised at their 
proper value, proposed plans and theories for the solution 
of economic and social problems would have been inaugu- 
rated along more sane and constructive lines. The study 
of history is the only route by which this can be accom- 
plished, though it is the sort of preparation which is often 
sacrificed by students who are interested in the solution of 
present day problems. 

The great problems of rural communities are human 
rather than merely materialistic. That is to say, they are 
economic, social, and political, and they can not be under- 
stood without due attention being given to their historical 
evolution. Questions of land tenure and tenancy, markets — 
including the complex problems of distribution and ex- 
change — capitalistic agriculture, the rise of land values. 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 109 



rural credits, farmers' organizations with their economic, 
political, educational, and social functions, the rural school, 
the rural church, and good roads are only a few of the vital 
problems which should be considered from an historical 
and comparative, as well as from a purely technical, point 
of view. These problems will henceforth demand a superior 
type of statesmanship, for we are to-day passing rapidly 
through a great transition period of our history. We have 
emerged from the period of colonization, of exploitation, 
of extensive development; and we have now entered upon 
a period of intensive development. There is a greater 
need than ever for calling upon the wisdom and experience 
of the past in the Avorldng out of a sound and farsighted 
system of rural economy. We are in need of a scientific 
treatment of the economic history of agriculture in this 
country to help supply this need. 

The Economic History of Agriculture as Part of a Well 
Balanced History of the Nation. — Our history may, for 
convenience, be studied under the following heads accord- 
ing to phases of social life treated: (a) political, (b) con- 
stitutional, (c) military, (d) economic, (e) religious, (f) 
domestic, (g) history of morals, (h) history of intellectual 
life, and (i) history of the fine arts. Economic history is 
further divisable into: (a) the history of population and 
immigration, (b) the history of agriculture, (c) the history 
of manufacturing, (d) the history of mining, (e) the his- 
tory of transportation, (f) the history of domestic and 
foreign commerce, (g) the history of money and banking, 
(h) the history of the labor movement, (i) the history of 
industrial organizations, (j) the history of social legisla- 
tion, (k) the history of federal and State finance, and (1) 
the history of the tariff. We have been supplied with his- 
tories galore dealing with the political, constitutional, and 



110 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



military aspects of American development; but we have 
scarcely as yet begun to make a scientific study of the 
other phases of our national life which have just been 
mentioned. While some attention has been given to the 
study and writing of economic history this phase of our 
history has been approached more from the industrial and 
economic point of view; while the agricultural point of 
view has received hardly any consideration whatever. 
Moreover, these various divisions of our history are, strict- 
ly speaking, not divisions at all but constituent parts of our 
nation's history. They are rather phases or points of view 
in the study of human society; and no phase of the study 
can be properly understood or interpreted except in its 
relation to other phases of development. It goes without 
saying, then, that if we are to have a well balanced history 
of a nation, no little attention must be given to the study 
of our agricultural history as well as to military and 
political history. 

After all is said, however, it must be understood, as has 
already been shown, that our agricultural history is not to 
be viewed in the strict or narrow sense, but in the broad 
sense to include the whole life of the rural population, the 
conditions which have affected the progress of agriculture 
in the different periods, and the influence of agriculture 
on our whole national life — economic, political, constitu- 
tional, military, religious, intellectual, moral, and aesthetic. 
Thus defined the economic history of agriculture is a con- 
stituent part of the life of the entire people closely related 
with other phases of our national development. To define 
it in this way is to direct attention not to a separate or 
distinct phase of American history but to a new point of 
view in the study of our national development. **The 
marking out of such a field is only a fresh example of the 
division of scientific labour: it is the provisional isolation. 



FIELDS OF MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORY 111 



for the better investigation of them, of a particular gronp 
of facts and forces", in order that a true history of our 
national progress and development may finally be written. 
In this study of history the Mississippi Valley must have 
a prominent place. 

Loins Bernakd Schmidt 

The Iowa State College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 
Ames Iowa 



THE WESTWARD MOVEMENT OF THE CORN 
GROWING INDUSTRY IN THE 
UNITED STATES^ 

Corn is indigenous to America, its origin having been 
traced back to a period long before the coming of the 
white man. Ears of corn have been found in tombs of the 
earlier inhabitants in Mexico and in the countries of Cen- 
tral and South America.^ From these countries corn made 
its way north into the region now included in the United 
States where it was found by European explorers of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Columbus ssiw it 
grown in the West Indies. Numerous references to 
"Indian corn", as the white man called this new and im- 
portant grain, are found in the accounts which Spanish 
and French explorers have left us of their travels through 
the central region of North America. In short, through- 
out the vast region from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico and 
from the Atlantic Coast to the foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains, corn was grown in great abundance by the 
Indians when the European colonization of America be- 
gan.^ 

1 For a similar study of the wlieat growing industry in the United States 
see Schmidt's The Westward Movement of the Wheat Growing Industry in 
the United States in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. 
XVIII, pp. '371-395. 

" Bremer's Beport on the Cereal Production in the United States, pp. 93-95, 
in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 

3 The writer has found numerous references to Indian corn, or maize (the 
West Indian name for corn) in the accounts of the early Spanish and 
French explorers and of the later English settlers. See the index to the 
volumes of Original Narratives of Early American History, edited by John 
Franklin Jameson, Director of the Department of Historical Eesearch at 
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, under "corn" and "maize". See 

112 



THE COEN GEOWNG INDUSTEY 113 



Champlain was the first explorer to leave an account of 
its cultivation in New England.* In the narrative of his 
travels in 1605 he reported: 

We saw their Indian corn, which they raise in gardens. Plant- 
ing three or four kernels in one place, they then heap up about 
it a quantity of earth with shells of the signoe [horseshoe crab] 
before mentioned. Then three feet distant they plant as much 
more, and thus in succession. With this corn they put in each 
hUl three or four Brazilian beans, which are of different colors. 
When they grow up, they interlace with the corn, which reaches 
to the height of from five to six feet; and they keep the ground, 
very free from weeds. We saw there many squashes, and pump- 
kins, and tobacco, which they likewise cultivate. 

The Indian corn which we saw was at that time about two 
feet high, some of it as high as three. . . . They plant their corn 
in May, and gather it in September.^ 

John Smith in his Description of Virginia, published 
in 1612, gives the following very interesting account of 
corn cultivation and its preparation food by the 

Indians : 

The greatest labour they take, is in planting their corne, for 
the country naturally is overgrowne with wood. To prepare the 
ground they bruise the barke of the trees neare the roote, then 
do they scortch the roots with fire that they grow no more. The 
next yeare with a crooked peece of wood, they beat up the woodes 
by the rootes ; and in that [those] moulds, they plant their corne. 
Their manner is this. They make a hole in the earth with a 

also Thwaites's Early Western Travels, 1748-1846, Vol. XXXI, index under 
''corn". 

4 Voyages of Samuel de Cha/mplain, 1604-1618, p. 95, note 3, in Original 
Narratives of Early American, History, edited by John Franklin Jameson, 
Director of the Department of Historical Eesearch at Carnegie Institution 
of Washington. 

5 Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1618, p. 62, in Original Narra- 
tives of Early American History, edited by John Franklin Jameson, Director 
of the Department of Historical Eesearch at the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, 



VOL. XXI— 8 



114 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sticke, and into it they put 4 graines of wheat and 2 of beanes. 
These holes they make 4 foote one from another. Their women 
and children do continually keepe it with weeding, and when it 
is growne midle high, they hill it about like a hop-yard. 

In Aprill they begin to plant, but their chiefe plantation is in 
May, and so they continue till the midst of June What they 
plant in Aprill they reape in August, for May in September, for 
June in October. Every stalke of their corne commonly beareth 
two eares, some 3, seldome any 4, many but one, and some none. 
Every ear ordinarily hath betwixt 200 and 500 graines. The 
stalke being green hath a sweet juice in it, somewhat like a sugar 
Cane, which is the cause that when they gather their corne greene, 
they sucke the stalkes: for as wee gather greene pease, so doe 
they their corne being greene, which exeelleth their old. They 
plant also pease they cal Assentamens, which are the same they 
cal in Italye, Fagioli. Their Beanes are the same the Turkes 
cal Garnanses, but these they much esteeme for dainties. 

Their corne they roast in the eare greene, and bruising it in a 
morter with a Polt [thump], lappe it in rowles in the leaves of 
their corne, and so boyle it for a daintie. They also reserve that 
corne late planted that will not ripe, by roasting it in hot ashes, 
the heat thereof drying it. In winter they esteeme it being boyled 
with beans for a rare dish, they call Pausarowmena. Their old 
wheat [corn] they first steep a night in hot water, in the morn- 
ing pounding it in a morter. They use a small basket for their 
Temmes [hulls], then pound againe the great, and so separating 
by dashing their hand in the basket, receave the flower [meal] 
in a platter made of wood scraped to that forme with burning 
and shels. Tempering this flower with water, they make it either 
in cakes, covering them with ashes till they bee baked, and then 
washing them in faire water, they drie presently with their owne 
heat: or else boyle them in water eating the broth with the 
bread which they call Ponap [pone]. The grouts and peeces of 
the eornes remaining, by fanning in a Platter or in the wind 
away the branne, they boile 3 or 4 houres with water; which 
is an ordinary food they call Ustatalmmen. But some more thrif- 
ty then cleanly, doe burn the core of the eare to powder which 
they call Pungnough, mingling that in their meale; but it never 
tasted well in bread, nor broth. Their fish and flesh they boyle 



THE CORN GEOWNG INDUSTRY 115 



either very tenderly, or broyle it so long on hurdles over the fire ; 
or else after the Spanish fashion, putting it on a spit, they turne 
first the one side, then the other, til it be as drie as their jerkin 
beefe in the west Indies, that they may keepe it a month or more 
without putrifying. The broth of fish or flesh they eate as com- 
monly as the meat. 

In May also amongst their come, they plant Pumpeons, and 
a fruit like unto a muske millen, but leese and worse ; which they 
call Macocks. These increase exceedingly, and ripen in the begin- 
ning of July, and continue until September. They plant also 
Maracocks a wild fruit like a lenmion, which also increase infinite- 
ly: they begin to ripe in September and continue till the end of 
October. When all their fruits be gathered, little else they plant, 
and this is done by their women and children; neither doth this 
long suffice them : for neere 3 parts of the yeare, they only observe 
times and seasons, and live of what the Country naturally af- 
fordeth from hand to mouth, &e.'' 

The European colonists did not readily adapt tlie crops 
and methods of agriculture with which they were familiar 
at home to American conditions. Nor were they able to 
secure adequate supplies from home; while the proceeds 
of hunting offered a precarious living. Consequently, they 
were compelled to rely on Indian knowledge and methods 
of farming for an adequate supply of food. Corn, the 
chief cultivated food plant of the Indian, thus became the 
leading food product first cultivated by the white man.'^ 
The settlers obtained their first supplies of corn from the 
Indians who in turn taught them how to prepare the 
ground, plant the seed, care for the growing crop, store 

« Narratives of Early Virginia, 1606-1625, pp. 95-97, in Original Narratives 
of Early American History, edited by John Franklin Jameson, Director of 
the Department of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution of Wash- 
ington. 

^ For a list of references on Indian agriculture in America see Schmidt's 
Topical Studies and Seferences on the Economic History 'of American 
Agrioulture (MeKinley Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1919), Topic IV, 
pp. 26-28. 



116 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the ripened grain, and, finally, how to prepare it as an 
article of food. 

The settlers readily took up the cultivation of this new 
and important grain. They soon found that it was much 
easier to grow than the imported grains — wheat, rye, oats, 
and barley — wliich they had been accustomed to growing 
before they came to America. These grass-like varieties 
of grain required smooth ground free from stumps and 
stones. Such ground was not available in America during 
the colonial period since the land was heavily wooded. The 
Indians showed the settlers how to girdle the trees and 
then how to plant the corn around the stumps. The re- 
turns, considering the time and the effort, were much 
greater than those to which they had been accustomed in 
the raising of the smaller grains at home. The settlers 
soon found that they could easily grow more corn than 
was needed for their own use as an article of food or as 
a feed for live stock. Corn therefore sought an outlet, 
and a considerable export trade was developed.^ 

The farmers in the central part of the State of New 
York floated their corn down the Delaware and Susque- 
hanna rivers to Philadelphia and Baltimore on arks built 
for the purpose. The farmers in the Ohio Valley in the 
same manner floated corn down to New Orleans. From 
these cities it was carried either to the southern States or 
exported to foreign countries.® 

8 Bogart and Thompson's Headings in the Economic Histori/ of the United 
States, pp. 74-81. For a list of references on agriculture in the American 
Colonies see Schmidt's Topical Studies end Heferences on the Economic 
nistory of American Agriculture (McKinley Publisliing Company, Philadel- 
phia, 1919), Topic VI, pp. 29-31. 

9 Johnson's Eistory of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United 
States, Vol. I, pp. 203, 204, 214, 215; Tench Coxc's A View of the United 
States of America, 17S7-1794 (Philadelphia, 1794), p. 414. This gives a 
table showing the exports of corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, and other 
commodities for each of the thirteen States for the year 1791-1792. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 117 



The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 opened an 
eastern water route via the Hudson River from Buffalo 
to New York City. In the fifties the rapid development of 
railway transportation was begun. The eastern markets 
were now brought within easy reach of the Middle West, 
vnth the result that population and grain production began 
their rapid march across the continent.^" 

As population moved westward into the Mississippi 
Valley the country became differentiated into three great 
economic sections. The East, including New England and 
the Middle Atlantic States, became more and more devoted 
to manufacturing and commerce; the South to the raising 
of the staple plantation products — cotton and tobacco ; and 
the West to production of food. This economic specializa- 
tion placed the East, the South, and the West in a depend- 
ent relation to one another. The West was thus enabled 
to devote its attention more exclusively to the production 
of those conunodities for which it was best adapted. Grain 
thus constituted the leading product which this section 
contributed in rapidly increasing quantities as the live 
stock industry was developed and transportation facilities 
were expanded and improved." 

By 1840, the year of the first agricultural census, the 
corn growing industry had definitely entered the Missis- 

10 For a brief sketch of the westward movement of agriculture see Kin- 
ley's The Center of Agricultural Production in Bailey's Cyclopedia of Am- 
ericoM Agriculture, Vol. IV, 1909, pp. 119-125. See also the Twelfth Census 
of the United States, 1900, Vol. V, pp. xxxvii-xlii; Schmidt's The Westward 
Movement of the Wheat Growing Industry in the United States in The Iowa 
JoUEN.tL OF HiSTOKY AND POLITICS, Vol. XVIII, pp. 371-395; Brooks's The 
Story of Corn and the Westward Migration, 1916. The last reference gives 
a popular account. 

11 Johnson's History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce in the United 
States, Vol. I, Ch. XIV. See also Schmidt's The Internal Grain Trade of 
the United States, 1850-1860, in The Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics, Vol. XVIII, pp. 94-124. 



118 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sippi Valley. This is slio-wn by reference to Table I, giving 
the ranli of the first ten corn producing States, together 
with the number of bushels and the per cent of the entire 
crop produced by each State. Tennessee ranked first in 
corn production with 44,986,000 bushels which constituted 
12 per cent of the entire crop; Kentucky was second with 
39,847,000 bushels, or 11 per cent of the whole product; 
Virginia was third with 34,577,000 bushels, or 9 per cent 
of the entire product; Ohio was fourth with 33,668,000 
bushels, or 9 per cent of the entire crop ; Indiana was fifth 
with 28,156,000 bushels, or 7 per cent of the whole crop; 
North Carolina was sixth with 23,894,000 bushels, or 6 
per cent of the whole product; Alabama was eighth with 
20,947,000 bushels, or 6 per cent of the whole crop; 
Georgia was ninth with 20,905,000 bushels, or 6 per cent of 
the entire crop; and Missouri ranked tenth in the list with 



Table I 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1839^^ 








Pee Cent of 


Eank 


States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Crop 


1 


Tennessee 


44,986,188 


12 


2 


Kentucky 


39,847,120 


11 


3 


Virginia 


34,577,120 


9 


~ 4 


Ohio 


33,668,144 


9 


5 


Indiana 


28,155,887 


7 


6 


North Carolina 


23,893,763 


6 


7 


Illinois 


22,634,211 


6 


8 


Alabama 


20,947,004 


6 


9 


Georgia 


20,905,122 


6 


10 


Missouri 


17,332,524 


5 



12 The statistics in this table arc taken from Brewer's Bcport on the 
Cereal Production in the United States, p. 91, in the Tenth Census of the 
United States, 1880, Vol. III. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 119 



17,333,000 bushels, which represented 5 per cent of the 
nation's product. 

The ten leading corn producing States in 1839 contrib- 
uted 77 per cent of the nation's entire product. Six of 
these States were southern States — Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia — ^which 
together produced 50 per cent of the entire crop of the 
nation, while the four remaining States — Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and Missouri — ^belonged to the North Central 
group and produced 27 per cent of the nation's product. 
Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia together produced 32 
per cent of the entire crop, while Ohio and Indiana to- 
gether produced 16 per cent of the whole crop. It will be 
noted that the North Atlantic division was not represented 
in the list of the first ten, while the South Atlantic division 
was represented by three States — Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, and Georgia — which together produced 21 per cent 
of the whole crop. The remaining seven States belonging 
to the Central division, produced 56 per cent of the entire 
crop. 

The ten leading corn producing States in 1849 were 
the same as those listed by the previous census, though 
there was a significant change in the relative rank of these 
States, which shows that the corn growing industry had 
definitely begun to move into the North Central region. 
It will be seen by reference to Table II that in 1849, Ohio 
advanced from fourth to first place, while Tennessee was 
reduced from first to fifth place. Kentucky retained 
second place. Illinois rose from seventh to third place, 
while Virginia dropped from third to seventh place. Indi- 
ana advanced from fifth to fourth place. Missouri rose 
from tenth to sixth place, while North Carolina dropped 
from sixth to tenth place. Georgia rose from ninth to 



120 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 

eighth place, while Alabama dropped from eighth to ninth 
place. 

These ten States in 1849 produced 75.1 per cent of the 



Table II 



Ten Leading Cokn Producing States in 1849" 








Per Cent of 


Bank 


States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Crop 


1 


Ohio 


59,078,695 


10.0 


2 


Kentucky 


58,672,591 


9.9 


3 


Illinois 


57,646,984 


9.7 


4 


Indiana 


52,964,363 


8.D 


5 


Tennessee 


52,276,223 


8.8 


6 


Missouri 


36,214,537 


6.1 


7 


Virginia 


35,254,319 


6.0 


8 


Georgia 


30,080,099 


5.1 


9 


Alabama 


28,754,048 


4.9 


10 


North Carolina 


27,941,051 


4.7 



entire corn crop of this country. That the corn growing 
industry was rapidly moving not only westward across 
the Alleghanies into the Mississippi Valley but also north- 
westward into the North Central division is shown by the 
fact that whereas in 1839 the three Atlantic Coast States 
of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia contributed 21 
per cent of the nation's product, in 1849 they contributed 
but 15.8 per cent of the whole product; and Avhereas in 
1839 the six southern States of Virginia, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Kentucky contributed 
50 per cent of the entire corn crop, in 1849 they contrib- 
uted but 40.4 per cent of the entire crop. Finally, whereas 
the North Central States of Oliio, Indiana, Illinois, and 

13 The statistics in this table arc taken from the Twelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 81. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 121 



Missouri in 1839, contributed but 27 per cent of the entire 
corn crop of the nation, in 1849 they contributed 34.7 per 
cent of the entire product. Meanwhile the center of corn 
production had crossed the Ohio Eiver and was located at 
a point eighty-six miles east-southeast of Columbus, Ohio.^* 
The movement of the corn growing industry into the 
North Central region was further continued during the 
decade of the fifties. It will be seen by Table III, giving 
the ten leading corn producing States in 1859, that Illinois 
had now advanced from third to first place, thus displac- 
ing Ohio which was reduced to second place. Missouri 
advanced from sixth to third place, while Indiana retained 
fourth place. Kentucky dropped from second to fifth 
place and Tennessee from fifth to sixth place. Iowa now 
entered the list of the first ten as seventh. Virginia drop- 
ped from seventh to eighth place and Georgia from eighth 



Table III 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1859^^ 








Per Cent of 




States 


Bushels 


Entire Ck)RN 








Crop 


1 


Illinois 


115,174,777 


13.7 


2 


Ohio 


73,543,190 


8.8 


3 


Missouri 


72,892,157 


8.7 


4 


Indiana 


71,588,919 


8.5 


5 


Kentucky 


64,043,633 


7.6 


6 


Tennessee 


52,089,926 


6.2 


7 


Iowa 


42,410,686 


5.0 


8 


Virginia 


38,319,999 


4.6 


9 


Alabama 


33,226,282 


4.0 


10 


Georgia 


30,776,293 


3.7 



1* Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VT, p. 24. 
15 These statistics are taken from the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 81. 



122 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



to tenth, while Alabama retained ninth place, and North 
Carolina dropped out altogether. 

The ten leading corn growing States in 1859 produced 
70.8 per cent of the entire corn crop of the country. Of 
these States, the two Atlantic Coast States of Virginia 
and Georgia contributed 8.3 per cent of the entire product, 
and the five southern States of Virginia, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Tennessee, and Kentucky contributed 26.1 per cent 
of the whole product, while the five North Central States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa contributed 
44.7 per cent of the nation's product. Whereas the best 
three corn producing States in 1839 were the southern 
States of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia which to- 
gether constituted 32 per cent of the entire product, in 
1859 the first three corn producing States were the North 
Central States of Illinois, Ohio, and Missouri, which fur- 
nished 31.2 per cent of the nation's corn crop. In further 
evidence of the rapid movement westward of corn produc- 
tion it may be noted that the center of production was by 
1859 moved to a point forty-seven miles west-southwest 
of New Albany, Indiana." 

The decade of the fifties witnessed the rapid develop- 
ment of the forces which were destined after 1860 to 
transform agriculture from a primitive, pioneer, largely 
self-sufficing occupation to a modern business organized 
on a capitalistic commercial basis. This transformation 
was effected so rapidly during the period from 1860 to the 
close of the century that it may properly be designated 
as an agricultural revolution. Contributing to this revolu- 
tion were the following factors 

16 Twelfth, Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. \1, p. 24. 

17 For an extended treatment of these factors see Schmidt's Some Signifi- 
cant Aspects of the Agrarian Bevolution in the United States in The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XVIII, pp. 371-395. See also Boss's 



THE COKN GROWNG INDUSTRY 123 



1. The vast empire of virgin land, and the liberal land 
policy of the Federal government. By the passage of the 
Homestead Law of 1862, the Federal government made it 
possible for a person to locate upon 160 acres of unappro- 
priated land, to live upon the same for a period of five 
years, and at the end of that period to receive a patent 
therefor free of cost. By 1880 entries under this law 
numbered 469,782, comprising an area of 55,667,045 acres 
of the best land available for agricultural purposes." 
Under this law and various other land laws enacted during 
this period, the government disposed of 461,894,000 acres 
during the period from 1860 to 1890, with the result that 
the farming area of the country was expanded with 
remarkable rapidity .^^ 

2. The rapid growth of population and immigration. 
Population was doubled in the thirty-year period from 
1860 to 1890, increasing from 31,443,000 to 62,995,000."° 
One-third of this increase was composed of foreign immi- 
grants, considerable numbers of whom took advantage of 
the government's liberal land policy and settled on the 
virgin lands of the Middle West which were especially 
well adapted to cereal production. 

3. The introduction and popularization of improved 
labor-saving farm implements and machinery. The great 
epoch-maldng machines, which transformed farming from 
hard labor to horse and steam power, were the cast iron 
plow, the corn planter, the grain drill, the two-horse cul- 
tivator, the reaper, and the stacking machine. These in- 

The Agrarian 'Revolution in the Middle West in The North American Review, 
Vol. 190, pp. 376-391, and Eoss's Agrarian Changes in the Middle West in 
The Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XXV, pp. 625-637. 

18 Donaldson's The Public Domain, pp. 350, 355. 

19 This figure is based on tables in the Annual Report of the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office (Washington), 1860, p. 25, 1890, p. 121. 

20 Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910, Vol. I, p. 24. 



124 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ventions were all produced before 1860, but it was the 
Civil War and the consequent withdrawal of so many la- 
borers from the fields that popularized these inventions. 
The improvements made on these inventions brought them 
into more general use and the result was that larger areas 
of land were cultivated and the productivity of each unit 
of land and of labor was greatly increased. Especially 
was this true in the production of the cereals of which 
corn was the most important.^^ 

4. The extension and development of transportation 
facilities. The Mississippi River with its navigable tribu- 
taries constituted the great interior waterway for the 
transportation of the surplus products of the Middle West 
destined for consumption in the southern States and for 
export via New Orleans to the Atlantic Coast States and 
to Western Europe. The construction of the Erie Canal 
in 1825 opened up an eastern waterway — the Great Lakes- 
Erie Canal-Hudson Kiver route which hastened the 
settlement of the prairie country with the result that the 
eastern waterway soon outstripped its southern rival in 
the transportation of grain to the seaboard. Meanwhile 
railroads were extended into the Middle West. Considered 
at first merely as tributary to the waterways they soon 
became the principal means of transportation. In 1860 
there were 30,626 miles of railroad in the country dis- 
tributed about equally among the three great sections of 
the country: the East, the South, and the Middle West. 
This was practically doubled every ten years until by the 
close of the century there were 198,964 miles of railroads 
in operation.^^ This rapid development of rail transpor- 

21 Quaintance 's The Influence of Farm Machinery on Production and 
Labor in The Publications of the American Economic Association, Scries III, 
Vol. V, No. 4, November, 1904, pp. 1-103. See also Thornton's The PiCvo- 
lution by Farm Machinery in The World's Worlc, Vol. VI, pp. 3766-3779. 

22 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1902, pp. 404, 405. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 



125 



tation was accompanied by great improvements in road 
beds and rolling stock which further increased the value 
of the railroads as commercial highways for the transpor- 
tation of the surplus grain and live stock which the Middle 
AVest was able to furnish in rapidly increasing quantities 
to the consuming centers of the East, the South, and 
Western Europe. 

5. The growth of domestic and foreign markets. The 
various factors which have already been mentioned — the 
vast empire of virgin land and the liberal land policy of 
the Federal government, the rapid growth of population 
and immigration, the introduction and popularization of 
improved farm implements and marketing, and the exten- 
sion and development of transportation facilities — made 
possible that territorial division of labor among the three 
great sections of the country — the East, the South, and the 
West — upon which the growing volume of trade depended. 
While the West devoted itself to the production of grain 
and live stock, the East turned its attention more to manu- 
facturing and the South to the raising of plantation pro- 
ducts. Thus did the East and the South become increasing- 
ly dependent on the Middle West for its food products. This 
afforded a market for the growing surplus which found 
its way eastward and southward to the consuming regions, 
while Western Europe came in for a considerable share of 
this surplus which was transported in ocean steamships at 
reduced rates. As a result of this competition, the Western 
European countries — especially England — now turned their 
attention more exclusively to industry and commerce.^^ 

6. The development of agencies for the promotion of 

23 Schmidt's The Influence of Wheat and Cotton on Anglo-American 
TiClations During the Civil War in The Iowa Journal of Histoky and 
Politics, Vol. XVI, pp. 400-439. See also Schmidt's The Internal Grain 
Trade of the United States, 1860-1890, In The Iowa Journal op History 
AND Politics, Vol. XIX, pp. 196-245, 414-455, Vol. XX, pp. 70-131. 



126 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



scientific knowledge relating to agriculture. Among these 
may be mentioned the Federal and State departments of 
agriculture, the agricultural colleges and experiment sta- 
tions, including rural extension work, farmers' organiza- 
tions, and the agricultural press.^* 

These six factors combined revolutionized American 
agriculture during the latter half of the century. The 
colonization of the great agricultural empire of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley and the Pacific Coast was completed and a 
huge surplus of farm products was accumulated which 
found its way into the markets of the world. Of funda- 
mental significance in the transformation of the farming 
industry was the production of corn. This grain, however, 
differs from other cereals, especially wheat, in that wheat 
is primarily an article for human consumption, being the 
leading breadstuff of the United States and the western 
countries of Europe, while corn is primarily an article for 
animal consumption, going to market in the form of beef, 
pork, and dairy products." 

24 For a list of references on the development of the various agencies for 
the promotion of scientific knowledge relating to agriculture see Schmidt's 
Topical Studies and References on the Economic History of American Agri- 
culture (The McKinley Publishing Company, Philadelphia, 1919), Topics 
XXXI, XXXII, XXXIII. 

25 "The question has been frequently asked. What is the necessary con- 
sumption of maize per capita in the United States? No fixed quantity can 
be designated as a necessity in the whole country, or in a particular State. 
It depends not only upon the numbers of people, but upon the farm animals 
to be fed and fattened, and the comparative quantity and price of hay and 
forage, and all substitutes for corn which may be used in larger proportion 
in a season of scarcity. The West, under existing circumstances, can con- 
sume 55 bushels for each unit of population, ship 30, and have 5 as a 
surplus; or with 800,000,000 instead of 1,200,000,000 bushels, it can, by 
economy and substitution, make 40 bushels answer, and ship 20, the in- 
creased price naturallj' reducing both consumption and exportation. A re- 
duction of over 500,000,000 in a single year has had this effect: It has 
increased the price more than 50 per cent, and advanced the average price 
of swine, sold for packing, to 31 per cent.; the actual average of 1881- '82. 
It increased the cost of beeves, but not in that proportion, as they are the 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 



127 



With the foregoing factors in mind, attention will now 
be given to a comparative study of the ten leading corn 
growing States at the various census periods from 1870 to 
1910. 

It will be seen by reference to Table TV that in 1869 
Illinois retained first place, Ohio dropped from second to 
third place, while Iowa advanced from seventh to second 
place. Missouri dropped from third to fourth place, Indi- 
ana from fourth to fifth place, Kentucky from fifth to sixth 
place, and Tennessee from sixth to seventh place. Penn- 
sylvania entered the list as eighth thus taking the place 
of Virginia, which now dropped out altogether. Texas 
entered the list as ninth, thus taking the place of Alabama 
which was reduced to tenth place, while Georgia which had 
occupied tenth place dropped out altogether. 

The ten leading corn producing States in 1869 produced 
72 per cent of the entire crop of the nation. The North 
Atlantic division, was now represented in the list of the 
first ten by the single State of Pennsylvania which contrib- 
uted 4.6 per cent of the entire crop. The South Atlantic 

growth of three or four years, and not of a single season, and the product 
of grass rather than corn. But when, during the planting season of 1882, 
there was prospect of another faUure, a panic seized the beef market, and 
the advance was temporarily 30 per cent, additional. 

"The comparison of production of corn by States, according to the popu- 
lation in June, 1880, and the crop of the preceding calendar year, gives 
precedence to Iowa as the first in rank, with 169.3 bushels to each inhabi- 
tant. Nebraska claims the second place, with 144.7 bushels, Kansas has 106.1 
bushels, and Illinois 105.9 bushels. The State first in actual quantity is 
therefore fourth in per capita standing. There are but nine States that 
have more than 30 bushels per head. The fifth in rank, Missouri, has 93.4 
bushels; sixth, Indiana, 58.4; seventh, Kentucky, 44.2; eighth, Tennessee, 
40.7; ninth, Ohio, 34.9. New England, New York, New Jersey, the Pacific 
coast and the Territories, exclusive of Dakota, have each less than 10 
bushels per head." — Beport of the Commissioner of Agriculture (United 
States), 1881-1882, p. 583. See also Beport on the Internal Commerce of 
the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1879, Ap- 
pendix, pp. 174-176, 183-185. 



128 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Table IV 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1869^® 








Per Cent of 


Bank 


States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Crop 


1 


Illinois 


129,921,395 


17.1 


2 


Iowa 


68,935,065 


9.1 


3 


Ohio 


67,501,144 


8.9 


4 


Missouri 


66,034,075 


8.7 


5 


Indiana 


51,094,538 


6.7 


6 


Kentucky 


50,091,006 


6.6 


7 


Tennessee 


41,343,614 


5.4 


8 


Pennsylvania 


34,702,006 


4.6 


9 


Texas 


20,554,538 


2.7 


10 


North Carolina 


18,454,215 


2.4 



division, it will be noted, was now represented by but one 
State — North Carolina — in the list of the first ten. The 
South Central division was represented by the three States 
of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Texas which contributed 14.7 
per cent of the whole product. The North Central division 
was represented by the five States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri which contributed 50.5 per cent 
of the nation's product. The two North Central States of 
Illinois and Iowa which ranked first and second respec- 
tively contributed 26.2 per cent, or a little more than one- 
fourth of the entire product. The center of corn produc- 
tion in 1869 was located at a point ninety miles southwest 
of Indianapolis, Indiana.^^ 

The next decade witnessed a further movement of the 
corn growing industry into the North Central region due 
to the operation of the forces already mentioned. No less 

28 These statistics are taken from the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 81. 

27 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 24. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 129 



significant was the rapid expansion in the volume of pro- 
duction. It will be seen by Table V showing the ten lead- 
ing corn producing States in 1879 that Illinois and Iowa 
still continued to hold first and second place respectively. 
Missouri advanced from fourth to third place, while Ohio 
was reduced from third to fifth place. Indiana advanced 
from fifth to fourth place. Kansas entered the list as sixth 
and Kentucky dropped from sixth to seventh place. Neb- 
raska entered the list as eighth and Tennessee dropped 
from seventh to ninth place. Pennsylvania dropped from 
eighth to tenth place. North Carolina which in 1869 held 



Table V 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1879^^ 








Pee Cent of 


Bank 


States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Crop 


1 


Illinois 


325,792,481 


18.6 


2 


Iowa 


275,014,247 


15.7 


3 


Missouri 


202,414,413 


11.5 


4 


Indiana 


115,482,300 


6.6 


5 


Ohio 


111,877,124 


6.4 


6 


Kansas 


105,729,325 


6.0 


7 


Kentucky 


72,852,263 


4.2 


8 


Nebraska 


65,450,135 


3.7 


9 


Tennessee 


62,764,429 


3.6 


10 


Pennsylvania 


45,821,531 


2.6 



tenth place was dropped out altogether, while Texas which 
entered the list as ninth in 1869 dropped out again. 

The ten leading corn producing States in 1879 contrib- 
uted 78.9 per cent of the entire corn crop of the nation. 
Pennsylvania, the only North Atlantic State listed in the 

28 These statistic^ are taken from the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 80. 

VOL. XXI — 9 



130 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



first ten, contributed but 2.6 per cent of the entire crop 
and the two South Central States of Kentucky and Tenn- 
essee contributed but 7.8 per cent of the entire product; 
while the seven North Central States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska contrib- 
uted 68.5 per cent or nearly three-fourths of the entire 
corn crop of the nation. The center of corn production 
was now located at a point thirty-six miles southeast of 
Springfield, Illinois.^® 

The distribution of corn production in the United States 
according to the census of 1880 may be further defined 
as follows: 

1. As to latitude. Approximately 20.2 per cent of the 
corn crop of the nation was produced between the fortieth 
and forty-first parallels of latitude, while 54.8 per cent 
was produced between the thirty-ninth and forty-second 
parallels of latitude. The remaining 45.2 per cent fell off 
on either side of this belt, more gradually, however, to the 
South. 

2. According to topographical divisions. Forty-one per 
cent was produced in the "prairie region", while about 75 
per cent was produced in the prairie region together 
with the divisions marked as the "Mississippi river belt, 
north", the "southwest central" region, and the "central 
and the Missouri river belt". 

3. According to drainage basins. The Mississippi basin 
produced 83.4 per cent of the crop, while the Ohio basin 
produced 22.5 per cent of the entire crop. 

4. According to elevation. Some 54 per cent of the 
entire crop was produced at an elevation of between 500 
and 1000 feet above sea level ; 83 per cent between 500 and 

29 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 24. 



THE COEN GROWNG INDUSTRY 131 



1500 feet; while but 44 per cent was grown above 1500 
feet and about 12 per cent below 500 feet.^" 

These facts in the westward movement of corn produc- 
tion in the United States show that the conditions most 
favorable for large corn production are a summer season 
of at least five months without frost, sufficient moisture 
during the growing period, but not too much, hot weather 
during this period, with cool weather following to act as 
a check upon the leaf and stalk growth, causing the plant 
to expend its strength in seed development, somewhat as 
the pruning of an apple tree causes the tree to produce 
more fruit instead of leaves.^^ These conditions made 
possible the cultivation of large areas of corn with the 
least expenditure of hard labor in the seven North Central 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, 
and Nebraska, which by 1880 had become the greatest corn 
belt in the world. 

The corn growing industry in the United States is close- 
ly related to the production of live stock. These two lines 
of production are so interrelated and interdependent that 
any consideration of the one involves also a consideration 
of the other. Both lines of production had by 1880 largely 
become centered in the North Central States which hence- 
forth constituted the great surplus grain and live stock 
producing area of the country. The relationship between 
grain growing and live stock production is thus described 
by W. H. Brewer in his Report on the Cereal Production 
of the United States: 

First, in this country there is less hand-tillage for a given 

30 Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 
62-64, in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 

31 Smith 's Industrial and Commercial Geography, pp. 82-98 ; Blodgett 's 
Belations of Population and Food Products in the United States (United 
States Department of Agriculture, Division of Statistics, Bulletin No. 24), 
p. 21. 



132 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



amount of production than in any other in the world. Its place 
is supplied by animal power, and animals furnish all the power 
used directly in our agriculture, except steam for thrashing. 
Steam-plowing in the United States has not been successful, at 
least to the extent of producing any impression whatever upon 
the whole agriculture of the country. All the plowing, most of 
the tillage, a large proportion of the reaping, and a considerable 
proportion of the thrashing is performed by animals. A larger 
proportion of each of these is done by animal power than is 
done in the agriculture of any other country. In this respect, 
then, our great cereal production is immediately dependent upon 
the production of animals. This is so apparent that it needs no 
discussion; we will only say, in passing, that horses have per- 
formed the larger part of this work as compared with cattle. 
"Writers in the last century, and in the very early part of this, 
regret that in the United States horse-power is used so exclusively 
on farms in the place of oxen, it being claimed that oxen were 
the most economical. This preference for horse-power, however, 
led to the use of lighter machinery and greater rapidity in the 
performance of farming operations. Thirty years ago numerous 
writers expressed the belief that the extension of railroads would 
be detrimental to horse production in the agricultural regions of 
the United States. It is, however, an interesting fact that, with 
the introduction of railroads, has come an increase in horse pro- 
duction. The diminution of the use of horses in staging has been 
much more than met by their increased use on the farm and 
for the transportation that is incidental to railroads. 

In the second place, by the production of animals on grain 
farms, a greater variety of crops may be grown with profit, and 
there is a better utilization of waste material. In the older states 
the straw forms an important element of forage for the produc- 
tion of beef and wool. The unmarketable portion of the grain 
crop, the soft corn, the screenings from other grains, are utilized 
in the production of animal products. This is so evident that it 
is only under the most favorable circumstances that the grain- 
grower can afford to throw away the refuse and rely for his 
profits merely upon the grain produced. 

In the third place, and intimately related to the last, is the 
production of manure on the farm. This assumes especial import- 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 133 



ance in a variety of ways. Grain-growing cannot be carried on 
indefinitely without manuring except under those rare conditions 
where the land receives a supply of fertilizing elements from 
water, either by artificial irrigation or by natural overflows. The 
agriculture of any country, to be permanently prosperous, is prac- 
tically founded on its system of manuring. The difference between 
the continued fertility and increasing production of the countries 
of northern Europe, of England, of Holland, of Belgium, and of 
similar countries, where much live-stock is grown, and the ex- 
hausted fertility of the countries lying about the Mediterranean, 
is due to the difference in the methods of farming and of manur- 
ing. In the one ease, animals are grown, and the manure which 
they produce has tended to keep up the fertility of the soil ; 
in the other, which is essentially an agriculture without domestic 
animals, hand-tillage taking the place of animal-tillage so fai' 
as is possible, crops are carried from the soil, and regions that 
once produced their hundred-fold now scarcely produce five-fold. 
The competition with the new western states, with their rich 
virgin soils, however severe, cannot and does not entirely kill 
grain-growing in the less favored regions of the East, largely 
because of the greater proportion in which the grain refuse is 
utilized in the East by feeding and in the use of the manures so 
produced. . . . 

In the fourth place, American grain production, especially that 
of corn, is intimately related to meat production, and this phase 
of the question, although very old, is just now attracting renewed 
and very great attention. As early as the middle of the last 
century, and probably earlier, it was the custom to feed animals 
on corn in New York and in the New England states and ship 
them to the West India Islands. But it is only since the modern 
methods of the transportation of live and dead meat have been 
devised that American animal production has assumed the enor- 
mous commercial importance that it now has. The American 
meat product and hog product is most intimately connected with 
our corn production. It is safe to say that 90 per cent, of the 
hog production of the West is fattened on Indian corn, and pork, 
lard, beef, etc., are the concentrated product for transportation.^^ 

32 Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 151, 
in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 



134 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



By 1880 a great cereal and live stock kingdom had been 
founded in the North Central region of the United States, 
upon which the East and the South and the countries of 
Western Europe had to a large extent become dependent. 
These considerations help to explain the rapidity with 
which these two lines of production marched westward in 
the conquest of the great agricultural empire of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. This movement is further shown by a 
study of the ten leading corn producing States for the 
three census periods from 1880 to 1910, inclusive. 

The decade of the eighties witnessed a further shifting 
of the area of corn production in the North Central region, 
especially into the West North Central section. It will be 
seen by Table VI showing the ten leading corn producing 
States in 1889 that Iowa had now advanced to first place, 
thus superseding Illinois which had dropped to second 
place. Kansas advanced from sixth to third place and 



Table VI 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1889" 








Per Cent of 




States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Crop 


1 


Iowa 


313,130,782 


14.8 


2 


Illinois 


280,697,256 


13.7 


3 


Kansas 


259,574,568 


12.2 


4 


Nebraska 


215,895,996 


10.2 


5 


Missouri 


196,999,016 


9.3 


6 


Ohio 


113,892.318 


5.4 


7 


Indiana 


108,843,094 


5.1 


8 


Kentucky 


78,434,847 


3.7 


n 


Texas 


69,112,150 


3.3 


10 


Tennessee 


63,635,350 


3.0 



33 These statistics arc taken from the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. SO. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 135 



Nebraska advanced from eighth to fourth place, while 
Missouri dropped from third to fifth place, Ohio from fifth 
to sixth place, Indiana from fourth to seventh place, and 
Kentucky from seventh to eighth place. Texas which had 
entered the list of the ten leading corn producing States 
in 1869 and then dropped out in 1879 now reentered the 
list as the ninth State. Tennessee dropped from ninth to 
tenth place, while Pennsylvania dropped out altogether. 

The ten leading corn producing States in 1889 produced 
80.7 per cent of the entire corn crop of the nation. The 
South Central States of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Texas 
produced 10 per cent of the crop. The East South Central 
States of Kentucky and Tennessee produced 6.7 per cent 
of the crop, while Texas produced 3.3 per cent. The seven 
North Central States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, 
Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska, properly designated as 
"the corn belt States", contributed 70.7 per cent of the 
entire crop. Whereas the three East North Central States 
in 1879 produced 31.6 per cent of the entire crop, in 1889 
the percentage contributed by these States was reduced to 
24.2 per cent, while the four West North Central States 
which in 1879 produced 36.9 per cent of the entire crop now 
contributed 46.5 per cent of the total product. The center 
of corn production had meanwhile moved to a point fifty- 
five miles southwest of Springfield, Illinois.^* 

The westward movement of corn production in the 
United States was checked in the nineties. This is shown 
by Table VII giving the ten leading corn growing States 
in 1899. The list of States composing this list was the 
same as it was in 1889 with but one exception. Tennessee 
now dropped out altogether while Oklahoma was added. 
Nor were there any important changes in the relative 

2* Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 24. 



136 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ranking of these States. Illinois forged ahead again from 
second to first place, the position which this State had 



Table VII 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1899^^ 








Per Cent of 




States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Chop 


1 


Illinois 


398,149,140 


14.9 


2 


Iowa 


383,453,190 


14.4 


3 


Kansas 


229,937,430 


8.6 


4 


Nebraska 


210,974,740 


7.9 


5 


Missouri 


208,844,870 


7.8 


6 


Indiana 


178,967,070 


6.7 


7 


Ohio 


152,055,390 


5.7 


8 


Texas 


109,970,350 


4.1 


9 


Kentucky 


73,974,220 


2.8 


10 


Oklahoma 


68,949,300 


2.6 



held in 1859, 1869, and 1879, while Iowa was reduced from 
first to second place, the rank held by this State in 1869 
and 1879. Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri attained third, 
fourth, and fifth place respectively. Indiana advanced 
from seventh to sixth place, thus superseding Ohio which 
was now reduced to seventh place. Texas advanced from 
ninth to eighth place, thus superseding Kentucky which 
was reduced to ninth place. Oklahoma now entered the 
list as the tenth State, thus superseding Tennessee which, 
as already stated, dropped out of the list altogether. 

The ten leading corn producing States in 1899 contrib- 
uted 75.5 per cent of the entire corn crop of the nation. 
This was 5.2 per cent less than the proportion contributed 
by these States in 1889. The three South Central States 
of Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas contributed 9.5 per 

35 These statistics are taken from the Thirteenth Census of the United 
States, 1910, Vol. V, pp. 582, 583. Oklahoma includes Indian Territory. 



THE CORN GEOWNG INDUSTEY 137 



cent of the entire crop, while the seven North Central 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, 
and Nebraska contributed 66 per cent of the entire crop. 
This was 4.7 per cent less than the proportion contributed 
by these States in 1889. The three East North Central 
States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois produced 27.3 per 
cent of the entire crop, which represented 3.1 per cent 
more than the proportion which they contributed in 1889, 
while the four West North Central States of Iowa, 
Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska produced 38.7 per cent of 
the entire crop, which represented 7.8 per cent less than 
the proportion which they contributed in 1889. The de- 
crease in the percentage of corn produced by the "West 
North Central States in 1899 was due to the partial failure 
of the corn crop in the States of Iowa, Missouri, and 
Kansas, which in turn explains in part the fact that the 
center of corn production remained practically stationary, 
being located at a point fifty-four miles southwest of 
Springfield, Illinois, which was one mile east of the loca- 
tion of this point in 1889.®® 

During the fifty year period from 1849 to 1899 the 
center of corn production had moved north from 39° 14' 
54" to 39° 19' 33" north latitude— a difference of 4' 39" 
which amounted to a distance of five miles, while the 
center of production had moved westward 81° 43' 38" to 
90" 27' and 6" west longitude— a difference of 8° 43' 28" 
which amounted to a distance of practically 480 miles.®^ 
It will, therefore, be seen that the center of production 
had moved almost directly westward to a point near the 
Mississippi River not far from the geographic center of 
the great agricultural empire of the Mississippi Valley. 

The center of corn production had become practically 

86 Twelfth Census of the Urdted States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 24. 
37 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 24. 



138 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



fixed by the close of the century. This is shown by Table 
VIII giving the ten leading corn growing States in 1909, 
It will be noted that the States comprising the list of the 
first ten were the same as at the previous census period, 
though there were several significant changes in the rela- 
tive importance of these States. Illinois and Iowa still 
held first and second places respectively, while Indiana 



Table VIII 



Ten Leading Corn Producing States in 1909^* 








Per Cent of 


Bank 


States 


Bushels 


Entire Corn 








Cfeop 


1 


Illinois 


390,218,676 


15.3 


2 


Iowa 


341,750,460 


13.4 


3 


Indiana 


195,496,433 


7.7 


4 


Missouii 


191,427,087 


7.5 


5 


Nebraska 


180,132,807 


7.1 


6 


Ohio 


157,513,300 


6.2 


7 


Kansas 


154,657,103 


6.1 


8 


Oklahoma 


94,283,407 


3.7 


9 


Kentucky 


83,348,024 


3.3 


10 


Texas 


75,498,695 


3.0 



advanced from sixth to third place thus superseding Kan- 
sas which dropped to seventh place. Missouri advanced 
from fifth to fourth place, while Nebraska dropped from 
fourth to fifth place. Ohio advanced from seventh to sixth 
place. Kansas as already noted dropped from third to 
seventh place, while Oklahoma advanced from tenth to 
eighth place. Kentucky retained ninth place. Texas drop- 
ped from eighth to tenth place. 

The ten leading corn growing States in 1909 constituted 

38 These statistics are taken from the Thirteenth Census of the United 
States, 1910, Vol. V, pp. 582, 583. 



THE CORN GROWNG INDUSTRY 139 



73.3 per cent of the nation's entire product. This was 
2.2 per cent less than the proportion contributed by these 
States in 1899. The three South Central States of Ken- 
tucky, Oklahoma, and Texas contributed 10 per cent of the 
entire crop, or one-half of one per cent more than the 
percentage which they produced in 1899. The seven North 
Central States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Kansas, and Nebraska contributed 63.3 per cent of the 
entire crop, or 2,7 per cent less than the proportion which 
they contributed in 1899, The three East North Central 
States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois furnished 34.1 per 
cent of the entire crop. The three East North Central 
States, therefore, constituted 1.9 per cent more of the 
total corn crop of the nation in 1909 than in 1899, while 
the four "West North Central States contributed 4.6 per 
cent less than the proportion which they furnished at the 
previous census period. 

The westward movement of corn production in the 
United States during the half century from 1859 to 1909 
is further explained by the fact that whereas the West 
North Central States in 1859 contributed but 14.9 per cent 
of the entire crop of the nation, in 1909 these States con- 
tributed 39 per cent of the entire product; and whereas 
the West South Central States in 1859 contributed but 6.1 
per cent of the whole crop, in 1909 these States contributed 
9.1 per cent of the entire product. The New England, 
Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, and East South Central 
divisions, on the other hand, each showed a substantial 
decline in their share of the total production of corn in 
1909 as compared with 1859, while the East North Central 
division remained practically unchanged for it contributed 
about one-third of the entire product at each census 
period.^^ 

39 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 81; Thirteenth 
Census of the United States, 1910, Vol. V, pp. 582, 583. 



140 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Finally, the geographic distribution of corn production 
in 1909 is shown by Table IX, giving the total volume of 
production and the per cent of the entire product contrib- 
uted by each of the several divisions of the country. This 
shows that the West North Central States ranked first with 
996,359,000 bushels, or 39 per cent of the entire product. 
The East North Central section ranked second with 
845,298,000 bushels, or 33.1 per cent of the entire product. 
The West South Central States ranked third with 233,402,- 
000 bushels, or 9.1 per cent of the entire crop. The East 
South Central States ranked fourth with 210,155,000 
bushels, or 8.2 per cent of the entire product. The South 
Atlantic States ranked fifth with 179,512,000 bushels, or 
7 per cent of the whole product. The Middle Atlantic 
States ranked sixth with 69,611,000 bushels, or 2.7 per cent 
of the entire crop. The New England States ranked sev- 
enth with 8,239,000 bushels or 0.5 per cent of the entire 



Table IX 



Geographic Distribution of Corn Production in the 


United 


States in 1909*° 




Division 


Bushels 


Per Cent of the 
Entire Crop 


New England 


8,238,394 


0.5 


Middle Atlantic 


69,610,602 


2.7 


East North Central 


845,298,285 


33.1 


West North Central 


996,358,997 


39.0 


South Atlantic 


179,511,702 


7.0 


East South Central 


210,154,917 


8.2 


West South Central 


233,402,007 


9.1 


Mountain 


7,326,043 


0.3 


Pacific 


2,288,683 


0.1 


United States 


2,552,189,630 


100. 



40 These statistics are taken from the Thirteenth Census of the United 
States, 1910, Vol. V, pp. 582, 583. 



THE CORN GROWING INDUSTRY 141 



crop. The Mountain States ranked eighth with 7,326,000 
bushels, or 0.3 per cent of the entire crop. The Pacific 
States ranked ninth with 2,289,000 bushels, or 0.1 per cent 
of the entire product. 

Further analysis of the returns for 1909 shows that the 
two North Central sections together contributed 1,841,657,- 
000 bushels which represented 72.1 per cent of the entire 
corn crop of the nation, while the Southern Central sec- 
tions together contributed 443,557,000 bushels which repre- 
sented 17.3 per cent of the entire product. The North and 
South Central divisions together known as the Central 
division contributed about 2,285,214,000 bushels, which rep- 
resented 89.4 per cent of the entire corn crop of the nation. 
Of the remaining 10.6 per cent, the Atlantic Coast States 
contributed 10.2 per cent, while the Mountain and Pacific 
States contributed only four-tenths of one per cent. The 
Central division had thus become a great corn kingdom 
furnishing the huge volume of food required for the live 
stock, dairy, and poultry industries which were developed 
in this region, not to mention the growing surplus which 
found its way to the markets of the East and the countries 
of Europe, which since 1850 had become, to an ever in- 
creasing extent, dependent upon the great agricultural 
empire of the Mississippi Valley for the cereals and animal 
products which were required to fill the deficits in the 
home supplies. 

Louis Bernaed Schmidt 

The Iowa State College op 
Ageiculture and Mechanic Aets 
Ames Iowa 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 

The Bozeman Trail. By Grace Eaymond Hebard and E. A. 
Brininstool. Cleveland : Arthur H. Clark Co. 1922. Vol. I, pp. 
346, Vol. II, pp. 306. Maps, plates. No part of the conquest of 
the North American continent is more full of interest than the 
extension of the government and civilization of the United States 
over the far West. These two volumes on the Bozeman Trail con- 
tain a fund of information on the struggle with the Indians of 
the Northwest, the efforts of detachments of American soldiers to 
safeguard the immigrants and the traders as they passed west- 
ward along the Platte River and across the divide, the building of 
the frontier posts and settlements, and the picturesque and danger- 
ous careers of some of the guides and traders who knew this great 
thoroughfare perhaps even better than most people know their 
country roads or city streets. 

Among the subjects given a place in these volumes are the fol- 
lowing : the Great Medicine Road of the Whites — the trail along 
the Platte River and across the divide; overland stage and tele- 
graph lines; Fort Laramie; fighting the Indians along the Platte 
River; Fort Caspar; the Powder River Indian expedition; the 
Bozeman Trail ; Fort Phil Kearney — ' ' The Hated Fort on the 
Little Piney"; the Fetterman disaster; the "Wagon Box Fight"; 
reminiscences of Fort Reno; Fort C. F. Smith; Red Cloud; and 
Jim Bridger. 

Numerous illustrations, pictures, portraits, and maps add much 
to the value of the volumes which are attractively printed and 
bound. There are footnotes and an index to both volumes is pro- 
vided in the second volume. 

The Land of the Miamis. By Elmore Barce. Fowler, Indiana: 
The Benton Review Shop. 1922. Pp. 422. Plates, maps. Al- 
though the title of the volume suggests Indian history, this is in 
reality a history of the Old Northwest down to William Henry 

142 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



143 



Harrison's victory at Tippecanoe, especially of the straggle of the 
pioneers for this territory against the Indians and the English. 
Written in a popular and readable style, the volume contains a 
great deal of valuable material on Indian life, the struggle be- 
tween the Indians and the advancing frontiersmen, and the Eng- 
lish influence on the Indians, as the following chapter headings 
indicate: Wliat the Virginians Gave Us; The Beaver Trade; The 
Prairie and the Buffalo; The Wabash and the Maumee; The 
Tribes of the Northwest; Real Savages; Our Indian Policy; The 
Kentuckians; The British Policies; Josiah Harmar; Scott and 
Wilkinson; St. Clair's Defeat; Wayne and Fallen Timbers; The 
Treaty of Greenville; Governor Harrison and the Treaty; The 
Shawnee Brothers; Prophet's Town; Harrison's Vigilance; The 
Council at Vincennes; and The Battle of Tippecanoe. 

There are no reference notes, though a bibliography is provided. 
It is rather surprising to note that such a reference as English's 
Th& Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio is 
omitted from the list. An index is also supplied. 



The article on Anthropology of the Old Americans, by Ales 
Hrdlicka, is continued in the American Journal of Physical An- 
thropology for July-September, 1922. 

Progressive Tendencies of State History Teaching, by Harry L. 
Haun, and The Present Status of State History Teaching in the 
Elementary Grades, by the same author, are two of the papers in 
The Historical Outlook for December, 1922. 

The Courts of the Southwest, by C. Perry Patterson, and The 
Oklahoma Legislature, by M. H. Merrill, are two of the papers in 
The Southwestern Political Science Quarterly for September, 1922. 

Contributions to Hopi History, by Franlc Hamilton Cushing, 
J. Walter Fewkes, and Elsie Clewes Parsons, and The Medicine 
Wheel, by George Bird Grinnell, are two of the articles in the 
American Anthropologist for July-September, 1922. 

The Tariff Act of 1922, by F. W. Taussig, Tlve Textile Schedules 



144 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



in the Tariff of 1922, by Arthur H. Cole, and Communism Among 
the Mormons, by Hamilton Gardner, are three of the articles in the 
November, 1922, number of The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 

America's Race Heritage, by Clinton Stoddard Burr, is a study 
of the various racial groups in the United States and the present 
problems of racial antagonism, immigration, and Americanization. 
There are, in addition, a large number of footnotes, some valuable 
statistics, and an index. 

Bulletin seventy-six of the Bureau of American Ethnology con- 
tains reports of archeological investigations by Gerard Fowke 
under the following titles : Cave Explorations in the Ozark Region 
of Central Missouri; Cave Explorations in Other States; Explora- 
tions Along the Missouri River Bluffs in Kansas and Nehraska; 
Aboriginal House Mounds; and Archaelogical Work in Hawaii. 

The Year-Book of the Swedish Historical Society of America 
for 1921-1922, contains a paper by Andrew Holt on Characteristics 
of the Early Swedish Settlers in Minnesota, George M. Stephenson 
writes Some Footnotes to the History of Swedish Immigration 
from about 1855 to about 1865, and there are some Typical 
"America Letters", relating to llinnesota and Iowa, with the 
English translations. 

Among the articles in The Journal of American History for 
April-June, 1922, are the following: Hudson County, New Jersey, 
and the Old Village of Bergen; The Man Who Saved Blinois from 
Slavery, by J. Stephen Bloore; and Some Early Banks and New 
York Politics — a chapter in the series A History of Banks and 
Banking and of Banks and Banking in the City of New York, by 
Prank Allaben and W. Harrison Bayles. 

Katharine Stanley Nicholson is the author of a volume on His- 
toric American Trees, recently published by the Frye Publishing 
Company, which contains short sketches of a large number of 
noted American trees. Unfortunately for the historical student, 
there is no index in the volume and no list of the trees described 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



145 



so that there is great diiSculty in finding the description of a 
particular tree. 

Two of the articles in the issue of The South Atlantic Quarterly 
for October, 1922, are Cooperative Production and the Economics 
of Agriculture, by S. D. Cromer and Bryce Edwards, and The 
Election of 1876 in South Carolina, by Francis B. Simpkins.. 

The Story of the Planters, by Frank A. Gardner, Indian Descent 
in New England, by Nathan E. Truman, Motoring to Three 
Manors, by Helen Hamilton Stockton, Negro Slavery in New Jer- 
sey and New York, by William Stuart, and Butch Buildings, Cus- 
toms, Habits, Etc., by W. W. Scott, are papers and articles in 
Americana for October, 1922, 

In addition to the proceedings and various reports, four papers 
appear in the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 
for October, 1921. These are the following : The Fortunate Island 
of Monhegan, by Charles Francis Jenney; The Making of the 
Republic of Vermont, by James Benjamin Wilbur; Oaths of 
Allegiance in Colonial New England, by Charles Evans; and A 
New American Constitution, by William MacDonald. 

The Cowboy: His Characteristics, His Equipment, and His Part 
in the Development of the West, by Philip Ashton Rollins, is one 
of the new books which presents an intimate and vivid picture of 
life in the area where the chief industry was the raising of cattle 
and horses on the open range. The great cattle industry, with its 
cowboys, herds of cattle, and its round-ups, had in it a large 
element of the picturesque and romantic — very different from the 
commonplace farming of the regions to the east and a first-hand 
study of its problems and its contributions to the history of the 
western part of the United States is of historical importance. 

A series of six volumes dealing with the work of the Red Cross 
during the World War has recently been published by the Mae- 
miUan Company. Three of these — The American Red Cross in 
the Great Wa/r, by Henry P. Davison, The Passing Legions, by 
George Buchanan Fife, and With the Doughboy in France, by 



VOL. XXI — 10 



146 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Edward Hungerford — deal with the activities of the Red Cross 
in America or with American troops. Three othei^s — The Story 
of the American Red Cross in Italy, by Charles M. Bakewell, 
American Red Cross Work Among the French People, by Fisher 
Ames, Jr., and The Little Corner Never Conquered, by John van 
Schaick, Jr. — relate to Red Cross work in Europe. All are writ- 
ten in popular, readable style, without reference notes, and only 
two of the volumes are provided with an index. 

WTSSTERN AMERICANA 

Summary of the Archeology of Western Sauk County, a mono- 
graph by H. E. Cole, appears in The Wisconsin Archeologist for 
August, 1922. 

Elements of Culture in Native California, by A. L. Kroeber, is 
published as a recent number of the University of California 
Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Caleb Perry Patterson is the author of a monograph. The Negro 
in Tennessee, 1790-1865, published as one of the bulletins of the 
University of Texas. 

El Palacio for October 2, 1922, contains an account of the pre- 
sentation to the State of New Mexico of the bronze bust of Frank 
Springer. Mr. Springer was born in Iowa, going to New Mexico 
in 1873. 

The. Story of the North Star State, by Daniel E. AVillard, is 
written to present the story of the geologic formations and natural 
resources of Minnesota. It is intended to be used as a textbook in 
the schools and is therefore popular rather than scientific in style, 
with numerous illustrations. 

The Transition of a Typical Frontier, by Wilson Porter Short- 
ridge, is a monograph on western histoiy dealing especially with 
Minnesota. The illustrations are taken from the life of Henry 
Hastings Sibley, who as fur trader, Territorial delegate to Con- 
gress, and first Governor of the State of ^Minnesota, represents the 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



147 



various types of the frontier and at the same time was one of the 
prominent men of the transition period. 

Four of the papers in the October, 1922, issue of The Qitarterly 
Journal of the University of North Dakota are the following : The 
Care of Dependent Children, by IT,enry J. Humpstone; Some 
Aspects of Secondary Education in North Dakota by Benjamin 
B. C. Tighe; Economic and Social Background of the University 
of North Dakota, by John M. Gillette; and Improving North 
Dakota Bar Admission Requirements, by Lauriz Void. 

In commemoration of its seventieth anniversary, the Chicago, 
Rock Island and Pacific Railroad issued a special number of The 
Rock Island Magazine containing much valuable historical material. 
An article by F. J. Nevins, entitled From Grant to Gorman, gives 
many interesting items concerning the first railroad across the 
State of Iowa, the bridge across the Mississippi River, the early 
railroad builders in Iowa, and the legal contest over the bridge 
in which Abraham Lincoln was one of the lawyers. This article 
was also issued as a separate pamphlet. In addition there are 
numerous shorter contributions such as A Pioneer in the West 
by Carl Nyquist ; Before the Rock Island Came, by Fred Francis ; 
an account of the memorial trees; Lincoln's Defense of the Bridge; 
Boat Excursion Marked the Arrival of the Rock Island, by Wm. 
R. Tibbals; When the "Iron Horse" Came, the story of the first 
train through Iowa; Interesting Facts of Pioneer Days of Rock 
Island Railroad, by H. A. Nutting; Something of the Early En- 
gines Into Des Moines, by J. W. Given ; The Spirit of Romance 
Lives, by Hamilton Johnson ; and The Rock Island Wkis the First 
Railroad in Iowa, by James J. Hruska. 

lOWANA 

Lutlier College Through Sixty Years, 1861-1921, the story of 
the college at Decorah, has recently been published by the faculty. 

A Brief History of Public Health Movement, by Lena A. Beach, 
is an article of historical interest in The Journal of the Iowa State 
Medical Society for October, 1922. 



148 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Community Builder, published by the Fort Dodge Chamber 
of Commerce, contains a series of articles by John J. SchafCner on 
the history of Fort Dodge. 

A sketch of the life of General James Rush Lincoln, who died 
on August 4, 1922, is included in The Alumnus of the Iowa State 
College for October, 1922. 

The Iowa Churchman for December, 1922, contains an account 
of the celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of St. Luke's 
Church, Fort Madison, written by William Pence James. 

The two articles in the Annals of Iowa for January, 1922, are: 
The Lewis and Clark Expedition in Its Relation to Iowa History 
and Geography, continued from the previous number, and Calvin 
Wehh Keyes, Iowa Centenarian, by Charles Keyes. 

SOME RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IOWA AUTHORS 

Allen, Mary Louise, 

Lilacs in Newer Tints (People's Popular Monthly, Novem- 
ber, 1922). 

Barrett, Clark, 

The Treatment of Ore at the Anaconda Smelter (The Tran- 
sit, November, 1922). 

Bartow, Edward, 

"World Seeks Key to Sewage Problem (The Iowa Engineer, 
December, 1922). 

Bond, C. W., 

Business Aspects of Recreation in Child Life (Bulletin of State 
Institutions, April, 1922). 

Briggs, John E., 

The Iowa Primary Interpreted (National Municipal Review, 

September, 1922). 
That 1900 Football Team (The Palimpsest, November, 1922). 
The Sioux City Corn Palaces (The Palimpsest, October, 1922). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



149 



Brockway, Jaraes M., 

Reminiscences of an R. G. (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 
1922). 

Brown, Bernice, 

The Big Clumsy Swede (Hearst's International, August, 
1922). 

The Glories of Self-Expression (The Metropolitan ]\iagazine, 

October, 1922). 
Miracle (The Century, August, 1922). 
Second Fiddle (Delineator, October, 1922). 

Brown, Charles Eeynolds, 

Honor of the Church. Chicago : Pilgrim Press. 1922. 
Lincoln, the Greatest Man of the Nineteenth Century. New 
York: MacmiUan Co, 1922. 

Brown, George A., 

lotra's Consolidated Schools. Des Moines: Department of 
Public Instruction. 1922. 

Bush, Stephen H., 

Old Northern French Loan-Words in Middle English (Philo- 
logical Quarterly, July, 1922). 

Butler, EUis Parker, 

Get Into the Right Rut, Then Stay There (The American 

Magazine, August, 1922). 
Judge Hooper Stories (Independent, July 22, August 5, 19, 
September 16, 30, 1922). 

Cameron, Eleanor, 

America (People's Popular Monthly, November, 1922). 
Happyland's Fairy Grotto Plays. Chicago : Houghton Mifflin 
Co. 1922. 

Canaday, Elizabeth, 

Lanterns in the Dush (People's Popular Monthly, December, 
1922). 



150 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 



Chandler, Sidney L., 

The Sociological Strain of the Present Crisis (BuUetin of 
State Institutions, April, 1922) . 

Colegrove, Kenneth Wallace, 

American Citizens and Their Government. New York : Abing- 
don Press. 1922. 

Craig, Hardin, 

The University of Padua (The Iowa Alumnus, November, 
1922). 

Crawford, Nelson Antrim, 

The American Newspaper and the People (The Nation, Sep- 
tember 13, 1922). 

Democracy Diagnosed (The Dial, August, 1922). 

Education for Journalism (The Iowa Alumnus, November, 
1922). 

The Indian As He Is (The Bookman, August, 1922). 

Daniel, Hawthorne, 

In Favor of the King. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 
Page & Co. 1922. 

Devine, Edward T., 

Industrial Conflict and the Local Community (Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Science, Septem- 
ber, 1922). 

Social Work. New York : Macmillan Co. 1922. 

Donohoe, George, 

Neurosyphilis in Railroad Employes (Bulletin of State In- 
stitutions, July, 1922). 

Eichinger, J. W., 

Dubuque Builds New City Eyitrance (The Iowa Engineer, 
October, 1922). 

Eldred, Myrtle Meyer, 

Playing Around (People's Popular Monthly, August, 1922). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



151 



Ensign, Forest C, 

Consolidated Schools in Iowa (The American City, December, 
1922). 

Eriksson, Erik McKinley, 

Sioux City and the Black Hills Gold Rush, 1874-1877 (The 
Iowa Journal of History and Polities, July, 1922), 

Farr, Clifford H., 

The Psychology of Plants (The Atlantic Monthly, December, 
1922). 

Ferber, Edna, 

Gigola. New York : Doubleday, Page & Co. 1922. 

Picke, Arthur Davison, 

My Princess and In the "Lyric West" (Scribner's Magazine, 

December, 1922) . 
Sonnets of a Portrait Painter and Other Sonnets. New York : 

M. Kennerly. 1922. 

Fogdall, Soren J. I\I. P., 

Banish- American Diplomacy, 1776-1920. Iowa City: The 
State University of Iowa. 1922. 

Frederick, John Towner, 

Druida. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1922. 
Middle Western Literary Prospects (The Iowa Alumnus, 
October, 1922) 

Gallaher, Kuth Augusta, 

The Handcart Expeditions (The Palimpsest, July, 1922). 

Gardner, Nellie E., 

Railroad Adventuring in Soviet Russia (Travel, August, 
1922). 

Soviet Russia Dresses Up (Travel, September, 1922). 
A Sub-ConscioxLS Murderer (Science and Invention, October, 
1922). 

Garland, Hamlin, 

A Pioneer Mother. Chicago : The Bookfellows. 1922. 



152 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Haines, Austin P., 

Smith W. Brookhart, Dissenter (The Nation, November 1, 
1922). 

Haines, Ella Wlster, 

New Harness (People's Popular Monthly, November, 1922). 

Hall, James Norman, 

Land Very Far Away (Woman's Home Companion, Novem- 
ber, 1922). 

Hanson, Leslie, 

No Cancellation of Foreign Dehts Is Possible at the Present 
Time (The Northwestern Banker, September, 1922). 

Return of Investment Market to Settled Basis a Healthful 
Condition (The Northwestern Banker, July, 1922). 

Hart, Hornell Norris, 

Differential Fecundity in Iowa. Iowa City: The State Uni- 
versity of Iowa. 1922. 

Hart, Martha, 

Literary Love Song (Boolanan, August, 1922). 

Hebard, Grace Raymond, (Joint author) 

The Bozeman Trail. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Co. 
1922. 

HolloweU, T. P., 

Some loiva Criminal History (Bulletin of State Institutions, 
April, 1922). 

Hoover, Herbert Clark, 

American Individualism. Garden City, N. Y. : Doubleday, 

Page & Co. 1922. 
Some Human Waste of Indxistry (The Survey, July 15, 1922). 

Hornaday, WiUiam Temple, 

Minds and Manners of Wild Animals. New York: Scribner's 
Sons. 1922. 

Hull, Raymond R., 

America Finds New Potash Supply (The Iowa Engineer, 
December, 1922). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



153 



Jacobson, Jake, 

A Trip to Herzelia (East and West, June 30, 1922). 

Johnson, Griff, 

Wimt the Farm Mortgage Banker Can Do to Help the Farmer 
(The Northwestern Banker, July, 1922). 

Kerr, Mrs. W. B., 

His Own Pill (Woman's Weekly, August 19, 1922). 

Keyes, Charles Rollin, 

Biographical Sketch of Calvin Wehh Keyes (Reprinted from 

the Annals of Iowa, January, 1923). 
Scarpita Bronze of Springer (The Pan-American Geologist, 

October, 1922). 

Kinnavey, Mary M., 

National Journalistic Register (The Iowa Alumnus, Decem- 
ber, 1922). 

Knight, Frederick B., 

Qualities Related to Success in Teaching. New York : Colum- 
bia University. 1922. 

Kolp, J. E., 

A Federal Bank of Agriculture (The Northwestern Banker, 
September, 1922). 

Long, F. A., 

Forty Years of Medicine (The Nebraska State Medical Jour- 
nal, August, 1922). 

Loomis, William W., 

People Do Love to See Their Names in the Paper (The Am- 
erican Magazine, November, 1922), 

Lowrey, Lawson G., (Joint author) 

Psychiatric Analysis of the Children in the State Juvenile 
Home (Bulletin of State Institutions, April, 1922). 

Macbride, Thomas H., 

The Present Status of Iowa Parks. Iowa City: Privately 
printed. 1922. 



154 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



McKee, Edd R., 

Corporation Offers Unique Service (The Iowa Engineer, De- 
cember, 1922). 

McMurry, Donald L., 

The Political Significance of the Pension Question, 1885-1897 
(The Mississippi VaUey Historical Review, July, 1922). 

Mahan, Bruce E., 

The Blue Grass Palace (The Palimpsest, October, 1922). 
New Melleray (The Palimpsest, September, 1922). 
The Passing of a Slave (The Palimpsest, July, 1922). 
Three Early Taverns (The Palimpsest, August, 1922). 

Marolf, Louis Carl, 

The Wooing of Quiniby's Daughters and Other Poems. Bos- 
ton: Roxburgh Pub. Co. 1922. 

Mayser, Richard, 

Macy Constructs Huge Japanese Dam (The Iowa Engineer, 
December, 1922). 

Merriam, Charles E., 

Next Step in the Organization of Municipal Research (Nation- 
al Municipal Review, September, 1922). 

Mogridge, George, 

Report of National Meeting on Feeblemindedness (Bulletin of 
State Institutions, July, 1922). 

Morgan, John J. B., (Joint author) 

Psychiatric Analysis of the Children in the State Juvenile 
Home (Bulletin of State Institutions, April, 1922). 

Mott, Frank Luther, 

Additional Pioneer Iowa Word List (Philological Quarterly, 
October, 1922). 

John G. Neihardt and His Work (The ]\Iidland, November, 
1922). 

A Word-List from Pioneer loiva and an Inquiry into Iowa 
Dialect Origins (Philological Quarterly, July, 1922). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



155 



Newcomb, Harold H., 

A Study of the Railroad Commission in the State of Iowa 
(Iowa Law Bulletin., November, 1922). 

Newman, Oliver Peck, 

Who'll Elect the Next President (Collier's Weekly, Decem- 
ber 16, 1922). 

Nutting, Charles C, 

lowans Visit the Antipodes (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 
1922). 

Oberlies, L. C, 

Specks in the Gravy (Bulletin of State Institutions, April, 
1922). 

Parish, John Carl, 

Iowa in the Days of Lucas (The Palimpsest, August, 1922). 
Liquor and the Indians (The Palimpsest, July, 1922). 
Robert Lucas (The Palimpsest, August, 1922). 

Parker, George F., 

A Typical Iowa Pioneer Community (The Iowa Journal of His- 
tory and Politics, July, 1922). 

Parker, Lockie, 

Minnie (The Midland, May, 1922). 

Parrish, Randall, 

Gift of the Desert. Chicago : A. C. McClurg & Co., 1922. 

Piper, Edwin Ford, 

The Line Fence (Poetry, October, 1922). 

Porter, Kirk H., 

County and Township Government in the United States. 
New York: Macmillan Co., 1922. 

Quick, Herbert, 

I Picked My Goal at Ten — Reached It at Sixty (The Ameri- 
can Magazine, October, 1922). 

Randall, Frank H., 

Special Verdicts (Iowa Law Bulletin, November, 1922). 



156 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Roberts, George Evan, 

Russia's Experiment Analyzed (The American Review of 
Reviews, August, 1922). 

Ross, Edward Alsworth, 

The Social Trend. New York: Century Co. 1922. 
Russell, Charles Edward, 

The Outlook for the Philippines. New York: Century Co. 
1922. 

Sabin, Edwin L., 

Once Within a Night (The Iowa Alumnus, December, 1922). 

Shaw, Albert, 

IIoiv Railroads Adapt Themselves to National Conditions 
(Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the 
City of New York, July, 1922). 

Physical Treatment for Mental Disorders (The American Re- 
view of Reviews, December, 1922). 

Sherlock, Chesla C, 

The Modern Farm Co-operative Movement. Des Moines: 
Homestead Co. 1922. 

Sherman, Althea R., 

A National Bird Day (Iowa Conservation, April-June, 1922). 

Sigmund, Jay G., 

Frescoes. Boston : B. J. Brimmer & Co. 1922, 
Mushrooms (The Midland, July, 1922). 

Smith, Lewis Worthington, 

The Mechanism of English Style. New York : Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, American Branch. 1922. 
Penman of the Prairies (People's Popular Monthly, Septem- 
ber, 1922). 

Sprague, Besse Toulouse, 

Pansy Eyes. Chicago: Reilly & Lee. 1922. 

Stapp, Emilie Blaekmore, (Joint author) 

Happyland's Fairy Grotto Plays. Chicago : Houghton Mifflin 
Co. 1922. 



SOIVIE PUBLICATIONS 



157 



Stefansson, VOhjalmur, 

The Arctic as an Air Route of the Future (The National 

Geographic Magazine, August, 1922). 
Hunters of the Great North. New York: Harcourt, Brace & 
Co. 1922. 

The Northward Course of Empire. New York: Harcourt, 
Brace & Co. 1922. 

Suckow, Ruth, 

The Best of the Lot (Smart Set, November, 1922). 
A Rural Community (The Midland, July, 1922). 

Swisher, Jacob A., 

Adrian C. Anson (The Palimpsest, November, 1922), 
History of the Organization of Counties in Iowa (The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, October, 1922). 

Taylor, Alonzo Englebert, 

Commercial Importance of Russia (American Economic Re- 
view, September, 1922). 

Thompson, Beryl V., 

To One Away (Motion Picture Magazine, August, 1922). 
The Wealth of the World (Social Progress, December, 1922). 

Thorpe, Francis Newton, 

The Essentials of American Government. New York: Put- 
nam's Sons. 1922. 

Ullman, B. L., 

Roman Coins in Ancient Germany (Philological Quarterly, 
October, 1922). 

Van der Zee, Jacob, 

The British in Iowa. Iowa City: The State Historical So- 
ciety of Iowa, 1922. 
Vasey, E, T,, 

Institutional Program for the Care of Retarded Children 
(Bulletin of State Institutions, April, 1922). 
Voldeng, M, N., 

Eugenics (Bulletin of State Institutions, July, 1922), 



158 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Von Krog, 0. S., 

Outside In, Inside Out (Bulletin of State Institutions, July, 
1922). 

Wallace, Henry C, 

The Farmers and the Railroads (Proceedings of the Academy 
of Political Science in the City of New York, July, 1922). 

Wallis, Roland S., 

City Planning Requires Engineers (The Iowa Engineer, No- 
vember, 1922). 

Ward, Duren J. H., 

A Personal Invoice. Denver: Wayside Press. 1922. 
A Receiver for Civilization. Boston : Four Seas Co. 1922. 

Wihite, W. E., 

Roads Tested for Tractive Values (The Iowa Engineer, Octo- 
ber, 1922). 

Young, Charles E., 

Mfibrriage in the Contemporary French Drama (Philological 
Quarterly, October, 1922). 

SOME RECENT HISTORICAL ITEMS IN IOWA NEWSPAPERS 

First railroad train in Fairfield in 1858, in the Fairfield Ledger, 
September 1, 1922. 

The first trip of a passenger train from Davenport, in the Water- 
loo Courier, September 2, 1922. 

The fate of the river steamers, by J. W. Darrah, in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, September 2, 9, and 16, 1922. 

The Delicious apple tree on the Hiatt farm, in the Lc Mars 
Sentinel, September 5, 1922, the Creston Plain Dealer, Sep- 
tember 8, 1922, and the Corning Free Press, September 9, 
1922. 

Pella's diamond jubilee, in the Des Moines Register, September 
5 and 7, 1922, the Des Moines Capital, September 6, 1922, the 
Des Moines Tribune, the Pella Chronicle, the Oskaloosa Herald 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



159 



and the Oskaloosa Times, September 7, 1922, and the Pella 
Booster, September 13, 1922. 

Prehistoric bones found near Alden, in the Iowa Falls Sentinel, 
September 6, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Joseph Odren who helped capture Jefferson 
Davis, in the Waterloo Courier, September 6, 1922, and the 
Dubuque Herald, September 10, 1922. 

The first murder case in Greene County, in the Jefferson Bee, 
September 6, 1922. 

The first State fair, in the Bloomfield Republican, September 7, 
1922. 

Ellis Cutting of Cedar Rapids a survivor of the famous Light 
Brigade, in the Greenfield Free Press, September 7, 1922. 

Paschal P. Holmes the oldest settler of Van Buren County, in the 
Donnellson Review, September 8, 1922. 

First round trip of steamboat from St. Louis to St. Paul, by Fred 
A. BiU, in the Clinton Herald, September 8, 9, and 11, 1922. 

Seventy years of the Rock Island, in the Burlington Saturday 
Evening Post, September 9 and 23, 1922. 

The Otis building at Glenwood, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, 
September 10, 1922. 

Some winters in pioneer times, by Angus K. Campbell, in the Des 
Moines Register, September 11, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Frank F. Dawley, in the Fort Dodge Messen- 
ger and the Cedar Rapids Gazette, September 11, 1922, and 
the Cedar Rapids Republican, September 13, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Ambrose Call, in the Des Moines Regis- 
ter, September 12, 1922, the Algona Republican, September 
13, 1922, and the Algona Advance, September 14, 1922. 

W. D. Eaton and the story of the Clinton Mirror, in the Des 
Moines Register and the Sioux City Journal, September 12, 
1922, the Clinton Advertiser, September 13, 1922, the Wood- 



160 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 



him Twiner, September 14, 1922, and the Council Bluffs 
Nonpareil, September 15, 1922. 

Mastodon's tooth found at Harvey, in the Cedar Rapids Repub- 
lican, September 13, 1922. 

An early day fire tragedy in Bristol Township, Greene County, in 
the Jefferson Bee, September 13, 1922. 

The story of the Algona Bee, in the Davenport Democrat, Sep- 
tember 14, 1922, the Coon Rapids Enterprise, September 15, 
1922, and the Clinton Herald, September 19, 1922. 

The Alex Duncan home and early days in Page and Taylor coun- 
ties, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, September 14, 1922. 

Early prohibition sentiment in Iowa, in the Madrid News, Sep- 
tember 14, 1922. 

The steamboat landing at Glover's Point near McGregor, in the 
Lansing Mirror, September 15, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Anna H, Clarkson, in the Des Moines 
Capital, September 15, 1922, and the Des Moines Register, 
September 17, 1922. 

How Iowa got the nickname, "Hawkeye State", in the Des Moines 
Tribune, September 15, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of G. G. Rice, pioneer minister, in the Council 
Bluffs Nonpareil, September 17, 1922. 

The story of the Dubuque Visitor's press, in the Marshalltown 
Times Republican, September 20, 1922, the Dubuque Herald, 
September 22, 1922, the Clvarles City Press, September 23, 
1922, and the Cedar Rapids Republican, September 23, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Albert Head, in the Montezuma Republican, 
September 21, 1922. 

Chief Keokuk and the Indians of Iowa, in the KeoJcuk Gate City, 
September 21, 1922. 

The fiftieth anniversary of Sheldon, in the Williamsburg Tribune, 
September 21, 1922. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



161 



Pioneers of Fayette County, in the Williamsburg Tribune, Septem- 
ber 21, 1922. 

The Indians in early Clay County, in the Spencer News-Herald, 
September 21, 1922. 

The Underground Railroad station at Clinton, in the Clinton 
Advertiser, September 23, 1922. 

The Clarkson family, by George F. Parker, in the Bes Moines 
Register, September 24, 1922. 

The seventieth anniversary of the Eoek Island Railroad, in the 
Council Bluffs Nonpareil, September 24, 1922. 

Early history of northwestern Iowa, by A. J. Edwards, in the 
Waterloo Courier, September 29, 1922. 

Samuel S. McGrath, a resident of Boone County for half a cen- 
tury, in the Boone Pioneer, October 2, 1922. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Bronson, in the Hanir 
hurg Reporter, October 5, 1922. 

Recollections of the old river, by Fred A. Bill, in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, October 7, 14, 21, 28, and November 
4, 1922. 

When the Rock Island Railroad reached the river, in the Burling- 
ton Saturday Evening Post, October 7 and 14, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of T. W. Place, master mechanic of the Illinois 
Central Railroad, in the Waterloo Courier, October 9, 1922. 

The Hays family in Grinnell, in the Grinnell Herald, October 10, 
1922. 

The first railroad in Iowa, in the Des Moines Tribune, October 11, 
1922. 

An old time teacher's contract, in the Brooklyn Chronicle, Octo- 
ber 12, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of J. L. Kamrar, in the Webster City News, 
October 13, 1922. 



VOL. XXI — 11 



162 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Reminiscences of Burlington forty years ago, by James B. Lati- 
mer, in tlie Burlington Hawk-Eye, October 15, 1922. 

Sketch, of the life of Mrs. Lorene Curtis Diver, in the Keokuk 
Gate-City, October 16, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of George G. Rice, in the Council Bluffs Non- 
pareil, October 18, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. J. T. Remey, in the Burlington Hawk- 
Eye, October 19, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Albert Head, in the Jefferson Bee, October 
25, 1922, and the Perry Chief, October 30, 1922. 

Little stories of pioneer days, by N. Tjernagel, in the Story City 
Herald, October 26, 1922. 

Early days in Mt. Auburn, in the Farley Advertiser, October 26, 
1922. 

Locating the county seat of Hamilton County, by Harold Andrews, 
in the Des Moines Register, November 1, 1922. 

The fiftieth anniversary of Alton, in the Alton Democrat, Novem- 
ber 4, 1922. 

When Marquette and Joliet stopped in Iowa, by Wyman Smith, 
in the Muscatine Journal, November 5, 1922. 

Danville claims State's oldest church, in the Ottuniwa Courier, 
November 6, 1922, and the Fairfield Ledger, November 12, 
1922. 

A former slave at Denmark, in the Burlington Gazette, November 
6, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of John C. Bonwell, in the Auduhon Repre- 
sentative, November 9, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Llrs. Sophia Letts, the survivor of four Avars, 
in the Cedar Falls Record, November 9, 1922, and the Cedar 
Rapids Gazette, November 17, 1922. 

The founding of Bella, in the Williatiishurg Tribune, November 
9, 1922. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 163 

Sketch of the life of Samuel Jones, in the Centerville lowegian, 
November 11, 1922. 

The story of Theophile Bruguiere, in the Sioux City Journal, No- 
vember 15, 1922. 

Hiram Redding, a Chickasaw County pioneer, in the New Hamp- 
ton Tribune, November 15, 1922. 

Early days in Iowa, by C. C. Pugh, in the Afton Star-Enterprise, 
November 16, 1922. 

Items from an old Pella newspaper, in the Pella Chronicle, No- 
vember 16, 1922. 

Some incidents concerning black walnut trees and lumber, by C. 
L. Lucas, in the Madrid News, November 16, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of H. C. Owen, in the Spirit Lake Beacon, No- 
vember 17, 1922. 

The legend that Sarah Bernhardt was a resident of Rochester, by 
Laura Lou Brookman, in the Des Moines Register, November 
19, 1922. 

Turkey days on the Turkey River, by Florence L. Clark, in the 
Chariton Leader, November 21, 1922. 

Old buildings along the river at Cedar Rapids, in the Cedar 
Rapids Gazette, November 22, 1922. 

Reminiscences of Centerville, by Mrs. Mahlon Hibbs, in the Center- 
ville lowegian, November 22, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Judge William Theophilus, in the Davenport 
Democrat, November 23, 1922. 

Early business men of Lone Tree, in the Lone Tree Reporter, No- 
vember 23, 1922. 

The Sac and Fox Indians in Iowa, in the Lone Tree Reporter, 
November 23, 1922. 

Early days in Johnson County, in the Lone Tree Reporter, No- 
vember 23, 1922. 



164 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

John Gilbert said to be first white man in Johnson County, in the 
Lone Tree Reporter, November 23, 1922. 

The first settlement of North Tama, by John S. Hopldns, in the 
Traer Star-Clipper, November 24 and December 1, 1922. 

Jeremiah H. Carl, pioneer police judge, in the Mmcatine Journal, 
November 24, 1922. 

Jones County's pioneers of 1845, in the Dubuque Herald, Novem- 
ber 26, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Park W. McManus, in the Davenport Times, 
November 29, 1922. 

A. C. Ferguson, Sabula's oldest pioneer, in the Sahula Gazette, 
November 30, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Cornelius Scott, in the Manchester Press, 
November 30, 1922. 

George S. Myers tells of early experiences on the railroad, in the 
Waterloo Tribune, December 1, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Elizabeth Starr, in the Waterloo Courier, 
December 1, 1922. 

lowans in California, in the Des Moines Register, December 3, 
1922. 

Sketch of the life of Robert Copeland, in the Independence Con- 
servative, December 6, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of WiUiam D. Boyd, in the Marslwlltown Times- 
Republican, December 6, 1922. 

Pioneer days in Osceola County, in the Sibley Gazette, December 
7, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Walter Carpentei', in the Iowa Falls Citizen, 
December 8, 1922. 

Residence of Bernhart Henn is now Ewing Hall, Parsons College, 
in the Fairfield Ledger, December 11, 1922. 

Whiskey smuggling in 1830, in the Sioux City Journal, December 
12, 1922. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



165 



Estes house at Keokuk used as Civil War hospital, in the Cedcur 
Rapids Gazette, December 12, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of J. E. Goodrich, in the Cedar Rapids Repub- 
lican, December 14, 1922. 

An lowan's recollection of Jesse James, in the Des Moines Regis- 
ter, December 17, 1922. 

Centerville, home of the world's greatest jockeys, by Harold An- 
drews, in the Des Moines Register, December 17, 1922. 

Reminiscences of Emmet County, in the Estherville Enterprise, 
December 20, 1922. 

The post marking a point on Iowa-Minnesota boundary, in the 
Decorah Journal, December 20, 1922, and the Lenox Time- 
Table, December 21, 1922. 

Early settlers in Story County, in the Slater News, December 20, 
1922. 

Sketch of the life of Horace Boies, in the Cascade Pioneer, De- 
cember 21, 1922. 

Hazleton pioneers, in the Independence Journal, December 21, 
1922. 

Sketch of the life of A. J. Barkley, in the Boone News, December 
23, 1922. 

Reminiscences of Davenport, by W. H. Hitchcock, in the Daven- 
port Democrat, December 24, 1922. 

Sketch of the life of Ira J. Alder, in the Des Moines Register, 

December 26, 1922. 
John M, Howrey, last of Spring Creek's pioneer settlers, in the 

Waterloo Courier, December 27, 1922. 

"Happy New Year" when Des Moines was young, by Laura Lou 
Brookman, in the Des Moines Register, December 31, 1922. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



PUBLICATIONS 

Prize Essays Written 'by Pujyils of Michigan Schools in the Local 
History Contest for 1920-21 has been issued as Bulletin No. 15 by 
the Michigan Historical Commission. 

The Pennsylvania Magazine of History for October, 1922, con- 
tains the first installment of George Croglian and the Wiestward 
Movement, 1741-1782 by A. T. Volwiler. The Second Troop 
Philadelphia Cavalry is continued in this number. 

The July-September, 1922, issue of The Quarterly Publication 
of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio contains the 
fifth installment of the military papers of John Stites Gano. 

The Catholic Historical Review for October, 1922, contains, 
among others, an article on The Study of Church History, by 
Thomas J. Shahan, and one on Opportunities in Historical Fiction, 
by Michael "Williams. 

Grant's Boyhood and Early Manhood, an extract from an ad- 
dress by Franlc H. Jones, is printed in the Chicago Historical 
Society Bulletin for November, 1922. Caholcia Mound Park, by 
Caroline M. Mcllvaine, is one of the short items in the issue for 
December, 1922. 

In addition to the reports, the Proceedings of the Seventeenth 
Annual Conference of Historical Societies for 1921 contains an 
article by Newton D, Mereness on Material in Washington of Value 
to the States, and one by Theodore C. Pease on Historical Materi- 
als in the Depositories of the Middle West. 

The Indiana Historical Commission has begun the publication 
of the messages and letters of tlie governors of Indiana. The first 
volume contains Messages and Letters of William Henry Harrison, 



166 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



167 



edited by Logan Esarey. This constitutes volume seven in the 
Indiana Historical Collections. 

Alexander McNair, by Walter B. Stevens, The Grand River 
Country, by E. W. Stephens, A True Story of the Border War, 
by B. F. Blanton, and continuations of The Followers of Duden, 
by "William Gr. Bek, Pioneer Life in Southwest Missouri, by Wiley 
Britton, and Shelby's Expedition to Mexico, by John N. Edwards, 
are the six articles in I'he Missouri Historical Review for October, 
1922. 

English Convicts in the American Army in the Whr of Inde- 
pendence, by E. Alfred Jones, Judge Symmes on Indian Hostili- 
ties, Witches in New Jersey, by Joseph Fulford Folsom, and a 
continuation of A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 are four of 
the articles in the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 
Society for October, 1922. 

Conservation in New York State, by C. R. Pettis, The Pulteney 
Purchase, by Paul D. Evans, and Surrogates' Courts and Records 
in the Colony and State of New York, 1664-1847, by Royden 
Woodward Vosburgh, are the three articles in the April, 1922, 
issue of The Quarterly Journal of the Neiv York State Historical 
Association. History of the Regulation of Public Service Cor- 
porations in New York, by Martin S. Decker, The History of Fort 
Ticonderoga, by Helen Ives Gilchrist, Women of New York State 
in the Revolution, by Amelia Day Campbell, and Anxious Moments 
in Frontier History, by R. Bruce Taylor, are the four articles in 
the issue for July, 1922. 

The three articles in The American Historical Review for July, 
1922, are the following: Science at the Court of the Emperor 
Frederick II, by Charles H. Haskins; The Development of Metro- 
politan Economy in Europe and America, by N. S. B. Gras; and 
Slidell and Buchanan, by Louis M. Sears. In the issue for Octo- 
ber, 1922, are the following: The International State of the Mid- 
dle Ages: Some Reasons for Its Failure, by August C. Krey; The 
Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1768-1782, by Arthur H. 



168 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Basye; The American Grain Trade to the Spanish Peninsula, 
1810-1814; and Seward's Far Eastern Policy, by Tyler Dennett. 

The Colonists of William Penn, by Mkreia B. Bready, Educa- 
tion in Western Pennsylvania, 1850-1860, a paper by Florence B. 
Ward, Earlier Lawrenceville, by Edward M. McKeever, Reminis- 
cence of Pittsburgh, by Morgan Neville, Virginia, a poem by JVEary 
Johnston, and General John Gibson, by John B. Gibson, are the 
contributions to the Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 
for October, 1922. 

The Right to Live: WUl the State Protect It or Must Wk Rely 
Upon Federal Authority, a paper by Andrew J. Cobb, Develop- 
ment of Agriculture in Tipper Georgia from 1890 to 1920, by 
Roland M. Harper, and Howell Cobb Papers, edited by R. P. 
Brooks, are three of the articles in The Georgia Historical Quarter- 
ly for September, 1922. 

Early Normal Schools, Ascension Seminary, by John C. Chaney, 
Indiana Primary Laws, by J. F. Connell, a continuation of Craw- 
ford County, by H. H. Pleasant, The Deportation of the Potta^ 
wattamies by B. F. Stuart, and another section of The Know- 
nothing Party in Indiana, by Carl Brand, are the articles included 
in the Indiana Magazine of History for September, 1922. 

Centennial Anniversary of the Birth of Ulysses S. Grant, by 
C. B. Galbreath, Catherine Gougar, by Frank Warner, and Ohio 
and Western Expansion, by Willis Arden Chamberlin, are the 
articles in the July, 1922, issue of the Ohio Arcliaeological and 
Historical Quarterly. The four articles in the issue for October, 
1922, are the following: The McGuffey Society at Logan Elm; 
Marion Centennial Celebration, by J. AVilbur Jacoby; The Story 
of a Flag, by J. Warren Keifer; and Exploration of the Mound 
City Group, by William C. Mills. There is also a report of the 
thirty-seventh annual meeting of the Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Society held at Columbus on September 9, 1922. 

Volume seventy-five of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections contains a list of over thirty-four hundred broadsides, 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



169 



ballads, and similar papers printed in Massachusetts between 1639 
and 1800. Some of the illustrations are copied, but for the most 
part a few lines of explanation are all that can be given. 

Early Development of Railroads in the Pacific Northwest, by C. 
J. Smith, Newspapers of Washington Territory, by Edmond S. 
Meany, Van Ogle's Memory of Pioneer Days, Oregon-River of the 
Slaves or River of the West, by J. A. Meyers, and an installment 
of Edmond S. Meany's Origin of Washington Geographic Names 
are the articles in The Washington Historical Qimrtei'ly for Octo- 
ber, 1922. 

Mazureau's Oration on Mathews, by Henry Plauche Dart, 
George Mathews — President of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, 
by Etienne Mazureau, and Discourse on the Life and Character of 
the Hon. George Mathews, by Chas. Watts, are the three articles 
in The Louisiana Historical Quarterly for April, 1921. 

The double number of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society for April- July, 1921, contains the following articles: A 
History of the Birds of Ulinois, by T, E. Musselman; Lincoln as 
I Knew Him, by Charles S. Zane; Abraham Lincoln in Congress, 
1847-1849, by Charles 0. PauUin ; The Pioneers of Macon County, 
by N. M. Baker; Pioneer Days in Coles County, Illinois, by Mrs. 
Joseph C. Dole, and A Brief History of David McCoy and Fam- 
ily, by Edwin H. Van Patten. 

Two volumes of Michigan Bibliography, by Floyd B. Streeter, 
have recently been distributed by the Michigan Historical Com- 
mission. The volumes cover the titles of printed materials, maps, 
and atlases relating directly to Michigan in the Library of Con- 
gress, the Detroit Public Library, the Grand Eapids Public 
Library, the Michigan State Library, the General Library of the 
University of Michigan, experiment station bulletins in the Library 
of the Michigan Agricultural College, maps in the Port Huron 
Public Library and the Library of the State Historical Society 
of Wisconsin, and the manuscripts materials in the Burton His- 
torical Collection. Volume I contains the list of books and pam- 
phlets; Volume II has the list of maps, atlases, and manuscripts 



170 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



and a comprehensive index which obviates the necessity of print- 
ing titles more than once in the lists. In all a total of 8643 titles 
are listed, w^hich, with the index, make an unusually valuable con- 
tribution to researchers in State history. 

The Wisconsin Magazine of History for June, 1922, contains four 
articles: Marslmll Mason Strong, Racine Pioneer, by Eugene 
Walter Leach; The First Traders in Wiscons'in, by Louise Phelps 
Kellogg; Memories of a Busy Life, by Charles King; and a tenth 
installment of Historic Spots in Wisconsin, by W. A. Titus, the 
subtitle being The Lost Village of the Mascouten. The September 
number contains the following papers and articles: Memories of 
a Busy TAfe: The War with Spain, by Charles King; Incidents 
in the Early History of the Wisconsin Lead Mines, by D. J. Gard- 
ner; Platteville in its First Quarter Century, by Truman 0. 
Douglass; Personal Recollections of Platteville, by Maria Greene 
Douglass; and By the Waters of Turtle Lake, by Angle Kumlien 
MJain. Under the heading Documents there is a Diary of a Jour- 
ney to Wisconsin in 1840, and a Letter of Senator James Rood 
Doolittle. Joseph Schafer is the author of a study in Wisconsin 
history on The Yankee and the Teuton in Wisconsin which appears 
in the number for December, 1922. Samuel Plantz contributes 
an historical sketch on Latvrence College, there is a fourth in- 
stallment of Memories of a Busy Life, by Charles King, Louise P. 
Kellogg writes of The Electric Light System at Appleton, and 
Doane Robinson contributes a paper on Beaver Creek Valley, Mon- 
roe County, and there is a second installment of a Diary of a 
Journey to Wiscon^n in 1840, kept by Frederick J. Starin. 

Bulletin No. 28 of the Publications of the North Carolina His- 
torical Commission contains the Proceedings of the Twentieth and 
Twenty-first Annual Sessions of the State Literary and Historical 
Association of North Carolina. Among the papers included are: 
Vitality in State History, an address by J. G. deR. Hamilton; 
The Historian and the Daily Press, by Gerald W. Johnson; An 
Old Time North Carolina Election, by Louise Irby; and The 
Bread and Butter Aspect of North Carolina History, by D. D. 
Carroll. 

A second installment of The Indian Policy of the Republic of 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



171 



Texas, by Anna Mucklcroy, Some Aspects of the History of West 
and Northwest Texas Since 1845, by R. C. Crane, Life and Service 
of John Birdsall, by Adele B. Looscan, and more of The Bryan- 
Hayes Correspondence, edited by E. W. Winkler, are the articles 
in the July, 1922, number of The Southwestern Historical Quarter- 
ly. The number for October, 1922, contains the first installment 
of The History of a Texas Slave Plantation, by Abigail Curlee; 
Anna Muckleroy contributes a second chapter of The Indian 
Policy of the Republic of Texas; and there is a continuation of 
The Bryan-Hayes Correspondence, edited by E. W. Winkler, 

Two of the papers in The Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography for October, 1922, are the following: Proposal for a 
Virginia Historical Society, 1824, by John Holt Rice; and Western 
Explorations in Virginia, by Fairfax Harrison. There are also 
continuations of the Virginia Quit Bent Rolls, 1704, Minutes of the 
Council and General Court, and Virginia State Troops in the 
Revolution. 

The Filson Club and Its Activities, 1884-1922, by Otto A. Roth- 
ert, has recently been published as No. 32 of the Filson Club 
Publications. The Filson Club, organized in 1884, has been one 
of the most active historical associations and the long list of papers 
and publications, presented in this volume, show that its life has 
had concrete results. 

The Big Sandy Valley, by Willard Rouse Jillson, Captain James 
Harrod's Company, by Lucien Beckner, The Quarles Family and 
Their Woodford County Connections, by Wm, E. Railey, Captojin 
Lewis Rose, by Carrie W. Van Arsdell, and James Guthrie — 
KentucJcian, 1792-1869, by Robert S. Cotterill, are among the 
articles and papers in The Register of the Kentucky State His- 
torical Society for September, 1922. There is also an account of 
the celebration of Boone Day and the meeting of the Kentucky 
Historical Society on June 7, 1922. 

Among other papers and articles in the Illinois Catholic His- 
torical Review for April, 1922, are the following: Catholic Educa^ 
tion in Hlinois, by Helen M. Larkin ; Points in Illinois History — 



172 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



A Symposium, by Lawrence J. Kenny; The Early Days of St. 
Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, by W. J. Howlett; The 
Illinois Part of the Diocese of Vincennes, by Joseph J. Thompson ; 
and Notre Dame — Antecedents and Development, by Harry W. 
Flannery. 

Propaganda as a Source of American History, by F. H, Hodder, 
The Political Significance of the Pension Question, 1883-1897, by 
Donald L, McMurry, and The Federal Indian Policy in California,, 
1846^1860, by William H. Ellison, are the three papers which 
appear in the June, 1922, issue of The Mississippi Valley Historical 
Review. Under the heading Notes and Documents is A Typical 
"American Letter", by Gjert Gregoriussen Hovland, and The 
Mohegan Indians: A Communication, by George A. Wood. The 
Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association, by Louis PeLzer, Religious Conceptions of the Modern 
Hurons, an address by William E. Connelley, and Federal Opera- 
tion of Southern Railroads During the Civil War, by R. E. Riegel, 
are the three articles in the number for Septembei'. Under the 
Notes and Documents there is a letter from Nathaniel Lyon con- 
cerning the St. Louis arsenal in the days of 1861, with an intro- 
duction by Grace Lee Nute. 

Volume eleven of the South Dakota Historical Collections con- 
tains in addition to the reports of the State Department of His- 
tory, a number of papers and articles. One of these is the Report 
of Lieutenant G. K. Warren, Topographical Engineer of the 
"Sioux Expedition," Of Exploration in the Dacota Country, 1855. 
Another long paper is the biographical sketch, Basil Clement 
(Claymore), by Charles Edmund DeLand. Other articles are: 
A Brief History of Convict Labor in South Dakota, by Frank T. 
Stockton ; Recollections of Ft. La Framboise in 1862 and the Res- 
cue of the Chetak Captives, by Charles P. Barbier ; Reminiscences 
of Henry Lewis Jones, by Burt L. Hall; The Last Buffalo Hunt, 
by Thomas L. Riggs; Newspapers of South Dakota; Opening of 
the Rosebxcd Reservation, S. D. 1904; and Historical Sketch of 
Union County, South Dakota. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



173 



How White Lake Was Named, by Kenneth G. Smith, Bix Robin- 
son, Fur Trader, by Mary F. Robinson, Incidents of Pioneer Life, 
by Alzina Calkins Felt, Peter White, by James Russell, Assinins 
and Zeha, by Francis Jaeker, Ho! Gohehic County!, by Charles R. 
Cobb, My Early Days in Hastings, by M. L. Cook, Ma/ry F. 
Thomas, M. D., Richmond, Ind., by Pauline T. Heald, Benton 
Harhor College and Its President, Dr. George J. Edgecumhe, by 
Victoria C. Edgcumbe, Source 3Iaterial of the Detroit Public 
Library as Supplied by the Acquisition of the Burton Historical 
Collection, by L. 0. W., Historical Work in Michigan, by Alvah 
L. Sawyer, What About Michigan Archeology?, by Geo. R. Fox, 
Dutch Journalism in Michigan, by Henry Beets, How We Got the 
R. F, D., by J. H. Brown, and Railroads of Delta County, by F. 
H. Van Cleve, are articles and papers in the Michigan History 
Magazine for April and July, 1922. 

ACTIVITIES 

Alfred Proctor James is the new editor of the Western Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Magazine, Charles W. Dahlinger having resigned. 

The "Western Reserve Historical Society has recently issued its 
annual report as Publication No. 104. 

The sixteenth annual meeting of the Mississippi VaUey His- 
torical Association will be held at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on 
March 29 to 31, 1923. 

The seventy-fourth annual meeting of the Minnesota Historical 
Society was held at St. Paul on January 15, 1923. On the -pro- 
gram was a luncheon to celebrate the enrollment of one thousand 
active members. The annual address on "The Struggle for the 
Admission of Minnesota to the Union" was read by William F. 
Folwell. Other papers listed are "The Nelson-Kindred Campaign 
of 1882", by Elmer E. Adams, "James Dickson, A Filibuster in 
Minnesota in 1836", by Grace Lee Nute, and "The Location of 
Radisson's 'Fort', 1660", by Arthur T. Adams. 



174 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



THE STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

Two volumes on The Red Cross in lovm, by Earl S. Fullbrook, 
have recently been published by The State Historical Society of 
Iowa and will soon be distributed. These volumes are a part of 
the series entitled Chronicles of the World War and deal with the 
contributions of Iowa to the Red Cross in money and services. 

Several hundred volumes from the library of the late J. W. 
Rich have recently come into the possession of The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa. Mr. Rich was formerly librarian of the 
State University Library and served for a number of years as a 
member of the Board of Regents of the State University of Iowa. 
For many years he was a member of the Board of Curators of 
The State Historical Society — a position he was still holding at 
the time of his death on June 12, 1920. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Mr. Joseph N. Beck, Remsen, Iowa; Mr. T. P. 
Breheny, Atlantic, Iowa; Mrs. Freeman Davis, Moulton, Iowa; 
Dr. J. C. Esser, Remsen, Iowa; Mrs. C. L. Hartinger, Iowa Falls, 
Iowa; Mr. Elmer M. Houg, Clermont, Iowa; IVIr. B. F. Hull, 
Madrid, Iowa; Mr. N. E. Isaacs, Thompson, Iowa; Mrs. Fred J. 
Jarvis, Oskaloosa, Iowa; Mr. Fred D. Mason, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. 
L. M. Michelsen, Clinton, Iowa; Mr. Forrest A. Miller, Iowa City, 
Iowa; Mr. Donald R. Murphy, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Kenneth 
C. Peterson, Ames, Iowa; Mr. T. M. Rasmussen, Exira, Iowa; Mr. 
M. N. Richardson, Davenport, Iowa ; Mrs. C. Van Epps, Iowa City, 
Iowa; Mr. Louis M. Van Loh, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. R. S. Whit- 
ley, Clinton, Iowa; !Mr. C. F. Besore, Jr., Holstein, Iowa; Mr. 
Frank P. Butler, Rippey, Iowa; Mr. MiUer Christiansen, Rippey, 
Iowa; Mr. Paul W. Dixon, Ida Grove, Iowa; Mr. W. C. Edson, 
Storm Lake, Iowa; Mr. P. A. Emery, Tennant, Iowa; Dr. A. P. 
Fankhauser, Pella, Iowa; Mr. Frederick Fischer, Shenandoah, 
Iowa ; Mr. J. P. Gallagher, Williamsburg, Iowa ; Mr. F. B. Gilbert, 
State Center, Iowa; Mrs. Fred P. Hartsook, Winterset, Iowa; Mr. 
Geo. Judiseh, Ames, Iowa; Mr. L. A. Kieren, Alta Vista, Iowa; 
Mr. C. F. Letts, Ainsworth, Iowa; Mr. Ernst Lieberknecht, Letts, 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



175 



Iowa; Mr. E. L. Mantz, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. J. M,. Ramsey, 
Clarksville, Iowa; Mr. J. 0. Shaff, Camanche, Iowa; Mrs. Geneva 
M. Simmons, Fairfield, Iowa; Mr. Henry Traxler, Clarinda, Iowa; 
Mr. Warren L. Wallace, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Rev. J. J. Zeyen, 
Alta Vista, Iowa; Mr. U. S. Baxter, Ida Grove, Iowa; Mr. Paul 
N. Clark, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Dr. E. J. Cole, AVoodbine, Iowa; 
Mr. Arthur M. Compton, Clinton, Iowa ; Mr. Eugene Judson Cur- 
tis, Clinton, Iowa; Mr. George Lewis Curtis, Clinton, Iowa; Mr. 
H. A. Dwelle, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. W. D. Eaton, Burlington, 
Iowa; Mr. H. R. Elrod, Sac City, Iowa; Mr. Matbew R. Faber, 
Remsen, Iowa; Mr. Walker D. Hanna, Burlington, Iowa; Mr. W. 
H. Hospers, Orange City, Iowa ; Mr. Fred Levens Hutchins, Sioux 
City, Iowa; Mr. Chevalier J. Junkin, Kew Garden, New York; 
Mr. Frank P. Kessler, Sac City, Iowa ; Miss Maude Lasher, Jeffer- 
son, Iowa; Mr. Gerald E. Lyons, Cresco, Iowa; Mr. Geo. E. Miller, 
Harlan, Iowa; Mr. Stanley C. Moore, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. 
John W. Murphy, Burlington, Iowa; Mr. A. G. Neal, Sac City, 
Iowa; Mr. Oliver P. Petty, Clinton, Iowa; Mr. Geo. W. Potts, 
Fort Madison, Iowa; Mr. Paul N. Robson, Scranton, Iowa; Mr. 
Frank C. Sampson, Audubon, Iowa; Mr. I. N. Snook, West Point, 
Iowa; Mr. F. C. Waples, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; and Mr. LeRoy E. 
Yeager, Bellevue, Iowa. Mr. Sam D. Pryce of Iowa City, Iowa, 
has been enrolled as a life member. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



The twenty-fifth annual convention of the League of Iowa 
MTinicipalities was held at Clinton on August 15th to 17th, 1922, 

A meeting of old settlers of Buena Vista County was held at 
Storm Lake, on October 9, 1922. Aa exhibit of relies was a 
feature of the assembly which was under the auspices of the 
Daughters of the American Eevolution. 

The Tama County old settlers' association met at Oak Park on 
September 4, 1922. Addresses were made by H. 0. Pratt, Fred 
W. IngersoU, W. A. Dexter, J. B. Tims, C. E. Walters, and A. E. 
Jackson. The folloAving officers were elected: John N. Lichty, 
president; Mrs. Gazelle Rogers, secretary; and E. A. Benson, 
treasurer. 

Preliminary plans have been made for the organization of an 
old settlers' association of Emmet County. The temporary officers 
are G. C. Allen, president; A. 0. Peterson, secretary; and E. H, 
Hanson, treasurer. One of the aims of the founders of the asso- 
ciation is the preservation of Fort Defiance which still exists some 
twelve miles from Estherville. 

The Vieksburg National Military Park Commission desires a 
bronze statue of Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa's war Governor, as 
a monument to him and to the Iowa soldiers who participated in 
the Vieksburg campaign and siege. The statue, if provided, will 
be placed in the Vieksburg National Military Park. 

Efforts are being made by the Daughters of the American 
Revolution of Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, to preserve the remains 
of old Fort Crawford established in 1816. 

The thirty-second annual meeting of the Iowa Library Associa- 
tion was held at Cedar Rapids on October 23-25, 1922. Mrs. Cora 
Wilson Stewart spoke on "The Campaign against Illiteracy"; 

176 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



177 



Edwin Ford Piper gave an address on "Recent Poetry"; J. G. 
Mitchell spoke on "County Libraries"; and Irving B. Richman 
talked on the subject "The Newer Treatment of History". The 
president's address, by William F. Riley, is printed in the Iowa 
Library Quarterly for October-December, 1922. The following 
ofScers were chosen for the ensuing year: Grace Shellenberger, 
of Davenport, president ; Mrs. H. W. Spaulding, of Grinnell, first 
vice president; E. Joanna Hagey, of Cedar Rapids, second vice 
president; Ruth Gibbons, of Cherokee, secretary; and Mae C. 
Anders, of Des Moines, treasurer. 

As a part of the celebration of its seventieth anniversary, the 
Rock Island Railroad, on October 10, 1922, planted memorial trees 
at various places along its route in honor of seventy of its former 
employees — all classes being represented from president to sec- 
tion laborer. The Rock Island line entered the State of Iowa in 
1853, as the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad, though it was not 
until January, 1856, that the first railroad train crossed the State 
from Davenport to Iowa City. Of the seventy memorials, twenty- 
six are located in Iowa ; and two of these honor the men who sur- 
veyed the line across Iowa in 1853 and 1854 — Peter A. Dey and 
Grenville M. Dodge. The Dodge memorial is located at Council 
Bluffs; that for Mr. Dey and one for Dr. Wm. D. Middleton, 
chief surgeon, are at Iowa City. Upon the bronze tablet near each 
tree is an inscription with the name of the employee for whom 
the tree was planted. That for Mr. Dey may be given as an 
example : 

"1852 ROCK ISLAND LINES 1922 

Seventieth Anniversary 
October Tenth 
The memorial tree planted nearby 

is Dedicated 
By the Rock Island in affectionate 
memory of 
Peter A. Dey 
Who by his industry, courage and loyalty 



178 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

through, every vicissitude signally aided 
in the development of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific Railway into a great 
transportation system DEVOTED TO 
TIIiE PUBLIC SERVICE." 

]\Ir. Dey was for nine years the President of The State Historical 

Society of Iowa. 

JAMES RUSH LINCOLN 

James Rush Lincoln was born in Frederick County, Maryland, 
on February 3, 1843, coming to Iowa in 1868. Having served in 
the Confederate army during the Civil War, he was interested in 
military affairs and in 1883 he became the head of the military 
department at the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts at Ames, a position he held until his death on August 4, 
1922. 

He served during the Spanish-American War as a brigadier 
general and after the reorganization of the Iowa National Guard 
he commanded the Fifty-first Regiment of the Iowa National 
Guard, later the Fifty-fifth Iowa Infantry. From July 5, 1908, 
until January 1, 1914, he was brigadier general of the Iowa 
National Guard. 



CONTEIBUTOES 

Jay Julius Sherman. Bom at Paton, Iowa, in 1888. Graduated 
from, the Storm Lake high, school in 1906. Eeceived the de- 
gree of B. A. from the Iowa State Teachers College in 1919, 
and the M. A. degree from the State University of Iowa in 
1922. Has served as superintendent of schools at LohrviUe, 
Luveme, Sewal, and Seymour. 

Louis Bernard Schmidt, Professor of History in the Iowa State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. (See The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics for January, 1922). 



179 



THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 




Established bt Law in the Yeae 1857 




INOOEPOBATED : 1867 AND 1892 




Located at Iowa City Iowa 




FORMER PRESIDENTS 




JAMES W, GRIMES First President 


BALPH P. LOWE 


BOBEET HUTCHINSON JOSIAH L. PICKAED 


S. J. KUBKWOOD 


M. J. MOBSMAN PETEB A. DEY 


P. H. LEE 


WILLIAM G. HAMMOND EUCLID SANDEES 


W. PiiNN CLAEKE 


GEOEQE G. VmiGHT 



OFFICEES 



BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH... Supisintendent 



MAEVIN H. DEY_ .— — Peesidbnt 

PAUL A. KOBAB — • — Tekastibee 



BOARD OF 

Elected iy the Society 

Aethot J. Cox Chables M. Dutches 
MABTm H. Det Moeton C. Mumma 
HxNBT Q. Waikee W. O. Coast 
S. A. SwiSHia W. L. Bywateb 
Thouas Fabkell 



CURATORS 

Appointed hy the Governor 

Lillian Clabk Caby William Q. Kebb 
Mary E. Coon Chas, E. Pickett 

John M. Geoim A. C. Smith 

Mary H. S. Johnston Helen S. Taylob 
H. O. Weaves 



MEMBERSHIP 

Any person may become a member of The State Historical SociEmr oy 
Iowa upon election by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance fee 
of $3.00. 

Membership in this Society may be retained after the first year upon the 
payment of $3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shaU be entitled to receive the quarterly and all other 
publications of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Address all Communications to 

The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 



THE 

Iowa Journal 

H i storj^eovd Pol it ics 

APRIL 1923 




Published Queo^erlyby 

THE STATE fflSTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

lowet City lows^ 



Entered Deeember 26 1902 »i Iowa City Iowa an s«-rorid clas6 matter under act of Oongresi of July 18 1894 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 



Vol XXI A 1I>T> TT 'i CkOO 


IHO Z 


CONTKNTS 




A History of the Military Department of the 

State University of Iowa Alan C. Rockwood 


183 


Some Publications 


313 


Western Americana ........ 


316 


lowana .......... 


318 


Historical Societies 


333 


Notes and Comment 


343 


Contributors 


344 


Copyright 19SiS by The State Historical Society of Iowa 





THE lOW.V JOUBNAL OF HISTORY AND FOLITK^S 

PtfBLisBED Quarterly 
AT IOWA ciri- 

' t i. 1 I 1 : $2.00 S I N G L, t > \f n F B : 50 Cents 

Address all Commvnications to 

TUK STATK iriRTORICAL BOCUSTY I"^' ' '^m' lOWA 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

APRIL NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY-THREE 

VOLUME TWENTY-ONE NUMBER TWO 



VOL. XXI — 12 



A HISTORY OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 
OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA 



I 

BEGINNINGS DURING THE CIVIL WAR 

The first steps toward the establishment of military in- 
struction at the State University of Iowa were taken during 
the early days of the Civil "War when the attention of the 
people of the State was focused upon the consequences of 
the lack of adequate provision for military instruction, the 
need of an organized militia, and the advantage of military 
training for others who might be called into service. 

In speaking before the Iowa State Teachers ' Association 
in August, 1861, Oliver M. Spencer, President of the Uni- 
versity, referred to a visit he had made to the University of 
Michigan, where a military department had recently been 
established, and said that he desired the establishment of a 
similar department at the State University of lowa.^ 

On October 24, 1861, the Board of Trustees of the Uni~ 
versity recommended to the State Board of Education the 

1 The Iowa Instructor, Vol. Ill, p. 104. 

A chair of military engineering had been established at the University of 
Michigan in June, 1861, at the request of the State Military Board and it is 
probable that, under the influence of the spirit generated by the Civil War, a 
full-fl.edged military school would have been established except for the lack of 
funds. It was found impossible to fill the chair created and lectures in mili- 
tary engineering were given by one of the professors of civil engineering. It 
is not apparent that an instructor in tactics was ever secured. On April 1, 
1869, it was voted to apply for the detail of an army officer but the committee 
was discharged on September 23rd of that year. Military instruction was not 
attempted afterwards untU the spring of 1916 at which time the University of 
Michigan looked, in turn, to the State University of Iowa for a model. — Letter 
of Prank E. Bobbins, assistant to the President of the University of Michigan, 
dated June 16, 1922; Tlie Daily lowan, November 23, 1915; letter of Lieutenant 
Eobert T. Phinney to the registrar of the University of Michigan, dated 
November 4, 1915. 



183 



184 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



creation of a professorship of "military tactics and civil 
and military engineering". A motion providing for such 
military instruction was introduced by Governor Samuel J. 
Kirkwood at the final session of the Board of Education,^ 
and this bill, as amended, was passed on December 18, 1861 : 

Be it enacted by the Board of Education of the State of Iowa, 
That whenever provision shall be made by the General Assembly 
for the expenses of a Department of Military Instruction in the 
State University, the Trustees shall establish such Department, and 
ordain laws for the regulation of the same, and on the nomination 
of the Governor of the State, shall appoint the Professor thereof, 
and provide for the safe keeping of instruments, models, books, 
arms and accoutrements belonging to said Department. They may 
also require, in their discretion, that all male students of the Uni- 
versity, not conscientiously opposed to bearing arms, be drilled in 
military tactics for so many hours in each week, as they may deem 
expedient.^ 

As the Board of Education had no authority to appropri- 
ate funds, Governor Kirkwood, in his biennial message, 
called the attention of the General Assembly to the need of 
military training and urged that suitable provision be made 
therefor. His recommendation reads in part as follows : 

2 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, p. 193 ; Eeport of the President 
of the State Unvversity, 1875-1877, p. 14, in Iowa Legislative Documents, 1878, 
Vol. I; Journal of the State Board of Education, Third Session, pp. 18, 58, 59. 

The records of the various governing boards of the University are divided 
as follovrs: 

Book A (in manuscript), pp. 7-352, contains the minutes of the four Boards 
of Trustees, July 15, 1847, to January 19, 1870 ; Book A, pp. 353-end, Book B 
(in manuscript), and Book C (in manuscript) contain the minutes of the 
Board of Eegents, June 28, 1870, to January, 1900. Printed Records of the 
Board of Eegents were distributed from July 18, 1900, to June 30, 1909, when 
the Board was abolished. These published records contained the minutes of the 
Board of Eegents, the executive committee, and the building committee. The 
Minutes of the Board of Education, one manuscript volume for each fiscal year 
for each institution under the control of the Board of Education, contain the 
records from July, 1909, to date. 

3 School Laws of Iowa, 1864, p. 39. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



185 



I am decidedly of the opinion that not only the interest of the 
institution [the State University] , but also the interest of the State 
requires that you should provide a Military Department of the 
University, and should establish a Military Professorship therein. 
The sad experience of the last few months, has shown us the neces- 
sity of military knowledge among our people. By giving to the 
young men who may attend the University, military instruction and 
training, we will not only greatly benefit them, but will also have 
made provision for what our present experience shows may, at any 
moment, become a necessity to our people. The Board of Educa- 
tion, at their recent session, directed the Trustees of the University 
to make provision for a Military Department therein as soon as the 
General Assembly should make the necessary appropriation there- 
for, and I earnestly recommend the subject to your favorable con- 
sideration.'* 

In view of the much greater needs of the active troops 
the General Assembly made no appropriation for a military- 
department at this time ; but in June, 1863, the Trustees of 
the University appropriated $500 of the general funds for 
the establishment of a System of Gymnastic exercises & 
physical training, and the employment of a suitable pro- 
fessor for the period of three months ' '.^ In August of the 
same year they set aside a like amount ''for the purpose of 
initiating a department of Military instruction" and pro- 
vided that the instruction should be given under such rules 
as the faculty should deem proper.^ 

In accordance with this provision it was announced in an 
advertisement of the University in October, 1863, that ' ' the 
students will practice in light gymnastics, under the direc- 
tion of Prof. E. R. "White ' ' and that * ' a system of military 
drill and tactics, by an experienced ofi&cer is contemplated". 

4 Shambaugli's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol 
n, p. 282. 

5 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, p. 208. 

6 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, p. 212. 



186 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



At the same time it was reported that a large hall had been 
set aside for gymnastics.'^ The first ofi&cial announcement 
of the work is found in the University catalogue for 1863- 
1864 and reads as follows : 

A gymnasium conveniently located and complete in aU its ap- 
pointments, has been arranged for the benefit of the students where 
regular exercise is taken according to Dio Lewis' improved system 
of Light Gymnastics. 

This in connection with the exercises in military drill will be 
under the charge of the professor of that department, who will give 
special attention to the development of a healthy, vigorous and 
symmetrical physique.^ 

In this same catalogue Thomas Calver, "Teacher of 
Gymnastics and Military Drill", appears as a member of 
the faculty, having been appointed to this position follow- 
ing the death of E. R. White. In May, 1864, he organized 
a college company of one-hundred-day volunteers and be- 
came a sergeant major in the regiment — the Forty-fourth 
Iowa Infantry. 

Governor Kirkwood again referred to the military de- 
partment of the University in his biennial message of 1864 
and requested that provision be made by law for a military 
professorship, stating that such provision would serve to 
popularize the institution and impart to the students the 
sort of knowledge the lack of which had caused much loss 
of life and expense during the Civil War. He mentioned 
that he had placed two hundred stands of arms with their 
accoutrements in charge of the faculty.^ 

7 Editorial notice concerning the State University of Iowa and circular of 
the State University of Iowa for 1863-1864 in the Annals of Iowa (First 
Series), Vol. I, pp. 189, 192. 

8 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1863-1864, p. 38, 1864-1865, p. 
34, 1865-1866, p. 42. This statement is omitted beginning in 1866-1867. 

oShambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
II, p. 336. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



187 



This issue of arms is verified by the report of the Adju- 
tant General of the State to the General Assembly that there 
had been issued to the University 200 French rifled muskets, 
120 screw drivers, 160 wipers, 2 bullet moulds, 4 ball screws, 
18 timibler punches, 200 cartridge boxes and plates, 200 
cartridge box belts and plates, 200 waist belts and plates, 
200 cap pouches and picks, 200 bayonet scabbards, 200 gun 
slings, and 5000 cartridges.^" The President was author- 
ized by the Board of Eegents to give bond in the sum of 
$3000 for this equipment. The rifles were to be placed 
under the immediate care of the professor in the depart- 
ment of military instruction, and he was held responsible 
for them subject to the supervision of the faculty.^^ 

A University advertisement appearing in April, 1864, 
contains this statement: 

At their last meeting, the Board of Trustees made an appropri- 
ation whereby the students of the University are provided with free 
tuition in Vocal Music, Military Drill and the ' ' New Gymnastics ' 
thus adding largely to the attractions which the University has 
heretofore presented.^^ 

For the school year 1864-1865 it appears that the sum of 
$1000 was appropriated by the Eegents for the support of 
the "Military and Gymnastic Department" in addition to 
the unexpended balance from the preceding year. 

Professor Calver, being seriously ill as a result of his war 
service, was not able to return to the University in the fall 
of 1864 following the discharge of the Forty-fourth Iowa 
Infantry. No record is available as to the instructor and 
instruction for the scholastic year 1864-1865. Charles E. 
Borland, Principal of the Preparatory Department, who 

10 Beport of the Adjutant General of Iowa, 1863, pp. xxxiv, xxxviii. 

11 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, p. 215. 
^2 Annals of Iowa (First Series), Vol. II, p. 288. 



188 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



had seen service as captain of the ''College Company" was 
placed in charge of the work for the following year at a 
salary of $250. The appropriation for gymnastics was re- 
newed to the amount of $550, but no separate allowance was 
provided for military training.^^ 

That military instruction as given at the University dur- 
ing the war was not altogether satisfactory is seen from the 
following extract from the report of the President of the 
University to the General Assembly in 1866 : 

At the opening of the war, $500 were appropriated by the Board 
for the above purpose [military training and instruction]. Two 
hundred stands of rifled muskets and accoutrements were obtained 
from the Governor, for the purpose of drill. By means of these, 
and with a suitable instructor, it was hoped to impart to the stu- 
dents a knowledge of infantry tactics, and at the same time to 
furnish them with regular and healthful exercise. Although the 
object at the time was an important one, yet the class of students in 
attendance, and the accession of new members each term and the 
withdrawal of old members, and the limited time — say one hour 
per week — that could be spared for drill from the other studies, 
rendered the experiment a partial failure. A portion of the appro- 
priation was expended in the experiment, and the balance applied 
to the support of the gymnastic exercise. Since the close of the 
war and the return of a large number of student-soldiers to the 
University, who were formerly in it, and who have learned tactics 
and drill on many a battle-field, the making of this department suc- 
cessful is not very flattering. This class of students looks upon 
home-guard drill with disfavor. It is also a failure on the ground 
of exercise, as not more than one-third of the students could be ex- 
pected to drill. While this is true, it is still possible that a Military 
Department that should teach engineering, &c., similar to the plan 
at West Point, might succeed.^* 

The last expenditure of the department recorded in 1866 

IB Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, pp. 222, 236, 237; Annnls of 
Iowa (First Series), Vol. II, p. 383. 

1* State University Beport, 1863-1865, p. 8, in Iowa Legislative Documents, 
1866, Vol. I. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



189 



is $78.09 for arms lost. At this time the Regents allowed 
$150 for the instructor in gymnastics. Professor Borland 
died in the following year ; and in June, 1867, it was voted 
to omit provision for the gymnasium, the executive com- 
mittee being placed in charge of the gymnasium property.^^ 
The last record of any State arms remaining at the Uni- 
versity appears m the Report of the Adjutant General for 
the year 1867. 

II 

FROM THE CIVIL WAR TO THE SPANISH- 
AMERICAN WAR 

In 1867, in spite of the discontinuance of military train- 
ing at the State University of Iowa, the Board of Regents 
voted that if Congress adopted the bill providing for mil- 
itary instruction the University should accept the condi- 
tions and organize under it. In passing this resolution 
the Regents were apparently acting under some misappre- 
hension: the bill providing for the detail of army officers 
as professors of military science and tactics had been in- 
cluded in the army reorganization act of July 28, 1866. 
The only restriction was that the officers were to be de- 
tailed in accordance with population and to institutions 
having a capacity for at least one hundred and fifty male 
students. 

No further action was taken in the matter, however, until 
1874, In the meantime the students debated the merits of 
military training and there were some requests for the es- 
tablishment of such a course. During this period military 
drill was compulsory for the male students of Iowa College 

15 Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, pp. 250, 262, 273, 274. 

'^^ Minutes of the Board of Trustees, Book A, p. 286; Public Laws of the 
39th Congress (First Session), Ch. 299, Sec. 26. 



190 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



at Grinnell as well as for those of the Iowa State College 
at Ames.^'^ At the meeting of the Board of Eegents on 
March 4, 1874, the Executive Committee was given author- 
ity to establish a course of military instruction, "provided 
that the appropriation to aid in the Support of the Uni- 
versity made by the present Legislature be sufficient, in the 
opinion of the Executive Committee, to justify their so 
doing ".^^ 

The following entry appears in the minutes of the Board 
of Eegents for June 26, 1874 : 

On motion of Col. A. T. Reeve a chair of Military Instruction is 
established and the following resolutions adopted : 

Resolved, That there be and hereby is established a chair in the 
University which shall be styled the Chair of MiKtary Instruction. 

Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested 
to detail an officer to perform the duties of said chair. 

Resolved, That the President of the Board, Col. A. T, Reeve, and 
the President of the University be a Committee to correspond with 
the President of the United States with a view to obtaining a detail 
of such officer to said chair of Military Instruction.^^ 

A request for an army officer as head of the department 
having been sent to "Washington in accordance with this 
motion, the following order was issued by the War Depart- 
ment: 

WAR DEPARTMENT, 

Adjutant General's Office, 

Washington, August 26, 1874. 

Special Orders, No. 167: 

1. By direction of the President, and in accordance with Section 
26 of the Act of July 28, 1866, 1st Lieutenant Alexander D. 
Schenck, 2d Artillery, is detailed as Professor of Military Science 

17 The University Beporter, October, 1871. 

18 Minutes of the Board of Eegents, Book A, p. 454. 

19 Minutes of the Board of Regents, Book A, p. 463. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 191 



and Tactics at Iowa State University, Iowa City, Iowa, and will 
report for duty accordingly-^^ 

UNDEE LIEUTENANT ALEXANDEE D, SCHENCK 

Lieutenant Schenck reported for duty on September 12, 
1874, and at once proceeded with the organization of the 

Military Battalion Iowa State University ".^^ By action 
of the faculty, taken in the fall and approved by the Board 
of Eegents in the following spring, military drill was op- 
tional with the students ; but the Eegents in approving the 
drill schedule recommended that the students "especially 
of the Collegiate Classes avail themselves of the facilities 
offered them for healthful physical training and the gaining 
of a useful accomplishment by military drill and study." 
Instruction was recommended for not less than two nor 
more than three hours per week during the fall and spring 
terms, with classroom work limited to one recitation or 
lecture per week — not involving more than one and one- 
half hours of study on the average — during the winter 
term. On the formation of companies the students were ad- 
vised to supply themselves with uniforms. As stated in 
the resolutions the object of the military instruction was 
"not to give the students an extensive Military Education 
but only so much military training and knowledge as will 
consist best with the required literary and scientific pur- 
poses of the University ".^^ 

In accordance with the rules given above, the instruction 
for the entire battalion was given on Mondays, "Wednes- 
days, and Fridays at 4:00 P. M. m the fall and spring. 

20 The EawTceye, 1899. 

21 The EawTceye, 1899; The University Beporter, November 15, 1874. 

22 Beport of the President of the State University, 1873-1875, p. 18, in Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1876, Vol. I; Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book A, 
pp. 478, 479. 



192 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



During the winter the seniors, who were also the cadet offi- 
cers, had weekly theoretical work on field fortifications and 
the science of war while the juniors had semi-weekly reci- 
tations in infantry and artillery tactics.^^ Enlistments were 
for one, two, or three terms.^* 

During the year one hundred and thirty-eight breech 
loading rifled muskets, cadet model of 1869, were received 
from the Eock Island Arsenal, together with all necessary 
accoutrements for the equipment of one hundred and thirty- 
eight men.2^ In May, 1875, it was possible to secure two 
3.2-inch muzzle loading cannon, and so a battery was or- 
ganized.^^ In addition the Eegents appropriated $400 for 
the equipment of the battalion. This money was used to 
cover the expense of buying drums, flags, fifes, and other 
necessary equipment not supplied by the Federal govern- 
ment. A set of band instruments consisting of two fifes, one 
bass drum, and six snare drums is the only item definitely 
mentioned as being bought with this fund.^' 

One of the rooms on the first floor of the Old Stone Capi- 
tol was set aside for an armory and storeroom. Apparently 
there was need of a suitable shed for the artillery where it 
could be locked up, for it is said that the boys persisted in 
dragging the cannon around and shooting them off at 
night.^^ 

The system of voluntary military instruction did not 

The Hawkeye, 1899; The University Beporter, October 15, November 15, 
1874, 

24 Catalogue of the State University of lo-wa, 1874-1875, p. 19. 

25 The Hawkeye, 1899. 

26 The Hawkeye, 1899. 

27 Minutes of the Board of Eegents, Book A, p. 478 ; Catalogue of the State 
University of Iowa, 1874-1875, p. 19 ; The Eaivkeye, 1899. 

28 The University Beporter, May 15, 1875 ; conference with 0. H. Brainerd, 
August, 1922. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



193 



prove successful, and by resolution of tlie Board of Eeg- 
ents military training, commencing with the year 1875-1876, 
was made compulsory for all physically fit male students.^^ 
In accordance with this drill requirement an order was 
drawn up, approved by the Board of Regents, and printed. 
It contained provisions concerning the organization of the 
able-bodied male students of the collegiate department as a 
battalion, the selection of staff and company officers, the 
duties of the Professor of Military Science and Tactics and 
the cadet officers, the course of instruction, the uniform of 
the battalion — a cadet gray uniform of the West Point 
pattern — and the administration of the battalion. In the 
main this order was an extension and revision of one is- 
sued earlier by Lieutenant Schenck and approved by the 
faculty. Most of the regulations which were embodied in 
this order, with minor changes and revisions, were contin- 
ued in effect for a considerable period. It is reprinted be- 
low as Appendix A (see pages 295-302). The election of 
the officers in accordance with the militia custom was never 
carried out. The appropriation recommended in the report 
of the military committee was reduced to $250.^" 

The order for compulsory military training came as a 
surprise to the students. Although it was admitted that 
this was the only way the department could be made a suc- 
cess, a number of the students loudly proclaimed that they 
would not return to school in the fall if the rule was to be 
enforced.^^ For the most part, however, those who were 
loudest in their objection to drill and most positive that 
they would not submit returned the following fall and en- 
tered the battalion without opposition.^^ Many drill and 

29 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book A, p. 502. 

30 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book A, pp. 501-505. 

31 The University Beporter, July 15, 1875. 

32 The University Beporter, October 15, 1875. 



194 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



anti-drill letters were published in The University Reporter 
throughout the year, and the terms "drill" and "anti- 
drill" were used to designate the two factions of the stu- 
dent body. In the year 1876-1877 the protests seem to have 
been almost entirely dropped and the "drill" and "anti- 
drill ' ' titles as applied to students were little used.^^ 

Credits in military science could be substituted for those 
of any of the required studies in the college course at the 
option of the student, but only one course could be omitted 
from any one department. This rule was changed by the 
faculty at a later date so that only one study could be 
dropped by those taking military drill, but the grade in 
military science might be substituted for any other grade 
when computing the average grade and the class standings. 
Students excused from military training on conscientious 
grounds were allowed to substitute the marks received in 
two extra subjects in place of the marks of two of the re- 
quired studies. The girls were allowed, for a few years at 
least, to drop their lowest grade in the computation of 
their average to compensate for the privilege allowed the 
men. The request of the girls for extra credits for outside 
reading was not allowed.^* 

UNDER LIEUTENANT JAMES H. CHESTEB 

James H. Chester, First Lieutenant, Third Artillery, 
undertook his duties as the second Professor of Military 
Science and Tactics on January 1, 1877.^^ He made his 
headquarters in the armory located in one of the rooms of 
Central Hall — the Old Stone Capitol.^s 

83 The University Beporter, October 15, 1875. 

3* Minutes of the Collegiate Faculty, January 7, 1876, March 19, 1880, March 
24, 1882, March 26, 1886; Minutes of the Board of Eegcnts, Book B, p. 44. 
88 The Hawkeye, 1899. 

36 Beport of the President of the State University, 1875-1877, p. 38, in Iowa 
Legislative Domments, 1878, Vol. I. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



195 



The purchase of the prescribed uniform was not compul- 
sory and few students purchased it on account of the ex- 
pense involved. To remedy this lack of uniformity the fol- 
lowing order was issued : 

University Battalion, N. G. S. I. 
May 9, 1877. 

Orders No. 7. 

1. Recognizing tlie difficulties and the expense attending the 
procurement of a uniform, and at the same time desiring to have 
the Battalion in a presentable shape at the end of the term, the 
following is recommended with the approval of the President of the 
University as a cheap and serviceable uniform for gymnastic and 
military exercises. 

Hat : White straw with black ribbon. 

Jacket: Red flannel overshirt with navy collar, the letters I. 
S. U. (Iowa State University) in script of white tape immediately 
below the bosom. Letters four inches high. 

Military rank to be indicated in the angles of the collar, by the 
following badges in white tapes sewed on the collar, viz : 

Corporal — Chevron of two bars. 

Sergeant — Chevron of three bars. 

1st Sergeant — Sergeant's chevrons with lozenge. 

Oolor Sergeant — Sergeant's chevrons with star. 

Second Lieutenant — One star, five pointed. 

First Lieutenant — Two stars, five pointed. 

Captain — Three stars, five pointed. 

2. It is not intended to discard the present uniform. Officers 
may continue to wear it in any company and all other students 
who have provided themselves with it will be transferred to one 
company so that uniformity in the companies may be maintained. 

3. The new gymnastic uniform is intended for the relief of the 
many students who have not yet provided themselves with any 
uniform.3'7 

Instruction under Captain Chester consisted of drill in 
the schools of the soldier, company, and battalion ; artillery 
drill and saber exercises; and parades and reviews. The 

3T The Eawlceye, 1902. 



196 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



parade ground west of the campus used tlie year before had 
been converted into a potato patch and the drills were held 
on the campus.^^ The students were organized for drill in 
a battalion of three or more companies, a battery, and a 
music corps. In 1875-1876 there were six infantry com- 
panies; in 1876-1877 there were four infantry companies; 
and in 1877-1878 and until 1903 there were four infantry 
companies and a battery. The strength of the battalion 
in 1876-1877, the only year for which a numerical roster has 
been saved, is shown in Table I. 

Table I 





University Battalion ^9 










1876-1877 










Field and 


Co. A 


Co. B 


Co. C 


Co. D 


Total 




Staff 












Commissioned 














Officers 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


15 


NON-COMMISSIONED 














Officers 




8 


8 


8 


8 


32 


Musicians 




2 


2 


2 




6 


Privates 




34 


38 


27 


36 


135 


Total 


3 


47 


51 


40 


47 


188 



Commissioned oflficers were selected from the senior class, 
non-commissioned officers from the junior class, and ar- 
tillerymen from the sophomores, as far as practicable. 
The theoretical work for the juniors consisted of weekly 
recitations from Upton's Infantry Tactics and TJ. 8. Light 



Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1878-1879, p. 38; The Univer- 
sity Reporter, April 15, 1878; Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, p. 122. 

39 Report of the Adjutant General of Iowa, 1875, p. 13, 1876-1877, pp. 41, 
49, 1878-1879, p. 39. Only 139 male collegiate students were listed in the cata- 
logue for 1876-1877. This discrepancy is probably due to the admission of stu- 
dents from the sub-freshman classes of the University and Iowa City Academy. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



197 



Artillery Tactics; for the seniors it consisted of weekly- 
lectures on army administration, grand tactics, strategy, 
military engineering, ordnance and gunnery, and military 
law and courts martial.*" Commencing with the year 1878- 
1879 the juniors and seniors were required to attend lec- 
tures or recitations twice a week during the winter term in- 
stead of weekly.'*^ These lectures were so popular that 

many visitors from the students and faculty attended 
them.42 

The committee on buildings and grounds of the Universi- 
ty recommended that a partition be placed across the lower 
hall of the Old Stone Capitol to form an armory ; but when 
it was found possible to make a saving of $2500 from the 
repair fund a two-story boiler house, thirty-six by forty- 
eight feet, was constructed, the second floor of which was 
used as an armory.*^ A third story to be used as a drafting 
room was added in 1882. This structure was known as the 
"West Building of the University, as the Armory, and later 
as the Band Eoom and Electrical Building,** In addition 
to its use as an arms storehouse, the armory was used as a 
drill hall for one or two companies when the weather pre- 
vented outdoor drill.*^ 

"UNDER LIEUTENANT GEORGE A. THURSTON 

George A. Thurston, First Lieutenant, Third Artillery, 
relieved Lieutenant Chester on January 1, 1880. During 

*o Catalogue of tJie State University of Iowa, 1877-1878, p. 52, 1878-1879, 
p. 37, 1879-1880, p. 37. 

*i The Vidette, December, 1878 ; The University Beporter, October, 1878. 

42 The Vidette, December, 1878. 

43 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, pp. 123, 135, 139 ; Beport of the 
Visiting Committee to the State University, p. 7, in Iowa Legislative Docu- 
ments, 1880, Vol. III. 

Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, pp. 224, 225; The Vidette- 
Beporter, May 27, 1882. 

45 The Vidette-Beporter, May 5, 1883, April 24, 1886. 

VOL. XXI — 13 



198 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



this year the instruction of the seniors consisted of a series 
of thirty lectures : three on army organization and admin- 
istration, eleven on grand tactics, five on strategy, three on 
military engineering, five on ordnance and gunnery, and 
three on military law and courts martial. The junior reci- 
tations in infantry and artillery tactics continued as be- 
fore.4« 

The * 'University Cornet Band" with thirteen pieces was 
organized as a part of the Military Department in the fall 
of 1880 under student leadership.*'^ It replaced an unofficial 
student band organized in December, 1875, which had 
played at the various University commencements and other 
gatherings.*^ Previous to the organization of the military 
band the Iowa City Light Guard Band had played for the 
occasional dress parades.*^ In addition to its work with 
the Military Department the band advertised for engage- 
ments and played at various University functions such as 
the "Chapel walk-around", the Garfield memorial ser- 
vices, and the conunencement exercises of the various col- 
leges.^" The University supplied some of the band instru- 
ments, but was unable to supply all because of lack of 
funds.^^ In June, 1882, the Board of Regents gave a vote 
of thanks to the band for playing at conunencement, and 
at the same time voted a gift of $25 to the leader and $75 
to be divided among the other members of the organization. 
This is the first instance of the band being paid by the Uni- 

46 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1879-1880, pp. 6, 37. 

The Vidette-Beporter, June 2, 1883, October 27, 1900; Catalogue of the 
State University of Iowa, 1880-1881; The University Beporter, December, 1880. 

48 The University Beporter, December 15, 1875, July, 1878. 

*o The Eawlceye, 1898. 

60 The University Beporter, April, 1881; The Vidette-Beporter, October 1, 8, 
1881. 

61 The Vidette-Beporter, September 16, 1S82. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



199 



versity for its extra services.^^ A drum major was added 
to the band in 1882-1883, but he did not have suitable equip- 
ment until two years later when the Regents allowed $50 
for the purchase of an outfit. During this period the band 
members spent more time on their work than the other 
members of the battalion — particularly the seniors who 
were required to attend the military lectures in addition to 
their band work.^^ 

Target practice, which before this time had been restrict- 
ed to interclass contests, was required of the entire battal- 
ion. Firing was conducted off-hand at one hundred yards. 
The location of the rifle range is not reported.^* 

Lieutenant Thurston also prescribed an ''elegant and 
comfortable" uniform consisting of a shirt and close fitting 
dark blue sack coat with brass buttons and a roll collar re- 
vealing the shirt collar, spring-bottom trousers of the same 
material with a one inch stripe along the outer seams — 
light blue for infantry and red for artillery — and a blue 
cap of the United States army fatigue pattern. These 
uniforms might be made up according to the specifications 
wherever the cadets desired, or they could be secured from 
the clothiers and tailors in Iowa City.^^ This uniform was 
continued in use until 1907. The purchase of the uniform 
was recommended by the Board of Regents on the ground 
that it would add to the appearance of the military drill 
and the education of the students.^^ Only about one-third 
of the students purchased the uniform, however, and in 

52 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, p. 229. 

53 The Vidette-Eeporter, June 2, 1883 ; Minutes of the Board of Begents, 
Book B, p. 278. 

Si The University Eeporter, November, 1880; The Vidette, October, 1879; 
Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1881-1882, p. 35. 

55 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1880-1881, pp. 35, 36. 

56 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, p. 169. 



200 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



June, 1881, the Regents passed a resolution requiring 
that students taking military drill purchase the uniform 
and "wear it when required to do so by the Professor of 
Military Science and Tactics.^'' This was not a hardship, 
however, as the uniform prescribed could be secured at a 
less cost than civilian clothing and, in addition, was very 
durable. It was customary for a majority of the students 
to wear the uniform on all ordinary occasions, and some 
were even known to wear the uniform to church to save 

Sunday clothes" for social affairs. 

The annual ceremony of "Governor's Day", which is 
still a feature of the work of the department, was instituted 
on June 17, 1881, when the battalion and band marched in 
review before Governor John H. Gear and other ojficials of 
the State. Volley firing by the infantry and artillery were 
added to the proceedings during the following year.^^ 

In 1881 it was necessary to have the ceiling of the boiler 
room plastered in order to prevent dirt and smoke from 
coming up into the armory above and interfering with 
military instruction.^^ The color sergeants were required 
to display the flag from the staff on the Old Stone Capitol 
during drill hours.^° A chaplain with the rank of first 
lieutenant was added to the staff personnel of the battalion 
— the position being filled by a student.®^ Lieutenant 
Thurston was detailed for a second term at the request of 
the Board of Eegents, but, under the operation of the three 
year service law, was able to serve only six months of the 
second period.^^ 

«7 Minutes of the Board of 'Regents, Book B, p. 189. 

es The University Eeporter, June, 1881; The Vidette-Reporter, June 22, 1882. 

«8 Minutes of tlie Board of Eegents, Book B, p. 197, 

•0 The Eawkeye, 1898. 

«i The Vidette-Reporter, October 15, 1881. 

«2 Minutes of the Board of Regents, Book B, p. 242 ; The Eawkeye, 1899 



THE MILITARY DEPAETMENT 201 



During the administrations of Lieutenant Chester and 
Lieutenant Thurston the anti-military spirit was dying out ; 
indeed, it had practically disappeared. There were no more 
outbreaks against the drill requirements, although there 
were the usual number of attempts on the part of students 
to get excused from drill.^^ 

At this time the band made many trips out of town with 
different organizations. In the year 1882-1883, for instance, 
trips were made to Mount Vernon with the football team, 
to Cedar Eapids with the Ida Mae Pryce Opera Company 
to play for a performance there, to Cedar Eapids to hear 
Theodore Thomas, and to Waterloo for the Firemen's 
Tournament.^* 

UNDER LIEUTENANT EDWAED C. KNOWEE 

Edward C. Knower, First Lieutenant, Third Artillery, 
assumed command at the University on September 12, 
1883. The strength of the battalion at this time was 152 
out of the slightly more than 200 male students in the Col- 
legiate Department.*"^ 

Practically the same system of instruction was carried 
out as under the previous officers. Eecitations in tactics 
for the juniors were increased to three per week, and the 
senior lectures were reduced to one a week. The lectures 
given to the seniors covered such topics as ''The Battle of 
Waterloo", ''Frederick the Great and His System", and 
* ' The Virginia Campaign ' '. Some of the lectures were so 
popular that they had to be repeated for the faculty, stu- 
dents, and visitors. Following the close of the lecture 
course, the seniors were allowed a period of five weeks to 

63 The Vidette-Beporter, October 7, 1882. 

6* The Vidette-Beporter, October 28, 1882, March 10, May 19, 1883. 
65 The HawTceye, 1899. 



202 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



write a thesis and prepare for examination on the lectures.^^ 
Setting-up exercises were featured for the battalion with 
the purpose of giving exercises that could be used by the 
students in their rooms for their physical development.^'^ 
Target practice at fifty and one hundred yards was con- 
tinued on Saturdays for those who volunteered for the work 
— a large portion of the cadets receiving this instruction. 
Interclass contests between rifle teams selected from the 
cadets were revived as one method of gaining the interest 
of the students.^^ 

Ceremonies of some sort — dress parade or review — 
were held every Friday afternoon during good weather. 
This practice continued until after the Spanish-American 
"War when more emphasis was placed upon the training 
needed for field service and less upon formal drill. The 
drill of the companies was placed in the hands of the cap- 
tains, the first and second lieutenants not being required to 
appear except for the weekly dress parades.^^ 

During this period the ranks of the battalion were 
swelled by students from the Iowa City Academy who, for 
the most part, were preparing for entrance into the Uni- 
versity.'^" 

The band gave numerous concerts, one of the first being 
a benefit concert on March 19, 1884, for the purchase of uni- 
forms for the band members. Subscriptions from the citi- 
zens of Iowa City helped in securing the uniforms, but 
similar efforts were necessary the following year as suffi- 

66 The Vidette-Beporter, November 3, December 8, 1883, February 23, April 
19, 1884, February 13, 1886. 

67 The Vidette-Beporter, November 14, 1885. 

68 The Vidette-Beporter, November 17, 1883, November 22, 1884. 

69 The Vidette-Beporter, April 19, May 10, 1884. 

10 The Vidette-Beporter, May 15, 1886; circular of the Iowa City Academy, 
May 1, 1891. 



THE MILITAEY DEPARTMENT 



203 



cient money was not secured the first year.''^ A series of 
outdoor concerts on the campus was inaugurated in the 
spring of 1884. The commencement week concerts were be- 
gun in 1885 with a concert in the Opera House.'^^ These 
different concerts have been continued down to the present 
time. The more formal concerts to which a small admis- 
sion fee is usually charged — to provide for the purchase 
of music throughout the year — are given in the winter. 
The campus concerts consisting of popular numbers, for 
the most part, and forming a program of about an hour in 
length are presented on spring evenings and on Sunday 
afternoons. The commencement concerts have also, in 
more recent years, been given on the campus at different 
times during commencement week. 

The annual Governor's Day exercises were extended to 
include inspection by the Governor and his staff, dress 
parade, a demonstration of loadings and firings by the dif- 
ferent units, an exhibition of dismounting and assembly of 
the artillery pieces by the battery, and review of the bat- 
talion. These extended exercises were largely maintained 
in the succeeding years. A volunteer exhibition company 
was again in evidence in 1886 and is reported as having 
taken part in the Governor's Day exercises of that year.'^ 

On the petition of the students the Regents appropri- 
ated money for gymnasium apparatus to be installed in 
the armory. The students provided an instructor and held 
voluntary classes, further crowding the small building. Ad- 
ditional apparatus was secured by means of an exhibition 
and band concert in the Opera House.'^* 

n The Vidette-Eeporter, March 22, April 12, 1884, February 28, May 2, 
1885. 

72 The Vidette-Eeporter, April 12, 1884, June 24, 1885. 
" The Vidette-Eeporter, June 24, 1885, June 23, 1886. 

74 Minutes of the Board of Eegents, Book B, p. 229 ; The Vidette-Eeporter, 
December 5, 1885, April 24, 1886. 



204 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



THE UNIVERSITY BATTALION AND THE NATIONAL GUARD 

The battalion of the State University bore a peculiar and 
indefinite relationship to the militia of the State. In the 
first roster of the organized militia companies appearing 
in the Report of the Adjutant General for 1873 the "Iowa 
College Company" and the "Iowa State Agr'l College 
Company ' ' were reported. In the following year the ' * Iowa 
College Artillery" was added to the roster. "With the reor- 
ganization of the military work at the State University the 
"University Battalion, State University, Iowa City", 
"Major A. D. Schenck commanding" appears in the report 
rendered January 1, 1876, although it had not, like the 
others, been outfitted by the State. 

With the formation of the National Guard and the organ- 
ization of regiments in 1877 the University battalion was 
reported on the rosters as an independent organization, 
and the State Agricultural College cadets and the Tabor 
College cadets as "unattached organizations". The re- 
ports of the University battalion were continued until the 
year 1893 when it was dropped from the roster. Appar- 
ently the battalion was not considered an integral part of 
the Guard, for in the Adjutant General's report of 1883 he 
said: 

The following accompanying papers are respectfully submitted : 

Roster of the Iowa National Guard. 

Roster of the University Battalion. 

Roster of the Agricultural College Battalion. 

Brigade organization.'^ 

The University had sent four delegates to the National 
Guard convention held at Des Moines on December 22, 
1875, to consider a permanent organization of the militia, 

f8 Eeport of the Adjutant General of Iowa, 1872, p. 8, 1873, pp. 6, 7, 1875, 
p. 13, 1876-1877, pp. 41, 42, 1881-1883, p. 13, 1891-1893, pp. 44, 45. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



205 



to secure an appropriation for an Iowa delegation to the 
Centennial Exposition, to work for an adequate militia 
law with compensation, and to consider the matter of mil- 
itia uniforms. While at the convention the University del- 
egates arranged with the delegates from the district for the 
formation of a regiment to be known as the "First Iowa 
Militia Eegiment ' with Lieutenant Schenck as colonel and 
A. D. Collier of Cedar Rapids as lieutenant colonel.'^^ 
Such a regiment was not formed and, as noted above, the 
battalion was reported independently. The First Infantry, 
Iowa National Guard, however, was organized from the 
eastern districts. One of the University delegates became 
regimental quartermaster and A. D. Collier became captain 
of the Cedar Rapids company. There was no Iowa City 
company. The cadets of the University were also repre- 
sented at the National Guard convention of 1877.'^'' As late 
as 1893 the following statement was made by an inspector in 
his report to the War Department : 

The battalion is considered a part of the State National Guard, 
and non-commissioned officers are recommended to the adjutant 
general of the State for promotion, and are commissioned by the 
governor.'^^ 

It is apparent, however, that the cadet battalion and 
regiment have not been integral parts of the National 
Guard in Iowa, as has been the case in Minnesota where a 
National Guard battery was organized from University 
students, or even at the University of Illinois where the 
cadet ofl&cers are commissioned as brevet captains upon 
graduation and assigned to the various organizations 
throughout the State.'^^ The University battalion was con- 
's The University Seporter, December 15, 1875, January 15, 1876. 

77 Report of the Adjutant General of Iowa, 1876-1877, pp. 18, 28. 

78 The Vidette-Beporter, September 28, 1893. 

79Eeport of Major F. D. Webster, in Gignilliat's Arms and the Boy, p. 315. 



206 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sidered an independent organization which could be called 
out in case of emergency, but it has never been so called. 
"While cadets have always received their commissions from 
the Governor through the Adjutant General of the State in 
the same fashion as the National Guard commissions, there 
is no evidence that they are of any value aside from that of 
records of service.^" 

It was customary for many years for the Governor to 
commission the Professors of Military Science and Tac- 
tics as brevet majors in the National Guard while they 
were on duty with the University. In one case after the 
formation of a cadet regiment, a brevet commission as 
colonel was granted by an act of the legislature.*^ 

In September, 1883, the University band was appointed 
the brigade band of the Second Iowa Brigade, the head- 
quarters of which were assigned to Dubuque.®- The band 
played at the National Guard encampment at Cedar Falls 
that year, and in 1885, as the Second Brigade Band, was 
sent to the Interstate Drill at Mobile, Alabama, as one of 
a limited number of bands which had their expenses paid. 
The faculty allowed the twenty-one bandsmen three weeks 
leave. The party consisted of Company C, Second Iowa 
Infantry, of Muscatine, together with General C. F. Bentley 
and his statf, the University band, and the ''Farmer's 
Brigade" which was composed of the captain of the bat- 
tery with his first lieutenant and his first and second ser- 
geants and a quartermaster sergeant. This last delega- 
tion, it was said, attracted considerable attention because 
of the "novelty and variety" of its uniforms and evolu- 

80 Letter from Brigadier General H. E. Ely, dated June 22, 1922; letter from 
Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. Weeks, dated July 4, 1922. 

81 The Vidette-Beporter, November 5, 1887; The Daily lowan, March 18, 1902. 

82 The Vidette-Beporter, September 15, 1883; Beport of the Adjutant General 
of Iowa, 1881-1883, p. 36. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



207 



tions. For the first time the band was completely uni- 
formed. There were some thirty or forty companies at 
this camp with about two thousand men in the drills, Iowa 
having sent the largest group of any of the States repre- 
sented. One week was spent at Mobile, one week at New 
Orleans, and one week in travel with numerous stop-overs 
en route.®' 

UNDER LIEUTENANT JOSEPH CALIFF 

Joseph Califf, First Lieutenant, Third Artillery, took 
charge of the Military Department in September, 1886.^^ 
Under resolution of the Board of Regents he was required 
to add drill at least once each week to the work previously 
given during the winter term. In accordance with this 
requirement the drill schedules were drawn up so that 
the theoretical work was given at three o'clock and two 
companies at a time were given drill in the armory at 
four o'clock one day a week.®^ This winter drill consisted 
of drill in the school of the company for the infantry and 
in the manual of the saber for the artillery. Saturday 
morning fencing classes for the seniors were added to the 
course.^® 

The outdoor drills were held at the foot of the hill back 
of the Old Stone Capitol. This place was reported as the 
hottest spot in Iowa City: drills were held in clouds of 
dust stirred up by the marching cadets.®'^ The spring 
drills were arranged with company drill on Mondays, bat- 
talion drill on Wednesdays, and a dress parade on Fridays 

83 The Vidette-Beporter, December 13, 1884, May 9, 1885. 

84 The EawTceye, 1899. 

9^ Minutes of the Board of Regents, Book B, p. 370; The Vidette-Beporter, 
November 10, 1888. 

86 Catalogue of the State Unvversity of Iowa, 1888-1889, p. 35. 

87 The Vidette-Beporter, May 21, 1887. 



208 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



preceded by a half hour of either company or battalion 
drill as prescribed. All of the cadet ofi&cers were re- 
quired to be present for battalion drill, but only the cap- 
tains and one lieutenant for each company taken in rota- 
tion were required to report for company exercises or at 
the winter drills. In inclement weather two companies 
drilled indoors and the others were dismissed.^^ 

Saturday target practice for the cadets of all classes 
was continued and was compulsory in the spring term. 
The firing was held on the sand banks to the west of the 
University. The request of twenty dollars for the erec- 
tion of a regulation target butt was not allowed because 
of the scaling down of the budget to keep within the in- 
come of the school.^^ 

Lieutenant Califf published his senior lectures in ex- 
tended form as a book of about one hundred and sixty 
pages covering army organization; administration; an- 
cient battle formations used by the Egyptians, Jews, Per- 
sians, the Greek phalanx, and the Eoman legion; a dis- 
cussion of the plans of Gustavus Adolphus, Frederick the 
Great, and Napoleon; a comparative discussion of modern 
tactics; weapons, explosives, and projectiles; fortification; 
troops in campaigns; and military law and courts mar- 
tial.»» 

The exhibition company was reorganized to include 
twenty-four men. The men of this company drilled as a 
separate unit during company drill, but for battalion drill 
they drilled with their companies. While the company 
was not able to arrange competitive drills with other 

88 TJie Fidette-Beporter, April 21, 1887, April 21, November 17, 1888. 

so The Vidette-Beporter, October 16, 23, November 6, 13, 1886, May 18, 
1889; Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, pp. 537, 550-556; Catalogue of 
the State University of Iowa, 1888-1889, p. 35. 

80 The Fidette-Beporter, January 12, 1889. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 209 



schools as was hoped, it took part in the annual gymnas- 
tic and military exhibitions at the Opera House and in 
the Governor's Day program.^^ 

A new ceremony was added with the inspection of the 
battalion by the Federal Inspector General, Colonel Breck- 
enridge, on October 24, 1887.^^ The Governor's Day cere- 
monies in 1888 and 1889 were extended by the inclusion of 
skirmish drills and sham battles in which blank ammu- 
nition was used.®^ Although the battery appeared on 
horseback in the Memorial Day parade of 1888, it is not 
apparent that equitation was included in the course of in- 
struction.^* 

Prize drills were instituted on May 25, 1888, with com- 
petitive events between the different companies. The 
best drilled company received the position on the right of 
the line for the ensuing year, was designated the prize 
company", and at ceremonies and parades carried a silk 
banner with the inscription Prize Company, S. U. I. 
Battalion". The best drilled sergeant of the battalion re- 
ceived a pair of bullion embroidered shoulder straps, and 
the best drilled corporal and private in the battalion a 
pair of gold lace chevrons of their respective grades for 
the following year. The two best drilled privates in the 
battery were appointed corporals commencing with the 
spring term. The best drilled private in the battalion also 
received a copy of Upton's Infantry Tactics. For the 
following year the prizes awarded were changed somewhat 
and the captain of the prize company received a regula- 
tion sword and belt.®^ 

91 The Vidette-Beporter, December 11, 1886, January 29, March 19, April 21, 
Jiine 23, 1887. 

92 The Vidette-Beporter, October 22, 1887. 

83 The Vidette-Beporter, June 20, 1888, June 20, 1889. 

94 The Vidette-Beporter, June 2, 1888. 

95 The Vidette-Beporter, April 14, May 26, June 2, 1888, May 25, June 20, 
1889. 



210 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The chief excursion made by the band was a trip to the 
International Militia Encampment at Chicago on October 
1-12, 1887. Expenses of the members of the band were 
paid out of receipts from a band concert following their 
return.^^ 

After fourteen years of service, the rifles that had been 
originally issued in 1874 were in such bad condition that in 
1889 they were exchanged for 173 of the newest model cadet 
rifles and accoutrements.^'' 

UNDEE LIEUTENANT GEORGE W. EEAD 

George "W. Eead, First Lieutenant, Fifth Cavalry, as- 
sumed command on September 12, 1889, and served for a 
period of four years, his detail having been extended one 
year at the request of the Board of Eegents.^® In ad- 
dition to his military work he served as a part time in- 
structor of mathematics, for which service he was paid 
four hundred dollars per year by the University.^® 

That the course of instruction as given by Lieutenant 
Read was a departure from the previous work is indicated 
by the course of study as laid out in the catalogue : 

The practical Course in Infantry embraces small arms, target 
practice and, as far as possible, all the movements prescribed by 
the drill regulations of the U. S. Army applicable to a Battalion. 
Instruction in Artillery embraces, as far as practicable, such por- 
tions of the United States drill regulations as pertain to the forma- 
tion of detachments, manual of the piece, mechanical maneuvers, 
aiming drill, saber exercise, and target practice. Instruction is 
also given in the duty of sentinels and, as far as practicable, in 
castramentation. 

98 The Vidette-Beporter, June 4, October 1, 1887, January 21, 1888. 

»7 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, pp. 532, 535, 536. 

08 The HawTceye, 1899 ; Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book B, p. 687. 

89 Report of the inspector to the War Department in The Vidette-Beporter, 
September 28, 1893. 



THE MILITARY DEPAETMENT 



211 



Theoretical instruction is by recitations and lectures personally 
conducted and given by tbe Professor of Military Science and 
Tactics and includes a systematic and progressive course in the 
following subjects: The drill regulations of the U. S. Army, the 
preparation of the usual reports and returns pertaining to a Com- 
pany, the organization and administration of the U. S. Army, and 
the elementary principles governing the art of war.^*'*' 

Instruction of the new men in the fall was carried out in 
special squads from which they were promoted to the 
companies as they became proficient. Preliminary in- 
struction had previously been given by companies to both 
the old and the new men.^"^ The target practice mentioned 
in the above extract was held at 300 and 500 yards by 
those who volunteered for the work from nine to twelve on 
Saturdays. With the large number who volunteered it 
was necessary to divide the class into sections with a 
limitation of five shots for those who were specially pro- 
ficient and ten shots for the others.^"^ 

The revised infantry drill regulations of 1891 were 
adopted in November of the same year. At the government 
inspection the University was commended for being the 
first school to employ the new regulations and for pro- 
ficiency in them.^"^ 

Drill schedules in the fall and spring were practically the 
same as in previous years. The following is a typical 
schedule for the winter term: 

I. The following programme of instruction in the Military De- 
partment is announced for the winter term : 
4:30 to 5:30 p. m. — 

100 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1889-1890, p. 42. 

101 The Vidette-Beporter, September 20, 1890. 

102 The Vidette-Beporter, December 17, 1891, .January 14, February 25, 
March 31, December 8, 1892. 

103 The Vidette-Beporter, May 17, 31, 1892 ; S. U. I. Quill, November 14, 
1891, p. 89. 



212 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Monday, Lecture for Seniors. 

Tuesday, Recitation in Artillery Drill Regulations, Drill for 
Companies "A" and "B." 

Wednesday, Recitation of first section in Infantry Drill Regula- 
tions, DriU for Companies "C" and "D." 

Thursday, Recitation of second section in Infantry Drill Regu- 
lations, Drill for Battery. 

Band practice, Monday and Thursday, from 7 to 9 p. m. 

Gallery practice, Saturday, 9:30 a. m. 

II. All Seniors are required to attend lectures. 

III. All Juniors, except those in the band and those who have 
been excused from drill on account of permanent physical dis- 
ability, are required to take Drill Regulations. 

IV. Sections in Drill Regulations will be composed as follows: 
Artillery Section, Sergeants of the Battery and such other mem- 
bers as may be designated upon application. 

1st Infantry Section, Juniors of "A" and "B" Companies. 
2d Infantry Section, Juniors of "C" and "D" Companies. 
Non-Commissioned Staff Officers will report to the Commandant 
for assignment to a section.^*** 

The organization was also the same as before with all 
freshmen drilling in the companies and the sophomores 
permitted to enter the battery or the band if they so de- 
sired. Sophomores were divided into two sections and 
reported to the captain of the battery on different days for 
instrnction. The gun sections for the commencement drill 
were selected from the most proficient students of both 
groups. ^''^ This arrangement resulted in the sophomores 
receiving both infantry and artillery instruction; in Feb- 
ruary, 1892, they were excused, on their petition, from 
infantry drill every other week, and in the following year 
from infantry drill during the winter term.^"^ 

104 The Vidette-Beporter, January 12, 1892. 

lOB Tfte Vidette-Beporter, September, 1889, October 11, 1890; S. U. I. Quill, 
October 17, 1891, p. 54. 

106 The Vidette-Beporter, February 2, 1892 ; S. U. I. Quill, November 26, 
1892, p. 126. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 213 



A drill company of sixteen men was organized in 1889- 
1890 for exhibition drills of the silent manual done in uni- 
son.^"'^ 

At this time the University was one of the few institu- 
tions having four years of compulsory military work. 
Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ames had voluntary instruction 
after the first two years; Kansas had no drill; and Mis- 
souri had drill only for those accorded free tuition. Al- 
though the faculty did not grant a petition, presented in 
1891, that the men in active training for football be excused 
from military training, this was permitted the following 
year. A similar petition of the track men the next spring 
was not granted.^"^ Since that time the men on the varsity 
athletic teams have generally been exempted from the re- 
quirements of military drill during their active training 
season. 

The strain on the armory was relieved by the comple- 
tion of the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. building known as 
Close Hall and the transfer of the gymnasium classes to its 
rooms. A request of the Regents and the legislative 
visiting committee that an appropriation be made for the 
purchase of land between the campus and the river for a 
parade ground and athletic field was not granted by the 
legislature.^"^ This land was later purchased by the Ath- 
letic Union and forms the present Iowa Field. 

Guard mount was added to the list of ceremonies for the 
first time in May, 1890. The annual prize drills were 
held in 1891 with the award of shoulder straps of appro- 
priate grade to the winners in the different individual 

107 The Vidette-Eeporter, November 23, 1889. 

108 The Vidette-Beporter, September 29, 1892, February 28, April 20, 1893 ; 
S. V. I. Quill, October 17, 1891, p. 55, December 10, 1892, p. 139. 

109 Beport of the Visiting Committee to the State University, p. 6, in Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1890, Vol. II; The Vidette-Beporter, June 18, 1890. 

VOL. XXI — 14 



214 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



events. In the following year the competitive company 
events were combined with the commencement drill exer- 
cises and the individual events were eliminated.^^" 

The band was reorganized in 1889 as a distinctly Uni- 
versity organization to eliminate the trouble caused by the 
admission of preparatory students as bandsmen. Several 
different appropriations were made by the Regents for 
the purchase of instruments and music. In aU cases the 
leader of the band was a student of the University. The 
band practiced four hours per week in addition to attend- 
ing the weekly parades.^^^ 

UNDER LIEUTENANT CHARLES B. VOGDES 

Charles B. Vogdes, First Lieutenant, First Infantry, 
took up his duties in June, 1893, and served for a period of 
four years, receiving a one year extension of his three year 
detail.^^^ His chief departure in the matter of instruc- 
tion was the introduction of weekly sophomore recitations 
on the infantry drill regulations. In 1896 the juniors and 
seniors were required to take two hours of theoretical work, 
but in 1897 this requirement was reduced to one hour per 
week. The indoor drill in the winter was continued, being 
held in the city armory with two companies drilling at the 
same time.^^^ 

Lieutenant Vogdes prepared a textbook, Notes on Minor 
Tactics, which was published by the University and used 
for several years. The book gave a complete treatment 

110 The Vidette-Beporter, May 10, 1890, May 23, June 18, 1891, June 14, 
1892 ; S. U. I. Quill, June 18, 1892, p. 197. 

^■Li-The Vidette-Beporter, October 12, 1889, April 1, 1893; Minutes of the 
Board of Begents, Book B, p. 558. 

112 The Eawl-eye, 1890. 

113 The Vidette-Beporter, December 18, 1894, January 12, 1897 ; S. U. I. 
Quill, November 17, 1894, p. 104, November 23, 1895, p. 118, January 11, 1896, 
p. 152. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 215 



of all divisions of tactics in outline form, and was one of 
the first books published for military instruction at civil- 
ian coUeges.^^* Practical problems in tactics were also in- 
troduced in the spring work of the battalion.^^^ 

In his last year of service at the University, Lieutenant 
Vogdes arranged a change of the University schedule 
whereby all outdoor drills were given at 1 :15 P. M. Dur- 
ing the winter term the collegiate classes met an hour 
earlier in the afternoon and the military classes were held 
at 4:30."^ The department was hampered in its work of 
this year because the armory had been converted into a 
temporary classroom as a consequence of the crowded con- 
dition of the other University buildings.^^'^ 

Two credits were allowed for military science — one 
each in the junior and senior years. These were counted 
as replacing two of the thirty-six credits required for 
graduation.^^* 

During these four years the drill requirements were 
made more rigid and fewer exemptions were allowed. 
Juniors and seniors who were not required as officers or 
non-commissioned officers were, however, exempted from 
military training, commencing with the fall of 1894. The 
first order to this effect issued by the faculty on May 25, 
1894, and approved in an extended form on November 2, 
of the same year, reads as follows : 

A. Requirements. 

1, First and second year students, whether registered as regular 
or special, shall drill in the ranks. 

114 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book C. p. 64. 

115 S. U. I. Quill, May 22, 1897, p. 367. 

118 The Vidette-Beporter, December 12, 1896, April 3, 1897 ; S. U. I. Quill, 
October 24, 1896, p. 71. 

iiT Bepcyrt of the President of the State University, 1895-1897, p. 29, in 
Iowa Legislative Documents, 1898, Vol. II. 

118 The Vidette-Beporter, October 10, 1896. 



216 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 



2. The necessary non-commissioned officers of the grades above 
corporal shall be chosen from the Junior class, and these shall in 
addition to their practical work take the first year of the theo- 
retical work. Juniors or third year students not selected as non- 
commissioned officers may elect whether or not to take the theo- 
retical work. 

3. Commissioned officers shall be chosen from the senior class, 
and these shall take in addition to their practical work, the second 
year of the theoretical work. Seniors or fourth year students not 
selected as officers may elect whether or not they will take the 
theoretical work. 

B. Credits and Recognition. 

1. Juniors or third year students having served their one year 
as non-commissioned officers and having taken the theoretical work 
prescribed for juniors shall receive one credit. 

2. Seniors or fourth year students who have served also as com- 
missioned officers for one year and taken the theoretical work pre- 
scribed for seniors shall receive an additional credit. 

3. Seniors having drilled in the ranks for two years and taken 
all the prescribed theoretical work may receive one credit, whether 
they have served as officers or not. But to this rule members of 
the band shall not form an exception, — that is, members of the 
band who want a credit at the end of their senior year must have 
taken all the prescribed theoretical work. 

4. It is recommended that the organization of the battalion be 
hereafter published in the annual catalogue ; that at least the list 
of non-commissioned and commissioned officers should appear in 
the catalogue. 

C. Exemption from Military Dutt. 

1. Physical disability. Under this head we recommend (1) that 
the Battalion Surgeon be urged to distinguish sharply between fit- 
ness for drill and fitness for army service. (2) That the Battalion 
Surgeon be directed by this faculty to grant no certificate of phys- 
ical disability except on the ground of unfitness for drill as dis- 
tinguished from unfitness for army service. The committee are of 
the opinion that being in sufficient possession of the senses of hear- 
ing and seeing for the ordinary purposes of life, and ability to 
carry a gun and to make double-quick time, constitute fitness for 
drill. (3) The committee suggest that it is very important to dis- 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



217 



tinguisli between temporary and permanent exemption. As a rule, 
we tMnk the Battalion Surgeon's certificate should be issued for 
definitely limited periods of time at the expiration of which students 
should be held to report for further examination. (4) We suggest 
that the Battalion Surgeon be directed to endorse no certificates 
from other physicians except for short periods only, not to exceed 
a week or two, after which students holding such certificates shall 
report to the Battalion Surgeon for further examination. 

2. Financial Inability. This excuse presents itself under two 
forms: (1) inability to purchase the uniform; (2) the plea of 
necessity for self-support. The former of these we regard as an 
insufficient excuse, inasmuch as a military suit can be secured at 
from $10 to $14 and may be worn in the class room and on the 
street. The committee recognize, however, that it might be a hard- 
ship to require a student to buy such suit as a condition of en- 
trance, and we suggest that unless arrangements can be made to 
furnish such students suits it might be advisable to organize and 
place such men in non-uniformed squads, until they can provide 
themselves with suits. As for the second' reason, that the time 
required for drill is needed for labor self-support while in school, 
we urge that its acceptance by the military committee be strictly 
always for a limited period of time and subject to renewal only on 
condition that the military committee are informed of the actual 
work done by the student applying for exemption on this ground. 

3. Conscientious Scruples. As this excuse is entirely subjective 
it is exceedingly difficult to determine when it is valid, but we sug- 
gest that in the case of minors it should be made a question of 
conscientious scruples on the part of the parent or guardian, and 
in the case of those of age connection with some public organization 
in which opposition to war is an article of faith, should alone be 
taken as evidence. 

4. Athletics. We believe that if the foregoing rules are ob- 
served we may encourage gymnasium work and out-door sports by 
excusing men from time to time to serve on athletic teams of the 
University without impairing the efficiency of the military depart- 
ment, and we suggest: (1) That such excuses should be limited 
to certain seasons of the year and for express and definite periods 
of time. (2) A distinction can be made between those athletic 
exercises in which collective work is essential and those in which it 



218 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



is of less importance. (3) No student should be excused on account 
of membership in any of the athletic or track teams until he has 
learned the rudiments of his duty as a man in the line. (4) We 
believe it would be expedient in the fall term to excuse members 
of the foot-ball team, under conditions similar to those of last fall, 
and in the spring such men as on the Home Field Day win places 
on the track team, provided that in all cases there is unquestionable 
evidence of systematic training under the guidance of competent 
directors, and provided the list does not contain the names of 
Freshmen or first year students before they have learned their 
place and duties in the ranks, and provided that no one be in the 
list of the excused whose average scholarship falls or has fallen 
within any three months preceding date of application for excuse 
below F [75%]. (5) We recommend the creation of an Advisory 
Committee to be composed of the Commandant and the Captains of 
the Battalion, to which any applications for exemption from mili- 
tary duty may be referred by the Military Committee of the Fac- 
ulty for advice or information. 
D. Military Discipline. 

1. That at the beginning of the fall term or sooner this Faculty 
appoint a committee to act with the incoming Commandant, to 
draft a simple code of regulations for the guidance of students 
subject to military duty. 

2. These regulations in our judgment should cover among oth- 
ers the following points : 

(1) That it is the duty of every male student in the Collegiate 
Department to report to the Commandant on the day designated 
for the first drill, or upon the first driU day after such student shall 
have registered, and that a failure to so report will be counted as 
an absence from a prescribed military duty. In case a student 
expects to apply for exemption from military duty, he will so in- 
form the Commandant, who will give him the necessary instructions. 
Students who may have a certificate of disability should be required 
to file the same with the Commandant in accordance with the spirit 
of the above rule. A system of penalties for absences, lates and 
other delinquencies, for the enforcement of regularity and prompt- 
ness in the performance of military duty. The delinquencies for 
which demerits are to be given should be determined by a com- 
mittee of the Faculty upon the recommendation of the Com- 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



219 



mandant. The delinquencies and the number of demerits for each, 
and the penalty should be clearly stated in the printed regulations. 

(2) A sufficient number of copies of these regulations should 
be printed for distribution and a copy furnished to each student at 
the time of his registration. 

(3) We recommend that the Commandant be directed to 
authorize guard to clear the campus of small boys or other persons 
who interfere with the seemliness of drill or dress parade.^^^ 

Additional regulations quoted below were approved on 
January 11, 1895 : 

The following rules and regulations, in addition to those already 
prescribed shall govern in granting excuse from Military drill, on 
account of work on the athletic teams. 

1st. Excuse will only be granted to students of good standing 
in the Military Department. 

2nd. All applications for excuse shall be made in writing to the 
Athletic Advisory Committee through the Manager of the Athletic 
Team and the Battalion Commandant, who will endorse thereon 
their approval or disapproval.^^" 

The new system of discipline suggested in the above 
report was provided for in the following resolution which 
was approved by the faculty on November 28, 1894: 

First — Every officer and non-commissioned officer shall have 
authority to report students junior in rank to themselves, for any 
delinquency committed during the hour of drill. 

Second — All reports shall be given to the 1st Sergeant of the 
Company to which the offender belongs. 

Third — The 1st Sergeant of each Company shall keep a book, in 
which shall be entered the names of all delinquent students, with a 
statement of the offense committed and the name of the officer 
making the report. This book shall be submitted to the Company 

Minutes of the Collegiate Faaulty, May 25, November 2, 1894; resolutions 
adopted November 2, 1894, in Bules and Begulations of the Faculty of the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts (in manuscript), 1907. 

120 Minutes of the Collegiate Faculty, January 11, 1895. 



220 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Qommander for his approval, and by him transmitted to the bat- 
talion Commandant. 

Fourth — On the drill day following that of report, the names 
of all delinquent students with the offense committed shall be pub- 
lished by the Adjutant of the Battalion. 

Fifth — Each student shall be allowed one week to make expla- 
nation for any offense for which he is reported. The explanation 
will be made in writing and in the following form. [The form 
prescribed included the date, a statement of the offense, and an 
explanation, signed by the person submitting it, together with his 
rank in the battalion and his company.] 

Sixth — These explanations shall be submitted to a committee of 
the battalion consisting of the Commandant and the five student 
Captains, for their action in the matter. 

Seventh — In the case of unsatisfactory explanation, or failure 
to explain in the allotted time, a certain number of demerits shall 
be given for each offense. 

The student's name with the number of demerits awarded shall 
be entered in a book kept for that purpose. 

Eighth — When a student shall have received 100 demerits with- 
in the school year, he shall thereby be suspended for two weeks 
from all work in the University. 

Ninth — The following scale shaU govern in awarding demerits 



for different offenses. 

1 — Unexcused absence from drill 20 

2 — Appearing at drill without uniform or in 

incomplete uniform 5 

3 — Late at drill 3 

4 — Inattention in ranks 2 

5 — Repeated inattention 10 

6 — Minor offenses 1 



Tenth — A student shall be counted late at drill who fails to take 
his place in ranks at the last note of the signal for assembly. 

Eleventh — It shall be the duty of the second sergeant of each 
company to report all students who are late at any formation of 
the Company; for this purpose he will at the signal for assembly 
of the Company, place himself opposite the left flank, taking his 
post as guide on the completion of the formation of the Company.^^i 

121 Minutes of the Collegiate Faculty, November 28, 1894. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



221 



The scheme of demerits prescribed in the resolution 
given above was continued in force, with modifications, 
until 1918. Since that time it has not been applied except 
as regards unexcused absences. At the present time all 
drills or lectures missed must be made up, with two * dates'' 
counting as one absence. Unexcused absences must be 
made up on the basis of two hours for one. 

Practically three-fourths of the male collegiate students 
were taking the required military work. The strength of 
the battalion varied from 160 to 240 depending upon the 
season of the year.^22 

Target practice was made compulsory for the freshmen 
for two hours a week during the winter of 1896. Eifle 
practice was held at the 200 and 300 yard ranges. A rifle 
team was formed in the spring of 1895 and attempted to 
secure interscholastic contests.^^^ The following fall the 
University of Illinois proposed an interscholastic shoot to 
be held at 200 yards. The invitation was accepted and a 
rifle range laid out in what is now the City Park. The 
Iowa team was selected by Lieutenant Vogdes from the 
men practicing on Saturdays. 

The match was fired on May 10, 1897, in competition 
with the following schools : Massachusetts Agricultural 
College; the University of North Dakota; Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute; Seaton Hall College, South Orange, N. 
J. ; Norwich University, Northf ield, Vermont ; the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee; Vincennes University, Vincennes, In- 
diana; Doane College, Crete, Nebraska; Michigan Military 
Academy, Orchard Lake, Michigan; the University of 
South Dakota; Sheffield Scientific School of Yale Uni- 

122 The Vidette-Beporter, November 4, 1893, September 28, 1895, October 10, 
1896; S. U. I. Quill, November 14, 1896, p. 107; The HawJceye, 1898. 

123 S. U. I. Quill, October 13, 1894, p. 43, October 27, 1894, p. 68, April 20, 
1895, p. 310, January 11, 1896, p. 152. 



222 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



versity ; Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee ; the 
University of California; Pennsylvania Military College; 
St. John 's Military School, Manlins, New York ; Ohio Nor- 
mal University, Ada, Ohio; DePauw University; and the 
University of Illinois. The State University of Iowa was 
third in the field with 350 ex 500, the University of Illinois 
scoring 375 and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute 385.^^* 

The blue uniform was still worn by the cadets. A new 
cap insignia with the company letter mounted upon the em- 
blem of the branch of service was adopted for the enlisted 
men and the letters S. U. I. upon a wreath for the officers. 
Regulation cloth chevrons and white stripes were substi- 
tuted for the gold chevrons and the blue and the red 
stripes. Officers of the battalion were required to wear 
the regulation blue dress uniform with concealed buttons, 
standing collar, and shoulder straps.^^^ 

The first military ball was held on February 26, 1895, in 
Smith's Armory. Lieutenant Vogdes had entertained the 
idea for some time but had not carried it out earlier be- 
cause of the apparent lack of interest on the part of the 
cadets. The ball was arranged by a committee consisting 
of the Commandant, the cadet captains, and a few others. 
Tickets sold for one dollar. The Armory was decorated 
with flags and sabers with stacked rifles in various places 
about the hall and one of the cannon in a corner. About 
eighty couples attended. Many of the cadets were in uni- 
form. 

On February 14, 1896, the second battalion ball was 
given for the benefit of the Athletic Union. Members of 

-y^iThe Vidette-Beporter, October 17, 20, 1896; S. U. I. Quill, February 13, 
1897, p. 212, May 15, 1897, p. 355; TJie Hawkeye, 1899. 

125 The Vidette-Beporter, October 12, 1893 ; S. V. I. Quill, October 27, 1894, 
p. 67; The Hawkeye, 1898. 

126 The Vidette-Beporter, January 15, February 7, 12, 16, 28, 1895. 



I 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



223 



the legislative visiting committee were special guests at 
this time. The third military ball was given on February 
12, 1897. Lieutenant Vogdes offered to finance the party, 
at which a small deficit was incurred, due to non-atten- 
dance of some of the cadets who had promised to attend. 
This deficit and the advent of the Spanish- American War 
caused the series to be discontinued for a few years.^^'^ 

The usual activities were continued. An exhibition 
bayonet squad of eight men was organized in 1894, the 
members of which held weekly drills of an hour each and 
gave an exhibition drill in the evening following the State 
field meet.^^^ The Governor's Day exercises were con- 
tinued, but were now brought into commencement week at 
the request of the Board of Eegents. There were competi- 
tive company drills but no individual events.^^^ 

The battalion and the band attended the G. A. E. encamp- 
ment at Cedar Eapids on April 28, 1896, to take part in the 
parade, the expenses being paid by Cedar Eapids and Iowa 
City people. The excursion lasted from noon to 7 :30 P. M. 
and the cadets were reported by the newspapers as having 
made a favorable impression.^^** It is recorded that the 
band also made numerous out-of-town trips with different 
organizations. Concerts were given on the campus follow- 
ing the weekly ceremonies. The first band promenade 
was held on May 15, 1896, and consisted of a reception and 
band concert followed by a dance.^^^ 

127 The Vidette-Beporter, February 15, 1896, February 11, 13, 1897 ; S. U. I. 
Quill, February 15, 1896, p. 216, February 13, 1897, p. 213. 

128 The Vidette-Beporter, April 17, June 2, 1894. 

129 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book C, p. 44 ; The Vidette-Beporter, 
June 4, 1895; S. V. I. Quill, June 13, 1896, p. 398, May 22, 1897, p. 367. 

^aoThe Vidette-BepoHer, April 23, 25, 30, 1896; S. U. I. QuiU, April 25, 
1896, pp. 313, 319, May 2, 1896, p. 330. 

131 S. U. I. Quill, May 9, 1896, p. 343, May 16, 1896, p. 356, May 8, 1897, p. 
344; The Vidette-Beporter, May 16, 1896. 



224 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



UNDEE LIEUTENANT HANSON E. ELY 

The eighth Professor of Military Science and Tactics at 
the University was Hanson E. Ely, Second Lieutenant, 
Seventeenth Infantry, who assumed his duties on June 1, 

1897, and served until called into active service for the 
Spanish-American War.^^^ 

Instruction was carried out in the same fashion as before. 
Dress parades were held weekly in the fall and spring, with 
campus band concerts immediately following in the spring. 
Practical drills were given on the other two days each 
week. Winter drills were held in Smith's Armory once 
each week with one company taking the gallery for in- 
struction in the manual of arms and the loadings and 
firings and the other company occupying the main floor 
for company drill or calesthenics with the rifle. Theoreti- 
cal instruction of the three upper classes was held one hour 
per week. The seniors attended military lectures, the 
juniors recited on Vogdes's Notes on Minor Tactics, and 
the sophomores recited on the drill regulations. The 
freshmen were encouraged to take the theoretical work 
with the sophomores.^^^ 

Ill 

PERIOD OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR 

"With the declaration of war with Spain papers were cir- 
culated at the suggestion of Governor Shaw. These were 
signed by those cadets who were willing to go should the 
battalion be called into active service. All but about fif- 

132 The Eawlceye, 1899; Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1897- 

1898, p. 7. 

133 S. V. I. Quill, October 23, 1897, p. 66, October 30, 1897, p. 74, April 9, 
1898, p. 310, April 23, 1898, p. 325; The Vidette-Beporter, November 18, 23, 
December 7, 16, 1897. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



225 



teen of tlie two hundred cadets signed the papers. Lieu- 
tenant Ely was elected to serve as major of the battalion 
if it should be mustered into service: separate elections 
were held in each company and the battery with the same 
result. The five captains sent a request to Governor Shaw 
that Lieutenant Ely should be assigned to command if a 
call for active duty were made. 

Dean Amos N. Currier, Acting President of the Univer- 
sity, however, wrote to Governor Shaw and requested him 
to pay no attention to the petitions of the members of the 
battalion for active service: they were largely minors, 
under the "care" of the faculty; many had signed the 
several petitions who did not mean to ; irate parents were 
expostulating; and, lastly, granting such requests would 
sweep away the flower of American youth. Governor 
Shaw replied that the calling out of the University bat- 
talion was the last thing he had thought of doing.^^* 

When the cadets found that they would not be called for 
duty as a body they proceeded with the organization of a 
volunteer battery composed of students from the Univer- 
sity and the Iowa City Academy. Although the men of 
this company went to Des Moines with Lieutenant Ely, 
they were not mustered into service as the Iowa volunteer 
quota had been changed from three regiments of infantry 
and two batteries of artillery to four infantry regiments 
and two batteries as organized, without volunteer artillery. 
As a consequence the volunteer battery was disbanded and 
many of the men volunteered in other organizations. A 
total of forty-eight men left school to join the volun- 
teers.^^^ 

Lieutenant Ely was ordered to duty as mustering officer 
for South Dakota troops on May 7, 1898. F. A. Soleman, 

134 The Vidette-Eeporter, March 31, April 2, 23, 1898. 

135 The Hawkey e, 1900; The Vidette-Beporter, April 23, 26, 28, May 3, 1898. 



226 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



senior captain of the battalion, was appointed major and 
placed in charge of the instruction for the balance of the 
year.^^^ No government inspection was held, but Gover- 
nor's Day was scheduled as usual.^^'^ 

INSTRUCTION UNDER UNIVERSITY GRADUATES 

In August, 1898, the Regents voted to secure the detail 
of another army officer. When it was found to be im- 
possible to secure such a detail it was thought that military 
instruction might be given up entirely. In September the 
faculty voted to abolish the military requirement; but this 
action was reconsidered and repealed at the meeting on 
October 7th and a report accepted which provided that the 
work should be resumed on October 10th, that the time of 
drill should be limited to the time set apart by the faculty, 
and that the theoretical work, including tactics, should be 
limited to one hour per week through the winter term and 
given only to sophomores and juniors.^^^ 

Since it was impossible to secure an instructor from the 
War Department the work was given by graduates of the 
University for the next three years. These instructors 
carried graduate or professional studies in addition to 
their work with the battalion. George Schaeffer, son of a 
recent President of the University, served as Comman- 
dant for the year 1898-1899. He had been the senior cap- 
tain in 1896-1897 and had graduated from the Collegiate 
Department in the same year. Frederick S. Holsteen who 
had been the captain of the battery for 1897-1898 and was 
enrolled in the Law Department was selected as instructor 

138 S. U. I. Quill, May 14, 1898, p. 367 ; T7ie Vidette-Beporter, May 10, 1898. 
1S7 The Vidette-Beporter, May 24, 1898. 

138 Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book C, p. 243; The Vidette-Beporter, 
September 17, 29, October 1, 1898; report No. 36, October 7, 1898, in BuUs 
and Begulations of the Faculty of the College of Liberal Arts (in manuscript), 
1907. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



227 



for 1899-1900. He later became a lieutenant colonel in the 
Iowa National Guard. Gordon F. Harkness, senior cap- 
tain for the preceding year, was placed in charge for 1900- 
1901.139 

The course of instruction under all three of these officers 
was practically the same, the following entry in the calen- 
dar for 1900-1901 being typical : 

First Tear — Practical instruction three hours a week, 4 :30 to 
5 :30. Practical instruction in infantry drill, school of the soldier, 
company and battalion drill, ceremonies, extended order, and 
general battle formations. 

Rifle firing on the University range at 100, 200, 300, 500, and 
600 yards. 

Second Year — Practical instruction ; infantry, same as first 
year; artillery in service of field guns (foot battery), with me- 
chanical movements and saber exercise ; signal corps service and 
rifle flring, same as first year. 

Theoretical : Winter term, one hour a week, 4 :30 to 5 :30. Reci- 
tations : United States army drill regulations and guard duty. 

Third Year — Practical, same as second year. 

Theoretical : Service of security and information, including gen- 
eral instruction in the theory of outposts, reconnaisance, advance 
and rear guards, cavalry screen, and maneuvering of troops on the 
march and field of battle. 

Fourth Year — Officers ' school ; practical, same as third year. 

Theoretical: General instruction in the maneuvering of troops, 
strategical operations, and the planning of campaigns. 

The work of the fourth year is optional.^^** 

The sections dealing with the fourth year were added 
to the description of the course for the first time in 1900- 
1901. 

In 1898-1899 the battery took a special course in signal- 

139 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1896-1897, p. 78, 1897-1898, 
p. 88, 1898-1899, p. 14; Calendar of the State University of Iowa, 1899-1900, 
pp. 5, 17, 1900-1901, p. 19. 

i«> Calendar of the State University of Iowa, 1900-1901, p. 147. 



228 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ling. During the following year Major Holsteen organized 
a signal corps in connection with the battery, composed of 
those students who were physically incapacitated for drill 
but did not have that appearance. The detachment started 
with six men but more were expected as infirmities de- 
veloped among the students.^^^ A bugle corps of four men 
was also organized for the first time in 1901 and received 
instruction under a chief musician.^*^ Several minor 
points of interest may be noted. The University rifle 
range which had been closed for five years was reopened 
for service.^*^ Smith's Armory was rented as usual for 
the three hours per week for the winter drill.^** The out- 
door drills were divided: the battalion drills were held in 
the athletic park, the company drills on the campus and on 
Clinton Street, and the weekly parades on the campus.^*^ 
A sham battle was added to the outdoor drills in 1901. 
The battle was held in Sanders Woods north of town. No 
casualties were recorded.^*^ 

All cadets were required to salute the cadet officers 
when they appeared in uniform on the campus. The sys- 
tem of demerits was continued unchanged except for the 
award of ten instead of five demerits for incorrect uni- 
form.^^'^ Governor's Day and the company and artillery 
section competitive drills were held each year. The field 
and staff officers and the battery appeared on horseback 

141 S. U. I. Quill, December 17, 1898, p. 153 ; The Vidette-Eeporter, October 
17, 1899. 

142 The Vidette-Eeporter, May 25, 1901. 

143 The Vidette-Eeporter, May 25, 1901. 

"ii* Executive and Building Committees' Becord, July 18, 1900, to November 
20, 1900, p. 23; The Vidette-Eeporter, November 27, 1900. 
145 The Vidette-Eeporter, April 10, 1900. 

lie The Vidette-Eeporter, May 14, 18, 1901; S. U. I. Quill, May 18, 1901, 
p. 376. 

147 The Vidette-Eeporter, October 9, 1900, April 13, 1901. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



229 



for the Governor's Day exercises of 1900 and 1901 and the 
Memorial Day parade of 1901.^*8 

Many different regulations were adopted as a conse- 
quence of the large number of students who still managed 
to get excused from drill under the rules of the faculty. 
In 1899 and 1901 it was necessary to refuse to excuse men 
who were on the track team, since the battalion was at a 
minimum strength because of the large number of excuses. 
This condition existed in spite of efforts to prevent exemp- 
tions on unreasonable grounds and the giving of excuses 
less freely than in previous years. The returned veterans 
who were exempted from the requirements accounted, in 
part, for the large number excused. The military com- 
mittee was authorized to require one semester of military 
drill service of those who did not present their claims for 
exemptions promptly. The names of those excused for 
athletic sports remained on the company rolls without 
credit until it was reported that the student had actually 
been practicing at the drill hour. 

The engineering students were excused from drill com- 
mencing with the fall of 1900 on account of conflicts with 
their other work. This policy was continued until the or- 
ganization of the College of Applied Science when it be- 
came possible to so arrange the engineering classes that 
there should be no conflict. In April, 1901, out of a total 
of 354 students in the College of Liberal Arts, 197 students 
were drilling. The Board of Regents made provision in 
June, 1901, for the excusal of all those with a satisfactory 
standing in the Military Department who were taking 
part in athletic sports, provided that not over forty stu- 
dents should be so excused at any one time.^*'' 

148 The Vidette-Beporter, June 9, 1899, May 12, 19, June 7, 1900, May 25, 
28, June 1, 15, 1901. 

li^The Vidette-Beporter, April 4, September 28, 1899, October 13, 1900, 

VOL. XXI — 15 



230 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



In 1900-1901 at the practically unanimous petition of the 
cadets the uniform was changed to include the regulation 
army campaign hat and canvas leggings. This change was 
made in order to save the uniform from the dust and mud 
of the athletic field and from the mud and snow encoun- 
tered in the winter on the way from the University Armory 
to Smith 's Armory. A hat costing one dollar and leggings 
costing fifty-four cents were selected. The campaign hat 
was to be worn with the regular fedora crease and without 
lettering or ornaments. The hat and leggings were worn 
at all drills except ceremonies for which the fatigue cap, 
white collar, and white gloves were required. In the fol- 
lowing year the provision for the hat and leggings as a 
part of the uniform was rescinded.^^'^ The University sup- 
plied uniforms to band members not in the Collegiate De- 
partment and as a result the entire band was uniformed 
for the first time in 1900-1901.i«i 

IV 

FROM THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR TO THE 
WORLD WAR 

UNDER LIEUTENANT GEORGE R. BURNETT 

George Ritter Burnett, First Lieutenant, Ninth Cavalry, 
retired, was secured as the head of the Military Depart- 
ment for the four year period 1901-1905. He had served 
at several different military institutions since his re- 
tirement from active service on account of physical disa- 

April 16, 1901; resolutions of October 13, 1899, and report No. 137, April 6, 
1900, in Rules and Eegulations of the Faculty of the College of Liberal Arts 
(in manuscript), 1907; Becord of the Board of Eegents, June 7-11, 1901, p. 4. 

ISO The Vidette-Reporter, October 13, 18, November 3, 8, December 4, 1900 ; 
The Hawkeye, 1902. 

181 The Vidette-Reporter, September 22, 1900, May 25, 1901. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



231 



bility. Lieutenant Burnett was given a brevet commission 
as colonel in the Iowa National Guard in order to give him 
rank over the cadet officers. Although he had secured an 
extension of detail he left in 1905 to become Superintendent 
of Blees' Military SchooL^^^ 

The chief change in the work of instruction was the in- 
troduction in 1903 of theoretical instruction on the drill 
regulations and the manual of arms for the freshmen. In- 
struction of the freshmen was carried out by the captains 
who thus participated for the first time in the teaching. 
The sophomore and junior instruction was continued as 
before together with senior lectures for the officers on 
army paper work and first aid to the injured. Weekly 
winter drills were continued in Smith's Armory, two com- 
panies drilling at a time, until the completion of the new 
University Armory after which the battalion drilled as a 
whole. A special series of ten lessons in physical training 
was included in the winter training.^^* 

Instead of drafting the seniors. Lieutenant Burnett 
adopted the policy of giving promotions to those men de- 
siring further military work. He also endeavored to make 
promotions by companies as far as practicable in order to 
keep the prizes in the same company that had received 
them and to develop company spirit. The position of 
cadet major was created for the first time with the ap- 
pointment of "W. 0. Coast as cadet major in command of 
the battalion in January, 1902. A junior major and in- 
spector of rifle practice was appointed the next year.'^^* 

152 'Record, of the Board of Begents, June 7-11, 1901, pp. 27, 28, 1903-1905, 
p. 324; The Daily lowan, March 18, 1902, April 26, 1905. 

153 The Daily lowan, January 8, 15, March 25, 1903, December 3, 1904, 
January 13, 15, March 8, 1905. 

154 The Daily lowan, October 19, 1901, January 4, September 26, 1902, Febru- 
ary 13, 1903. 



232 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



At the close of the school year in 1903, in accordance 
with War Department orders, the artillery squad was dis- 
continued, members of the battery being transferred to 
other companies. The organization was continued as one 
battalion of four companies and a band — the companies 
averaging about forty men each.^^^ 

Several changes were made in the administration of the 
battalion. Excuses from drill were now to be granted by 
the faculty instead of by the student committee and it was 
no longer possible to be excused on account of indifference. 
Instead of allowing five hours of credit for each of the 
last two years of military science, one and two-thirds 
semester hours were allowed for each year of drill com- 
pleted. Those excused were required to present other cred- 
its in lieu of the credits missed.^^® The following report 
covering these points was approved by the faculty on Feb- 
ruary 15, 1905: 

1. With a view to placing the Military Department on the same 
relative footing academically as the other departments of the Uni- 
versity, it is respectfully urged that Military instruction be consid- 
ered as "studies" and that academic credit be awarded therefor on 
the same basis as for laboratory work, 

2. That all male under-graduate students, not physically in- 
capacitated, be required to take Military Instruction during their 
first two years in residence ; excepting as provided in paragraphs 
3 and 4. 

3. That the Military Committee be authorized to excuse at the 
beginning of each school year, a number of students, not to exceed 
10% of the total required registration, on "certificates of honor," 
that they are working their way through the University, provided 
however that if any such excuse be revoked by said committee the 
student be required to make up his deficiency in this work. 

155 The Daily lowan, December 13, 1902, January 15, February 13, 1903, 
October 1, 1904. 

158 y;ie Daily lowan, October 4, 1902; Calendar of the State University of 
Iowa, 1902-1903, p. 189, 1903-1904, p. 195, 1904-1905, pp. 108, 215. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 233 



4. That students registering with junior or senior standing may 
be excused from the provision of paragraph 2, on written applica- 
tion to the Military Committee. 

5. That students presenting credits for military work from 
institutions where a U. S. Army officer is on duty, shall receive 
credit here, the same as in like cases for other studies, on the recom- 
mendation of the Commandant ; provided that in no case shall more 
credit be allowed for this outside work, than is given for the re- 
quired course. 

6. That such students as elect, with the approval of the Com- 
mandant to continue the Military Instruction for another year 
after the completion of the required course, shall be awarded addi- 
tional academic credits for the same, provided that in no case shall 
credit be given for more than three years' work. 

7. That in no case shall credit for military work be given unless 
the full required course of four semesters be taken. 

8. That in all cases where students are excused from this work, 
on no matter what grounds, they shall be required to obtain the 
full number of credits exacted of other candidates for the degree 
sought, in order to graduate. 

9. That the Military Committee be authorized to dispose of 
cases not covered by these provisions, as they arise. 

10. That these provisions take effect from the beginning of the 
school year of 1905 and 1906.i" 

The usual rifle work was continued as a part of the in- 
struction. Target practice and gallery practice in the old 
armory were required of all cadets. The rifle work was 
conducted largely on the University range across the river 
in the grove belonging to Euclid Sanders with the firing 
at the longer ranges for competitions at the Company I 
range a few miles from town.^^^ In 1902 and 1904, the bat- 
talion participated in the intercollegiate shoot but was pre- 
vented from doing so in 1903 by the flooding of the range 

IS"? Eeport No. 377a, February 15, 1905, in Rules and Begulations of the Fac- 
ulty of the College of Liberal Arts (in manuscript), 1907, 

158 The Daily lowan, February 26, March 1, September 26, October 18, 1902, 
June 15, 1903, May 31, 1905. 



234. IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



by Mgli water. A team was organized for these matclies in 
1905, but no report of entries or scores was made. 

Through the efforts of Lieutenant Burnett several prizes 
were given to the department for the annual competition. 
These were a $75.00 sword offered by Coast and Son to be 
worn by the captain of the best drilled company, the two C. 
Yetter medals for the best drilled junior and sophomore, 
the George Sueppel medal for the best drilled freshman, 
the H. J. Wieneke medal for the best drilled junior in. the 
battery, and the Burnett medal for the best marksman in 
the battalion. These are all traveling prizes and have been 
competed for annually, commencing with 1902. The 
Wieneke medal has been awarded for various purposes 
since the giving up of the artillery — usually to the captain 
of the second highest company in the competitive drill. 
These drills were made a feature of the work of the depart- 
ment, school being dismissed that all might attend. As 
many as forty cadets competed for one of the prizes in an 
individual contest.^^^ 

About this time the band was increased to' thirty-five 
pieces. It revived the free campus concerts and also the 
band concert and dance. Such a band dance was held in 
Smith's Armory on March 15, 1904. The audience packed 
the building to capacity and over forty couples remained 
for the dance as guests of the band members, dance music 
being supplied by an orchestra picked from the band 
members. Similar band dances were given the following 
year.^^" By a ruling of the Board of Eegents, effective in 
1902-1903, a tuition rebate of $12.50 was allowed for each 
professional student serving one year in uniform in the 

1B9 TJie Daily lowan, March 13, 18, April 3, May 9, 15, 17, 1902, May 26, 
June 2, 3, 1903, May 16, 24, 31, June 3, 1905. 

iflo The Daily lowan, March 15, 16, May 17, October 7, 1904, March 7, 15, 18, 
April 26, May 27, 1905. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 235 



band. This provision was made because of the nnkempt 
appearance of the band which was only partly uniformed. 
Beginning with 1905-1906 this tuition refund was increased 
to $25.00 to not over ten students. The band made its 
usual trips to athletic contests with the expenses paid by 
the Athletic Union or by student subscription and to the 
conventions of different organizations in the State. The 
band and band orchestra also played at several parties. 

THE TJNIVEESITT ARMORY 

The President of the University had voiced the need of 
a new drill hall as far back as his biennial report of 1881, in 
which he said : 

Our Military Department is sustained without expense to the 
State. To make it effective we need very much a drill hall that can 
be used in stormy and in winter weather.^^^ 

In the report of 1885 a request was made for an armory 
and gymnasium to cost $5000 with equipment, and the Re- 
gents requested an athletic field and a gymnasium in their 
report to the legislature in 1887. In 1893 it was reported 
that the armory in the boiler house was altogether too small 
for instruction in anything aside from the manual of arms. 
Another request was made by the Eegents in 1895 : the bat- 
talion was larger than ever before and President Schaeffer 
asked $30,000 for an armory building. At this time the 
legislature allowed a one-tenth mill annual tax for buildings 
at the University.^*^ A committee of the Board of Regents 

i«i The Daily lowan, April 16, 1902 ; Becord of the Board of Begents, June 
10-12, 1902, p. 22, July 22, 1902, p. 18, April 11-13, 1903-1905, pp. 345, 346. 

162 Beport of the President of the State University, 1879-1881, p. 69, in Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1882, Vol. II. 

163 Beport of the President of the State University, 1883-1885, p. 30, in Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1886, Vol. II; Beport of the State University of Iowa, 
1885-1887, p. 4, in Iowa Legislative Documents, 1888, Vol. II; Beport of the 
State University of Iowa, 1891-1893, p. 32, in Iowa Legislative Documents, 
1894, Vol. II; Beport of the State University of Iowa, 1893-1895, pp. 8, 35, in 
Iowa Legislative Documents, 1896, Vol. II. 



236 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



recommended the erection of the first wing of the hospital, 
a Liberal Arts building, and an addition to the Old Stone 
Capitol for a library in the order named, and advised that 
an armory should be erected as the fourth building. In 
this connection the following recommendation was made : 

The need of the University is a large auditorium, wherein the 
commencement attendance can be well cared for — and this can be 
met by the erection of an Armory that need not cost to exceed 
$30,000, and its location need not be definitely named but it prob- 
ably would be suitably located on or near the west line of the 
campus. The Military Department needs a drill room badly and 
this would supply it. . . . The Armory and Auditorium on 
the West slope, it is suggested, would afford a grand machinery 
room for the engineering department in the basement story, and 
which, looking west would be a full story.^^^ 

In their report of 1899 the Eegents said : 

The military instruction afforded by the university has proved to 
be of great value to the young men who have received it, and to the 
state which has given it, and we believe it is part of the duty of the 
state university to persevere, even against great obstacles, in giving 
this instruction. As we are now situated we are compelled to prac- 
tically suspend this instruction during the entire winter, while 
neighboring universities are so situated that they can carry it on 
throughout the whole year without interruption. Ohio, Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota all have spacious and well-furnished 
armories and drill halls, which also serve the purpose of gymna- 
siums, and give their students not only the benefit of military drill 
throughout the entire year, but also opportunity to take that sys- 
tematic and continual exercise so necessary to the health and proper 
development of either sex. That these opportunities so fully af- 
forded by the universities of neighboring states may be given to the 
Iowa boys and girls who prefer our own schools, we earnestly rec- 
ommend that the one-tenth mill tax for buildings be continued for 
five years more.^^^ 

loi Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book C, p. 113. 

19S Beport of the State University of Iowa, 1897-1899, pp. 13, 14, in Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1900, Vol. II. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



237 



The proceeds of the first five years of the one-tenth mill 
tax were exhausted by the allowances made for the Hall of 
Liberal Arts and the Regents requested a doubling of the 
millage tax for the next five years, again calling attention to 
the need for a drill hall. The General Assembly repealed 
the one-tenth mill tax at this time and allowed a new tax of 
one-fifth mill to cover the replacement of the buildings de- 
stroyed by fire as well as the erection of new buildings. 

On April 9, 1903, the Board of Eegents voted to erect a 
building suitable for an assembly hall, gymnasium, and 
armory and directed the executive committee to obtain 
plans for the building. This motion was reconsidered on 
June 17th, deferred until July, and referred to the building 
committee for a report on the construction and location of 
the building. In the meantime, the building committee had 
directed the architects to prepare preliminary plans for an 
assembly hall, armory, and gymnasium building which 
should have a seating capacity of about twenty-five hun- 
dred and cost $100,000, but it was impossible to carry out 
these plans on acount of the lack of funds. In January, 
1904, it was decided to construct a brick building for a per- 
manent armory and athletic pavilion and for temporary 
use as a gymnasium. The building was located on the west 
half of a block which had been acquired west of the main 
campus. The east half of this block was cleared for the 
parade ground which had become a necessity with the erec- 
tion of the Hall of Liberal Arts on the former parade 
ground.i^^ 

The new Armory was completed at a cost of $31,170 for 
the building and $4020 for the equipment, making a total 
cost of $35,190. It was 84 by 162 feet in size with a main 

i«o Tiefort of the State University of Iowa, 1899-1901, pp. 19, 20, 22, 37, in 
lo-wa Legislative Documents, 1902, Vol. Ill; Record o^ the Board of Begents, 
January to June, 1903, pp. 42, 69, 124, 1903-1905, pp '8, 93, 255. 



238 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

drill hall 70 by 125 feet. Offices for the Commandant and 
the officers of the battalion, and the athletic department 
and athletic teams were placed in front on the ground 
floor; general locker and bathrooms and a band room on 
the second floor; and a general reading room, faculty 
locker room, fencing and boxing room, and the "I" fra- 
ternity room on the third floor. Gun lockers were placed 
around the main drill floor and a twelve lap running track 
was located in the gallery. The formal dedicatory exer- 
cises were held at the University convocation on February 
22, 1905. The building was placed under the control of the 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics and was de- 
signated the ''Armory and Athletic Pavilion". With the 
completion of the building, the Eegents made provision for 
an instructor in physical training for the first time since 
1865.1" 

THE MILITAET BAUL, 

The military ball was revived with the giving of the 
fourth ball in 1902 and has been an annual affair ever 
since. Governor and Mrs. A. B. Cummins and the Gover- 
nor's staff were present at the ball which was held in 
Smith's Armory on April 18, 1902. A review by the Gover- 
nor took place in the afternoon, followed by a dinner given 
by President and Mrs. George E. MacLean for the Gover- 
nor's party and the cadet officers. The dance in the even- 
ing was reported to have proven most popular. Ninety- 
three couples were in attendance, a new attendance record 
for University parties being made. The ball was given by 
a committee of the first sergeants of the battalion and bat- 
tery and decorations were carried out in the national col- 

The Daily lowan, January 20, 27, February 18, 21, 23, March 1, 1905; 
Becord of the Board of Eegents, 1903-1905, p. 314. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



239 



ors with various articles of military equipment worked into 
the designs. 

The following year the ball was given on May 15th by a 
committee of officers appointed by Lieutenant Burnett. 
It was held for the benefit of the Athletic Union and the 
admission was fixed at $3.00. This price was continued 
until the war — ^with the exception of the year 1908 when the 
party was made informal. The ball was said to have been 
the most popular of all of the University parties.^®^ 

The University band played the two-steps for the seventh 
military ball in 1905 and an orchestra selected from the 
band members played the waltzes. This dance was ar- 
ranged by the company commanders and was held in the 
newly finished University Armory, in which place the sub- 
sequent military balls have all been given.^'^*' 

Twenty-four military balls have been held to date — 1922. 
They were conducted by the cadet captains of the regiment 
until 1917 when Scabbard and Blade assumed control. 
Since that time the cadet captains and field officers have 
formed the committee with the cadet colonel as chairman. 
"With the growth of the regiment and the increase in the 
number of officers the committee became unwieldy and 
commencing with 1922 it has been reduced to the cadet field 
officers. The decoration of the Armory by the committee 
instead of by contract has allowed the use of more elaborate 
decorations than for the class parties and without greater 
expense. Before the war, in particular, the decorations 
became so elaborate that the work covered two or three 
days. The decorations are always carried out in red, 
white, and blue with flags or ornate designs of bayonets or 
sabers worked in. 

168 The Daily lowan, February 25, April 4, 15, 16, 19, 1902. 

i«9 The Daily lowan, February 21, April 30, May 16, 20, 1903. 

110 The Daily lowan, February 14, 24, March 1, 1905 (advertisement). 



240 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The profits are usually devoted to some purpose con- 
nected with the regiment ; the present regimental standard 
was purchased with the accumulated profits of several years 
and the club rooms of the Officers' Club were fitted out 
with a similar fund. It is customary to have the Governor 
of Iowa and his staff and the senior army officers of the 
State present whenever possible. The cadets have always 
worn their cadet uniforms except for a few years after the 
change to the olive drab uniform when civilian full dress 
was customary. During and since the war the cadet of- 
ficers have attended in the uniforms of their rank and the 
others have been at liberty to choose either uniform or for- 
mal civilian attire. The military ball has the distinction of 
being the oldest of the annual University parties which are 
still being given, the first to extensively decorate the Uni- 
versity Armory, and the first to introduce leather, cellu- 
loid, and metal programs.^'^^ **The fact that every cent 
taken in, and often more, is put into the Military ball by 
the committee, makes the party one anticipated with con- 
siderable pleasure every year." ''The military ball has 
always been conceded the best decorated formal of any of 
the big university parties ".^'^^ 

UNDEE LIEUTENANT CHARLES W. WEEKS 

Charles Warren "Weeks, First Lieutenant, Thirtieth In- 

171 The military balls have teen held on the following dates: Eebruary 26, 
1895; February 14, 1896; February 12, 1897; April 18, 1902; May 15, 1903; 
April 8, 1904; March 3, 1905; February 21, 1906; May 10, 1907; January 17, 
1908; January 15, 1909; April 1, 1910; January 13, 1911; January 12, 1912; 
April 4, 1913; January 9, 1914; January 8, 1915; January 21, 1916; January 5, 
1917; January 11, 1918; May 9, 1919; April 9, 1920; January 7, 1921; and 
January 13, 1922. For further data consult the University papers for the 
weeks immediately preceding and following these dates. 

The first junior prom was held in April, 1896, the first senior hop in June, 
1897, and the first sophomore cotillion in November, 1897. — The Vidette- 
Bcporter, April 21, 1896, June 10, November 2, 1897. 

172 The Daily lowan, November 15, December 12, 1913. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



241 



fantry, served as Professor of Military Science and Tactics 
for a period of four years commencing in September, 1905, 
his detail having been extended for one year beyond the 
usual three year period.^'^^ 

The first step taken by Lieutenant Weeks was the reduc- 
tion of the number of students excused from drill on flimsy 
pretexts. This was accomplished through the cooperation 
of the faculty military committee. These excuses usually 
resulted from the abuse of the exemptions extended to those 
who were working their way through school. At the sug- 
gestion of Lieutenant Burnett, the military requirement 
had been reduced to two years' work, since most other 
schools required only that amount but, at the same time, 
the requirement was changed to include three hours per 
week throughout the year to partly compensate for the re- 
duction, and the requirement of military training was made 
more nearly universal. It was also possible to require 
physical training of those exempted fro^m military training 
since the University now had an instructor in that subject. 
These changes were embodied in the following rules of the 
Liberal Arts faculty which were adopted on December 13, 
1905: 

1. That the one hundred twenty credits now required of all 
students for graduation, in the case of students hereafter matricu- 
lating in the College of Liberal Arts, shall be regarded as scholastic 
credits. 

2. That in addition to the scholastic credits four hours of mili- 
tary drill shall be required of all male students for graduation; 
and in case military drill is not taken, an equivalent in hours of 
physical training shall be required for graduation of all students 
men or women. 

3. In case a student shall not, for any reason take the required 
work in either military drill or physical training, he or she shall be 

173 Calendar of the State University of Iowa, 1905-1906 to 1908-1909 inclu- 
sive; The Daily lowan, December 12, 1907. 



242 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



required to present one hundred twenty-four scholastic credits for 
graduation. 

4. In case a student shall continue military drill and physical 
training beyond the required number of hours, an allowance not to 
exceed two hours shall be made for such extra work. 

5. That all male undergraduate students shall be required to 
take military drill during their first two years in residence ; except- 
ing as provided for in paragraphs No. 6, No. 7, and No. 10 of this 
report. 

6. That students matriculating with junior or senior standing 
shall not be required to take military drill. 

7. That in case a student in his first or second year who has not 
been matriculated with junior or senior standing, be excused from 
military drill, he shall be required to take physical training during 
the year for which he is so excused. In case a student be excused 
from both military drill and physical training, such action shall be 
considered in the nature of a postponement; and, unless such stu- 
dent be permanently incapacitated for such work he or she, shall 
be required to take the work or its equivalent before being gradu- 
ated from the College of Liberal Arts. 

8. That physical examinations under the supervision of the 
Department of Physical Training and Athletics shall be required 
of aU students entering the College of Liberal Arts. 

9. That students matriculating with junior or senior standing 
must register for physical training unless excused therefrom by the 
Committee on Military and Physical Training or the Committee on 
the Physical Training of Women. 

10. That students presenting credits from other institutions for 
either military or physical training shall receive an equivalent 
number of hours here, on recommendation of the heads of the de- 
partments respectively concerned, provided no more hours shall be 
allowed than are given for the required courses. 

11. That in the adjustment of their work between the two de- 
partments of Military Science and Physical Training and Athletics 
no more than a total of six semester hours can be earned in connec- 
tion with the work of the two departments, of which four only 
shall count for graduation. 

12. That in no case shall the work in military drill or physical 
training be considered as completed unless the full required course 
of four semester hours be taken. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



243 



13. That for the purpose of carrying out all provisions with 
reference to the two departments concerned in this report, there 
shall be two committees : the first shall be known as The Committee 
on Military and Physical Training; the second shall be known as 
the Committee on Physical Training of Women. . . . 

The former Committee shall be a combined committee, repre- 
senting the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Applied Science and shall 
consist of five members. Two of these shall be ex-officio the heads 
of the two departments concerned. Of the other three members of 
the Opmmittee one shall have no work in the College of Liberal 
Arts, and one shall have no work in the College of Applied Science, 
and the other member shall be one who has work in both colleges, 
and he shall act as Chairman of said committee. 

14. The Committee on the Physical Training of Women shall 
be authorized to excuse women from physical training; provided, 
however, that in case any such excuse shall be revoked by said 
committee, such excused student shall be required to make up her 
deficiency in this work. 

15. The Committee on Military and Physical Training shall 
have like power in the case of the men with the same proviso. 

16. That hereafter in providing legislation affecting the whole 
body of students in the College of Liberal Arts, the two committees 
the one on Military and Physical Training and the one on the 
Physical Training of Women shall constitute a joint committee to 
prepare and report such legislation, the chairman of the larger 
committee acting as chairman of the same. 

17. That any provision in this report, annulling the provisions 
of reports adopted prior to the present University year, with refer- 
ence to the credits which students already matriculated may earn, 
shall be considered as not applicable to such students. Any provi- 
sion in this report annulling the provisions made in previous re- 
ports adopted since the opening of the present university year shall 
go into immediate effect. 

These rules served to increase the work required for 
graduation as the military training credits had previously 
been counted as a part of the required credits but now were 
merely additional work, with the exception of the credits 
allowed for the third and fourth years. 



244 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



With the organization of the School of Applied Science 
the exemption of engineering students from military duty 
had been withdrawn. This action was confirmed by the 
faculty of the College of Applied Science when it was 
organized as a separate college and the students were re- 
quired to take two years of military work. The adminis- 
tration of the drill requirements was placed in the hands of 
a joint committee selected from the faculties of the Liberal 
Arts and Applied Science colleges.^''* 

Another step taken by Lieutenant "Weeks to improve the 
morale of the cadets was a change of uniform. The old 
blue uniforms had been passed down from class to class 
until they were green with age : some of the boys seemed 
to be wearing the uniforms worn by their fathers before 
them. The change to the cadet gray uniform of the West 
Point pattern with a standing collar was made in the third 
and fourth years of Lieutenant Weeks 's detail. Band 
members wore the regulation dark blue dress uniform with 
white stripes. The same uniform was worn by cadets and 
officers alike thus saving the purchase of another uniform 
by the third and fourth year men. All uniforms were re- 
quired to be made to measure to insure a good fit and no 
men were allowed to drill with their companies until they 
had secured their uniforms. ^'^^ 

Begiiming with the year 1906-1907 the schedule of in- 
struction was rearranged so that the theoretical classes 
were held one hour each week throughout the school year 
and drill was held two periods per week. The freslnnan 
classes covered the Infantry Drill Regulations and the 

174 Eeport No. 426, November 22, 1905, in Bulcs and Eegulations of the Fac- 
ulty of the College of Liberal Arts (in manuscript), 1907; Minutes of the 
Faculty of the College of Applied Science, December 8, 1905, January 5, 20, 
February 2, 1906; letter of Lieutenant Colonel Weeks, dated July 4, 1922; The 
Daily lowan, March 31, 1905. 

175 The Daily lowan, September 18, 1906, September 22, 1907. 



THE MILITARY DEPAETMENT 245 

Manual of Interior Guard Duty, the sophomores the In- 
fantry Drill Regulations, the juniors the Small Arms 
Firing Regulations, and the seniors the Field Service 
Regulations. The cadets were divided into some twenty- 
five small sections for theoretical instruction by the cadet 
officers. A mock court martial was added as a part of the 
theoretical instruction in 1908 and attracted much interest 
from the papers throughout the State. New cadets were 
assigned to their companies at once and the special "awk- 
ward squads ' ' abolished and as a result of this change, the 
cadets were reported to be two months ahead of the custom- 
ary schedule. A new grading system was adopted in con- 
nection with instruction, on which basis twenty demerits or 
less were credited as "very good", twenty to fifty demerits 
as "good", fifty to eighty demerits as "fair", eighty to one 
hundred as "failed" or "conditioned", and more than one 
hundred became cause for suspension from the Univer- 
sity.i^« 

Target practice was continued as far as the annual am- 
munition allowance by the War Department would permit. 
Sub-calibre practice was substituted for practice with 
service ammunition and a gallery was erected in the Ar- 
mory to take the place of the dangerous fifty foot range on 
Iowa Field. The University rifle team finished third in the 
intercollegiate outdoor rifle meet of 1906 with a score of 
350 ex 500, Shattuck Military School taking first with 403. 
In 1907 the University team took sixth place in the national 
intercollegiate indoor meet with a score of 341 ex 500, Cali- 
fornia taking first place with a score of 402.^'^'^ 

-11^ The Daily lowan, February 7, October 31, 1906, March 1, 1908; The 
Eawlceye, 1909; Calendar of the State University of Iowa, 1908-1909, p. 217. 

177 The Daily lowan, April 5, October 4, 1906, March 24, April 10, 17, May 
17, September 26, 1907, February 21, 1908, October 21, 1916; Beport of the 
President of the State University, 1906-1908, p. 38, in Iowa Legislative Docu- 
ments, 1909, Vol. II. 

VOL. XXI — 16 



246 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The usual annual ceremonies were continued. Gov- 
ernor's Day was moved back to the Friday before com- 
mencement. The University presented sabers to all 
captains and majors in the regiment upon the completion 
of a year's service. This custom was continued until the 
abolition of sabers during the World War. Weekly cere- 
monies were held during spring drill and, in 1909, retreat 
was held semi-weekly at the conclusion of drill.^'^^ 

It was necessary to add a fifth company to the battalion 
in September, 1906, and a sixth company in the following 
year, thus forming a regiment of six companies, a band, and 
a bugle corps composed of two trumpeters from each com- 
pany. Promotions were made upon the basis of written 
competitive examinations, the non-commissioned officers 
being selected from the sophomores, the subalterns from 
the juniors, and the captains from the seniors.^"^^ 

The old Springfield rifles were finally discarded in favor 
of the Krag-Jorgensen rifles in the summer of 1906. There 
were two hundred and eighty cadets that fall and only two 
hundred rifles, so one hundred additional rifles were se- 
cured. The muzzle loading cannon of the model of 1862 
which, since the disbanding of the battery, had been used 
merely for military ball decorations and the firing of the 
Governor's salute were returned to the Rock Island Ar- 
senal.^^" 

The Varsity Rifles were organized by Lieutenant Weeks 
in October, 1905, as a voluntary crack drill company, for 
the purpose of fostering a military spirit among the cadets. 
The organization was patterned after one of a similar 

178 The Daily lowan, April 10, 1907, February 29, June 3, 15, 1909; Minutes 
of the Faculty of the College of Applied Science, November 22, 1907. 

179 The Daily lowan, October 3, 1906, October 4, 15, 1907, March 8, October 
1, 1908; Calendar of the State University of Iowa, 1908-1909, p. 215. 

180 JJecord of the Board of Begents, 1905-1908, pp. 222, 279; The Daily 
loivan, September 18, 28, October 31, November 14, 1906, February 14, 1908. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



247 



nature whicli had been started at the University of Ne- 
braska by the Commandant, Lieutenant John J. Pershing, 
and was later known as the Pershing Eifles. Sixty men — 
about one-fourth of the battalion — attended the first meet- 
ing, the membership usually ranging from thirty to sixty 
men. Membership was voluntary, the new members being 
elected. The requirements for membership were regular 
attendance at drills one night per week over and above the 
battalion drills, and absentees were required to pay a fine 
unless excused by the captain. Officers were elected by the 
club, the Commandant being elected the captain in each 
case. 

The meetings were devoted to weekly drills and competi- 
tive spell-downs. Medals donated by Lieutenant "Weeks 
were awarded to the high ranking men at the end of the 
year and later a gold watch fob was awarded to each man 
winning five spell-do\\Tis during a year. Exhibition drills 
were held in connection with the physical training exhibi- 
tions and on Governor's Day. Efforts were made to hold 
competitive drills with the Cummings Eifles of Ames, the 
Nebraska University Eifles, and the University of Illinois 
but proper railroad arrangements could not be made. On 
one occasion the Ames company had no rifles. Special 
drills, cavalry formations, marching, and Butts's Mamial 
were also taken up. Since it was impossible to arrange 
competitive drills with other schools, in 1908 an excursion 
was made to the Eock Island Arsenal. In addition to the 
military side of the organization a club room was main- 
tained in the Armory. The Eifles were continued under 
Lieutenant Mumma with practically the same practices but 
were discontinued or allowed to drop soon afterwards.^^'- 

181 The Daily lowan, October 26, 1905, March 6, 8, May 24, November 15, 
1906, February 13, March 26, April 10, 24, October 2, 3, 25, November 1, 1907, 
March 20, November 18, 1908, March 7, Juno 9, November 4, 19, March 16, 



248 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



During 1906-1907 the cadet officers attempted to have 
"cadet informal" in the Armory on alternate Saturday 
afternoons. Cadets were asked to attend in uniform and 
music was to be supplied by a special orchestra selected 
from the band members. It was believed that there was 
need of properly supervised Saturday afternoon dances to 
replace the numerous small dances held during the week, 
but after the first dance the series was vetoed by the social 
committee of the Board of Deans on the ground that the 
amount of dancing at the University should not be increased 
and that such a dance would not replace the others.^^^ 
Cadet hops were not held again until 1909 when the cadets 
gave a series of informal evening dances during the winter. 
Uniforms were not obligatory and the dances were not lim- 
ited to members of the regiment.^^^ 

With the appointment of Henry G. Cox, instructor in the 
School of Music, as bandmaster in 1906, the band was di- 
rected by a professional director for the first time. The 
band was increased to over fifty pieces during that year 
but was again decreased to about half that number for some 
years following. The usual concerts were given at the 
University and, in addition, one was given at the Burtis 
Theater at Davenport, on March 15, 1907. Two band con- 
certs and dances were given in the Armory the same year. 

In 1907-1908 the band was reorganized and made more 
of a military organization and the members were allowed 
to divide the proceeds of the concerts and dances among 
themselves. Two band dances were given that year, and 
one concert dance, eight dances, and three concerts in 1908- 

1910; The SawTceye, 1909, 1910; Beport of the President of the State Univer- 
sity, 1905-1906, p. 30, in Iowa Legislative Documents, 1907, Vol. Ill; letter of 
Lieutenant Colonel Weeks, dated July 4, 1922 ; letter of Lieutenant Colonel 
Mumma, dated July, 1922. 

182 The Daily lowan, December 20, 1906, January 13, 18, 25, 1907. 

183 The Daily lowan, January 29, 31, February 9, 14, March 11, 1909. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



249 



1909. The members of the musicians ' union were prevented 
from playing at the football games with non-union men 
and, as a result, all the union bandsmen and students play- 
ing in dance orchestras withdrew from the local union.^^^ 

PBACTICE MAECHES AND ENCAMPMENTS 

The chief change in instruction made by Lieutenant 
Weeks was the introduction of an annual practice march 
and encampment as a part of the program. A movement 
had been set on foot by certain cadets to have a three or 
four day encampment in 1894, The cadets of the Univer- 
sity of Missouri were having an annual forced march fol- 
lowed by such a week-end encampment and similar camps 
were held by other institutions. The faculty approved the 
project if the camp could be held without expense to the 
University. Lieutenant Vogdes requested such a camp in 
1895 but the Eegents refused a petition of the students to 
that effect because it was not practicable at the time. 
Major Harkness planned such a battalion encampment and 
maneuvers to be held at Black Springs in 1901. The camp 
was approved by the Board of Eegents and referred to the 
faculty who "unanimously fell afoul the proposition". 

Lieutenant Weeks had directed a four day encampment 
at the University of Nebraska in 1905 and proposed a 
similar encampment at Iowa in 1906. This camp was not 
held because of a lack of sufficient number of cadets willing 
to take part. In 1907 a petition of one hundred and four 
members of the battalion for leave of absence for three 
days for participation in a practice march was granted by 
the Liberal Arts faculty and a similar petition from seventy 
men was granted by the Applied Science faculty. The 
Board of Eegents appropriated $40 for the transportation 

184 The Daily lowan, September 23, December 2, 7, 1906, March 17, April 9, 
21, November 3, 8, 1907, October 18, 1908, January 12, February 24, 1909. 



250 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of camp supplies, and the remainder of the expenses — 
amounting to about $3.50 per man — ^was borne by the 
cadets. Tentage was supplied by the Iowa National Gruard. 

The camp was to be held at Mid River commencing on 
May 2nd. A march of eleven miles under full equipment 
was to be made up the east side of the river with camp 
pitched nine miles north of town the first night. Dinner 
on Friday, May 3rd, was scheduled at North Liberty. One 
company was to become an enemy detail and skirmishes 
were to be held between North Liberty and Iowa City on 
the return. An advance to dislodge the enemy was to be 
made against Mahaffa's Bridge twelve miles north of Iowa 
City and the return made Saturday with a final sham battle 
held in the City Park. It was very warm the first day and 
the baggage of the cadets was reduced to a minimum, but by 
the time the tents were pitched rain had begun to fall and it 
was turning colder. The rain changed to sleet and the next 
morning there was a steady snow fall. One company was 
sent on ahead as a retreating party and the return was 
made on the second day.^^^ 

The second camp was held on May 23 to 26, 1908. Attend- 
ance was not compulsory but those who did not volunteer 
were required to pass an examination before receiving 
credit for the year's work. A deposit of $3.00 was re- 
quired to cover expenses. The march up the river was 
made on Saturday, May 23rd, with dinner at North Liberty. 
Camp George E. MacLean was pitched at Mid Eiver Park. 

185 The Vidette-Beporter, April 24, May 12, 1894, February 2, April 6, 1901; 
S. U. I. Quill, January 12, p. 165, January 19, 1895, p. 170; The Daily lowan, 
March 21, May 10, 1906, February 19, March 10, 19, April 25, 30, May 2, 3, 5, 
1907; Minutes of the Board of Begents, Book C, pp. 34, 44; Becord of the 
Board of Begents, April 3, 1901, p. 19, 1905-1908, p. 285; Minutes of the Lib- 
eral Arts Faculty, February 27, May 8, 1907; Minutes of the Faculty of the 
College of Applied Science, March 8, 1907; The Haivkeye, 1909; letter of 
Lieutenant Colonel Weeks, dated July 4, 1922. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 251 



Dress parade and a band concert were held on Sunday and 
a sham battle and maneuvers were held on Monday with 
the return on Tuesday. Inter-organization baseball games 
were also held on Monday. The chief drawback to this 
camp was the almost continual rain.^®° 

In 1909 the camp was held at West Liberty from May 29 
to June 1. Camp Charles Warren Weeks was made on the 
West Liberty fair grounds. Maneuvers and march prob- 
lems illustrating different tactical principles were held on 
the fourteen mile march to West Liberty. Saturday was 
devoted to the march and to making camp. The entire regi- 
ment participated in the Memorial Day services at West 
Liberty on Sunday, and the annual company and individual 
competitive drills were held on Monday. Tuesday was de- 
voted to a military field day, with the return to Iowa City 
made by rail in the afternoon. The band did not take part 
in the march but rode to West Liberty and met the cadets 
a mile from town.^^'^ 

Lieutenant Morton C. Mumma continued the practice 
marches with an encampment at West Liberty from May 
20 to 23, 1910. Camp B. F. Carroll had been laid out by 
the engineering students who had preceded the regiment. 
New field equipment had been secured from the government 
during the year. The first battalion left Iowa City at 
6 :00 A. M. Friday morning followed by the second battal- 
ion at 7 :30. An ambush and attack problem was carried 
out about seven miles from town. Preliminary competi- 
tive drills were held on Saturday morning but rain pre- 
vented the holding of additional maneuvers. Chapel ser- 

isG Minutes of the Literal Arts Faculty, February 26, 1908; Minutes of the 
Faculty of the College of Applied Science, May 1, 1908; The Daily lowan, 
February 21, March 12, 13, April 9, 29, May 8, 19, 24, 26, 27, 1908, June 3, 
1909; The HawTceye, 1910. 

isrj^ie Daily lowan, April 20, May 13, 20, 28, 30, June 1, 2, 1909; The 
Eawlceye, 1911. 



252 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



vices witli addresses by Chaplain D. W. Wylie and Major 
C. S. Grant, battalion surgeon, took place in the morning 
"with a dress parade and band concert in the evening. On 
Sunday the Adjutant General of Iowa and other prominent 
National Guard officers were guests of honor. The after- 
noon was devoted to the trial by court martial of a cadet 
who was accused of stealing a bucket of reveille. Monday 
was featured by the fourth annual shirt-tail parade, field 
day, and the competitive drills. The return trip was made 
over the Eock Island in the afternoon.^^* 

The 1911 camp was held on the "West Liberty race track 
from May 27th to 30th. The entire regiment entrained for 
Downey in order to avoid the strain of an all day march for 
inexperienced men, and took part in field maneuvers be- 
tween that place and West Liberty. Guard mount was held 
on Saturday and a guard posted for the entire camp, to 
prevent absences without proper authority. Ceremonies, 
chapel services, band concerts, competitive drills, and field 
days were held as usual. 

Six negro cooks from Des Moines supplied the following 
bill of fare. Sunday: breakfast — fried bacon and eggs, 
oranges, bread, butter, coffee, and milk; dinner — stewed 
chicken with gravy, mashed potatoes, peas, bread, butter, 
iced tea, ice cream, and cake; supper — cold boiled ham, 
potato salad, stewed prunes, bread, butter, coffee, and milk. 
Monday: breakfast — pork chops, fried potatoes, fried eggs, 
bread, butter, coffee, and milk ; dinner — roast beef, brown 
gravy, roast potatoes, stewed tomatoes, bread, butter, cof- 
fee, and millc ; supper — baked pork and beans, baked pota- 
toes, sweet pickles, bread, butter, coffee, and milk. This 
menu is typical of those of the different encampments.^^^ 

188 Biennial Beport of the Iowa State Board of Education, 1909-1910, p. 71; 
The Daily lowan, May 6, 12, 18, 22, 24, 1910 ; The Eawkeye, 1912. 

189 The Daily lowan, May 25, 26, 28, 30, June 1, 1911; The EawTceye, 1913. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



253 



Camp Bowman was held at West Liberty from May 18 to 
21, 1912. The march started from Downey and practically 
the same schedule was carried out as in the previous year 
except for the addition of battalion ball games.^^" 

Lieutenant C. S. Hoffman attempted to hold a camp in 
1913 but was unable to secure tentage from either the Ad- 
jutant General or the War Department because of its use 
by the troops on duty along the Mexican border.^^^ 

Lieutenant Phinney made arrangements for renting one 
hundred and fifty tents from a private concern and was 
able to hold a camp on the State rifle range at Mid Eiver 
from May 15 to 18, 1914. More attention was paid to the 
practical maneuvers and less to formal drill than in pre- 
vious years. The regiment entrained to North Liberty 
and marched from there to the camp site. The afternoon 
was spent in making the camp ready and the evening in a 
bonfire and band concert. Maneuvers simulating Mexican 
campaign conditions were held about the camp on Satur- 
day. Leave of absence for the field meet in Iowa City was 
granted in the afternoon. A demonstration of a night at- 
tack on the camp was held in the evening. Competitive 
tactical drills replaced the customary competitive infantry 
drills on Monday. Field work was held every evening after 
supper.^^^ The two orders dealing with the camp are re- 
printed as they represent the general details of the dif- 
ferent camps : 

May 7, 1914. 

General Orders 
No. 6 

1. The annual encampment of the Cadet Regiment will be held 
at the State Target Range near North Liberty, Iowa, May 15, 16, 
180 The Daily lowan, May 9, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 1912; The BawTceye, 1914. 
i«i The Daily lowan, May 16, 27, 1913. 
182 The Daily lowan, March 10, May 14, 15, 17, 19, 1914. 



254 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



17, 18. The Camp will be named "Camp Maebride" in honor of 
the President of the University. 

2. All students in the Military Department are required to 
attend, except such as are excused by the Regimental Surgeon, Dr. 
Van Epps. 

3. The cost of the Camp to each cadet will be $3.50. This 
amount will be paid to Company Commanders, and by them de- 
posited with the Qommandant before 6 o'clock p. m. May 11. 

4. Cadets may invite guests for Sunday dinner, but will be 
required to notify the Commissary of the number of such guests 
before 10 o'clock a. m. May 16. The cost for each guest will be 
25 cents. 

5. The following articles of equipment wiU be issued to each 
cadet, and carried on the march, carefully cared for in Camp and 
returned in good condition : haversack, canteen, cartridge-belt sus- 
penders, meat can, knife, fork, spoon, and tin cup. This equipment 
is the property of the United States, and lost or damaged articles 
will be charged to the responsible cadet at the Ordnance price. 

6. The above mentioned equipment will be issued to companies 
as follows: "H. C", "A" and "B", May 11; "C" and "D", 
May 12; "E" and "F" Band and Field Officers, May 13. Issues 
will be made between 3 :30-and 5 :30 p. m. 

7. Each cadet will pack in a suit case, telescope, or other bag, 
which will be plainly marked with his name and Company, the 
following articles : Uniform blouse, trousers, and cap, white gloves, 
pair of black shoes, extra collars, extra shirt, two suits of under- 
wear, two pairs of socks, one bath towel, one face towel, hand mir- 
ror, comb, brush, tooth brush, soap, handkerchiefs, a small bottle of 
3 in 1 oil, and some cleaning rags. A rain coat may also be in- 
cluded. Civilian clothing other than that worn on the march, will 
not be permitted in camp. 

8. Each cadet will roll up, tie, and plainly mark with his name 
and company such bedding as he may care to take, not to exceed 
three blankets or the equivalent. 

9. Suit cases and bedding rolls will be brought to the Armory 
on Friday morning, May 15, not later than 7 :30 at which time the 
companies will be fallen in and marched to the siding near the 
Engineer shops and the suit cases and bedding rolls deposited in 
the baggage car under the supervision of the company commanders. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



255 



10. The regiment will proceed as follows: May 15, First Call 
7:50, Assembly 8:00 a. m. The regiment will entrain at the 
Armory, and proceed to North Liberty, at which point it will de- 
train and march to the Target Range. 

11. Cadets are cautioned to wear a shoe which gives ample 
room, a heavy one with a stout sole. Under no circumstances 
should a new, or low cut shoe be worn. . . . 

13. The program for competitive field exercises will be an- 
nounced later.1^3 

May 15, 1914 

General Obdees 
No. 7 

1, The following service calls are in effect this date : 



1" call 


5.45 a. m. 


Mess Call 


12.15 p 


March 


5.55 


Mess Call 


5.30 


Reveille 


6.00 


Drill, y Call 


7.10 


Mess Call 


6.20 


Assembly 


7.15 


DriU, 1" Call 


7.10 


Taps, one hour after Recall 


Assembly 


7.15 


from evening 


driU. 


Inspection 








V Call 


11.50 






Assembly 


12.00 noon 







2. At inspection each cadet will fold his blankets and place them 
on his suit case at the door of his tent. His equipments and mess 
gear will be placed on his blankets in such manner that every part 
will be displayed. Companies will fall in under arms. Tent walls 
will be rolled up. 

3. Uniform. The Cadet uniform will be worn at Inspection, 
when absent from the Camp on pass, and on Sunday. At other 
times civilian clothing will be worn. 

4. Before leaving the camp for purposes other than drill, aU 
men will report to their company commanders for inspection. 

5. Cadets will not bathe in the river above the Camp. 

6. Smoking is prohibited inside the tents.^^* 

In 1915 it was necessary to give up the camp after the 

193 From the printed order in the files of the Military Department. 
19* From the manuscript order in the Military Department files. 



256 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tentage and supplies were already on the ground. Eain 
had fallen almost continuously for a week and it was 
thought dangerous to put the men in the field without pon- 
chos. The plans had been made for one battalion to set out 
from Homestead and one from Iowa City and meet for a 
general engagement the second day. Battalion camps were 
to be pitched the first night and regimental camps the 
second and third nights. The third day was to have been 
devoted to a retreat problem on the way back to Iowa City 
and the fourth day to the return march. 

No camp was held in 1916 because of the delay of the 
faculty in approving the date. It was planned to hold the 
1917 camp for a week at commencement time and it was 
to be close enough to Iowa City for the commencement 
visitors to visit it. The War Department had agreed to 
furnish tentage to the Eeserve Officers ' Training Corps unit 
provided the camp was not less than a week in duration, but 
the plan had to be given up with the declaration of war. 
These tactical marches and encampments have not been 
resumed since the war because the summer military train- 
ing camps have been replacing them, at least partially.^^^ 

UNDER LIEUTENANT MORTON C. MUMMA 

Morton C. Mumma, First Lieutenant, Second Cavalry, 
served his first tour of duty as Professor of Military 
Science and Tactics from 1909 to 1912. He was promoted 
to a captaincy on March 3, 1911. In addition to his military 
duties he served as assistant baseball coach and acted as 
official in numerous collegiate football games. An assis- 

195 The Daily lowan, May 12, 23, 1915, April 7, September 20, 1916, May 22, 
1917; letter of Lieutenant Phinney to Major Andrew Moses, dated June 12, 
1915. 

198 Catalogue of the State University op Iowa, 1909-1910 to 1911-1912 inclu- 
sive; The Daily lowan, February 21, 1909, March 2, October 4, 21, 1910. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 257 



tant was added to the department for the first time in 1911 
with the appointment of William DeForest Eahming, Re- 
gimental Sergeant Major of Cavalry, retired, as assistant 
commandant. He has been on duty with the department 
ever since this time with the exception of the period of the 
war when he was commissioned and called to active duty.^®'' 
The drill schedule was changed during Lieutenant Mum- 
ma 's first year by the scheduling of drill in sections at dif- 
ferent hours throughout the day instead of having all or- 
ganizations drill together after school. All companies 
drilled together for regimental and battalion instruction 
one hour per week. Practical drill was held three hours 
weekly in the fall and spring, with military lectures substi- 
tuted for one hour of drill in the winter. Morning drill at 
6 :00 A. M. was introduced in the spring of 1910. Drill was 
held at this time to avoid the heat of the day and to make it 
possible to have daily drills in order to present a better 
appearance at the government inspection. All drills were to 
be discontinued after the completion of the required number 
of hours. 

Less emphasis was placed upon exhibition drills and 
more upon tactical instruction and the principles of com- 
mand. Several sham battles were held to give field instruc- 
tion to the cadets. Full equipment for the ''War Game" 
was purchased and this form of instruction was added to 
the course. Schools for battalion officers and non-com- 
missioned officers were also added. Physical training was 
given in place of a part of the winter class work. It was 
necessary to restrict the indoor drill in the Armory to two 

187 Eecords of the Board of Education, Book B, p. 197 ; The Daily lowan, 
May 28, September 19, 1911. 

issTTie Baily lowan, September 30, 1909, March 25, 30, April 13, 1910, 
November 29, 1911, April 3, 1912; Minutes of the Faculty of the College of 
Applied Science, March 25, 1910; Minutes of the Literal Arts Faculty, March 
23, 1910. 



258 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



companies at a time as it was impossible to maneuver more 
than this number on the drill floor. A signal corps of two 
men from each company was established in November, 
1911, and received instruction in flag signaling and helio- 
graphing. Target practice was conducted on the Com- 
pany I range about three miles north of town, the Univer- 
sity installing two of its own target frames at the range. 
Target practice was voluntary. In 1911 spring drill was 
suspended after May 6th and target practice was substi- 
tuted for all cadets.^^^ 

The increase in the regiment to over three hundred men 
as a result of the requirement of the pre-medical year neces- 
sitated an increase in the number of field and staff officers. 
A colonel, lieutenant colonel, two battalion adjutants, two 
battalion commissaries, a regimental sergeant major, a 
regimental quartermaster sergeant, a regimental commis- 
sary sergeant, and an additional color sergeant for the regi- 
mental standard were added. Two second lieutenants 
were assigned to each company but this scheme was 
dropped after one year's trial. All positions were filled on 
the basis of competitive tryouts and written examinations. 
The captains were required to present as part of their 
examination a written scheme of company instruction for 
the year and a plan for the conduct of a march of the cadet 
regiment. In 1911 it was necessary to base the appoint- 
ments on past performance and records of the cadets since 
the introduction of the new drill regulations had made 
examinations impossible.^"** 

The system of demerits was changed and a new schedule 

1S9 Letter from the Adjutant General's office, dated September 25, 1911, in 
the files of the Military Department; The Batty lowan, November 19, 1909, 
March 11, September 28, 1910, January 6, May 4, November 8, 9, 29, 1911, 
April 3, 1912, October 21, 1916. 

200 The Daily lowan, September 19, 30, October 12, 29, November 11, 1909, 
September 28, 1910, October 6, 8, 1911. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



259 



■was introduced. Absences for wMcli satisfactory explana- 
tions were made were excused so far as demerits were con- 
cerned but if full credit was desired the absences were to be 
made up. Failure to submit explanation of absences within 
the required time incurred the penalty of three demerits in 
addition to those imposed for an unexcused absence. Ex- 
planations were required for all delinquencies incurring 
ten demerits or more. The schedule of demerits was as 
follows : 



Absence from drill (unsatisfactory explanation) 10 

Insubordination (according to offense) 15 to 100 

Late at formation, less than 5 minutes 3 

Late at formation, more than 5 minutes 6 

Not in proper uniform 4 

Chewing or spitting in ranks 8 

Slouching or inattention in ranks 5 

Talking in ranks while at attention 8 

Dirty gun or equipments at inspection 8 

Shoes not properly cleaned at ceremonies 3 

No white gloves at formation 3 

No white coUar at inspection 5 

Uniform not in proper condition 5 

Not properly prepared at theoretical instruction 5 

Failure to submit a required explanation 3201 



The uniforms were now required to be of a better quality 
and all of one grade. They were supplied under contract 
with M. C. Lilley and Company through the local clothiers. 
White cross belts with black or tan cartridge faces attached 
were adopted in place of the waist belts. The caps were 
changed to the "West Point style and the West Point offi- 
cers' gold chevrons were reintroduced in place of the 
shoulder straps. The uniform, including blouse, trousers, 

201 Memorandum orders, January 3, 1911, in the files of the Military De- 
partment. 



260 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



cap, two pairs of white gloves, and four collars, cost the 
cadets $15.40.2«2 

At the request of President John G. Bowman the re- 
muneration of the band members was increased to $25.00 
per year for each elective member, five hundred dollars 
being allowed for this purpose. The band continued the 
dances in the Armory, gave the usual number of concerts, 
and made the usual annual excursion with the football team. 
Mr. Cox was succeeded as bandmaster by Howard J. Bar- 
num who served for the two years from 1909 to 1911. Orie 
E. Van Doren who had been cadet captain and band leader 
in 1905-1906 returned as band director in 1911 and has 
served in that capacity ever since.^"^ 

THE RIFLE TEAM 

In November, 1908, a Rifle Club affiliated with the Na- 
tional Rifle Association was formed at the University, and a 
team coached by Lieutenant Weeks was entered in the sec- 
ond annual intercollegiate indoor championship matches. 
Since this time the rifle team has been continued as one of 
the activities of the Military Department. Although mem- 
bership in the Rifle Club is open to any student of the Uni- 
versity the team members have, with few exceptions, been 
members of the University regiment and the coaching of 
the team has always been carried out by members of the 
military staff. The following men have acted as coaches 
of the team: Lieutenant Weeks, 1908-1909; Lieutenant 
Mumma, 1909-1912; Sergeant Major Rahming, 1912-1917; 

202 Biennial Beport of the Iowa State Board of Education, 1909-1910, p. 71; 
The Daily lowan, September 19, October 14, 15, 1909, October 5, 1910; cor- 
respondence between the Commandant and M. C. Lilley and Company. 

203 The Daily lowan, September 24, 29, 30, November 5, 9, 1909, October 5, 6, 
December 18, 21, 1910, May 12, November 8, 1911; Eecord of the Board of 
Education (University), Book C, p. 37. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



261 



Donald Price, 1917-1918, and Captain Thomas E. Martin, 
and warrant officer, James J. Gibney, 1921-1922. The Ath- 
letic Board has awarded letters — the bIt — to team mem- 
bers and numerals to the freshman members of the team. 

Table II gives the results of all interscholastic matches 
which are of record to the end of 1922. The records are 
not complete and it is probable that several matches have 
been omitted, particularly those taking place before the 
affiliation of the team with the National Rifle Association. 



Table II 



Standings op the Iowa Intercollegiate Rifle Teams 


Yeab 


Event 


Iowa's 


Iowa 's 


WiNNEE OR 


Score op 






Score 


Rank 


Second 


Winner or 
Second 


1897 


Intercollegiate 
outdoor military 












matcli (19 teams) 


350 


3 


Va. Polytech. 


385 


1902 


Intercollegiate 
outdoor military 












matcli (5 teams) 


322 


4 


California 


415 


1904 


Intercollegiate 
outdoor military 












matcli (5 teams) 


381 


3 


Utah A. C. 


432 


1906 


Intercollegiate outdoor 












military match 


350 


3 


Shattuck 


403 


1907 


Intercollegiate outdoor 












military match 


341 


6 


California 


402 


1909 


N. E. A. Inter- 












collegiate League 205 


901 


8 


Wash. State 
College 


949 



204 This table has been compiled from the records of the National Eifle 
Association at Washington and the reports of the matches in the various Uni- 
versity newspapers. 



205 The N. E. A. Intercollegiate League holds a series of matches between 
college teams. The results have been variously determined by the winner of 
greatest number of the matches in the particular league and the aggregate 
scores for the season. 

VOL. XXI — 17 



262 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Year 


Event 


Iowa's 


Iowa's 


Winner or 


Score of 






Score 


Eank 


Second 


Winner or 












Second 




IN , iv, XI. inter- 












/»nllofri ci ^ A T (Oil oni A 


Won 8 


1 


VV ctSIl. Ol'CitC 


TifH with 






IjOot 1 




College 


Iowa 






















u 111 V CI SI t y 






1\ . JX'. ix. SnOOL'OIX OZ 












lie 


1819 


P. 


w asn. orate 


J.Ot>0 




Na,tioii3»l indoor mter- 












PAllAcrmtA TTintpli 206 


1789 


5 


ividoo. Agglco 


1848 


1 Q1 1 


"\r T? A T-nfoT 












collegiato Ije£igxi6 


vv on ±o 




Mass. Aggies 


vv on xHl 








\ 


^^UU J 






National Guard 






Staunton, Va., 






gallery match 


3210 


3 


Nat. Guard 












Co. 


3274 




Indoor intercollegiate 












match 


1880 


2 


Mass. Aggies 


1897 


1912 


N. E. A. Inter- 












collegiate League, 


Won 9 




Wash. State 


Won 8 




western division 


Lost 


1 


College 


Lost 1 
















collegiate LeaguOj 
























eastern champions 


971 


2 


Mass. Aggies 


973 




Special dual match 


956 


1 


Wis. (2nd) 


905 




National Guard 






Co. L, 2nd 






gallery match 


3286 


1 


Eegt. N. J. 












N. G. (2nd) 


3176 


1913 


N. E. A. Inter- 












collegiate League, 


Won 12 










western division 


Lost 1 


1 


West Virginia 


Tie 
















eoUegiate League, 












shoot-off of tie 


962 


2 


West Virginia 


980 


1914 


N. E. A. Intercollegi- 












ate League, Class A 












teams (34 teams en- 












tered in 3 leagues) 












Iowa average per 


Won 9 


4 


Mich. Aggies 


Won 11 


i 


match 958.9 


Lost 2 






Lost 



200 The indoor intercollegiate match is a single annual indoor match open to 
teams of any college. 



.i 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 263 



Year 


Event 


Iowa's 
Score 


Iowa's 
Eank 


Winner or 
Second 


Score of 
Winner or 
Second 






1877 






1777 


1915 


N. E. A. Intercol- 
























A teams (Iowa won 9, 


10,716 


3 


Wash. State 


10,849 




lost 2 Tnaf.plips^ 








(98.62%) 


1916 


N R A Tntprfol- 












legiate League, Class 












A. teams (Iowa won 9, 


12,873 


5 


TVripli AcrcHps 


12,998 




Inch 4 TTifi 1"plipsi 1 










1917 


"N" R A Tntprpol- 












1 pon nffi T jPn crn p Ol n sisi 












A tpn m Q ^' 1 tpfi m 


9071 


9 




9638 


1918 


N. R. A, Intercol- 












lpcn5i1"A TiPficmP (IiQciq 

J-dtC JJCdg lie, V/i-CtQO 






IVToaa A (YfriPa 






A tPQTTiq /" 1 fi ■^p^lmQ^ 


9894 


1 




9852 


1919 


No Iowa Rifle team 










1920 


1^0 Iowa Rifle team 










1921 


No Iowa Rifle team 










1922 


N. R. A. Inter- 












collegiate League 






Pennsylvania 


5844 




First team 


5704 


5 








Second, team 


5642 


6 








RpvPTit}! porim nrpfl 












matches (highest three 












teams competed in 






Smith DaJtota 






national inter- 






A fTOn PQ 
■^gg^*^S 






collegiate matches) 


5584 


1 


(2nd) 


5496 




National inter- 






TTniTrpraifv n"? 






collegiate match 


5487 


10 




5831 




TJnjil TTifll'pTipQ 


1921 


1 


MiTiTi (9,r^({\ 


1 4.7^ 






1931 


1 


T^QTia A nrrriPQ 














1833 






1795 


1 


N Dak C2n(l"> 


1521 






1940 


1 


Wis. (2nd) 


1925 






1748 


1 


S. Dak. (2nd) 


1600 










Ohio State 








1907 


1 


E. 0. T. C. 


Forfeit 










Ohio State, 












Varsity 








1911 


1 


(2nd) 


1877 






1940 


1 


Illinois (2nd) 


Forfeit 



264 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



JL CAR 




Iowa s 


IOWA S 

Rank 


W^INNER OR 


W 1 N r\ JfirC UK 




National engineer unit 






Oregon Aggies 






match (25 entries) 


3426 


1 


(2nd) 


3408 




Inter-unit matches 






Ames Engi- 






Iowa Engineer Unit 


3023 


1 


neer Unit 


2661 










(2nd) 






Iowa Motor 






Oregon Aggies 






Transport Unit 






M. T. Unit 








921 


1 


(2nd) 


892 



UNDER LIEUTENANT JAMES A. MARS 

James A. Mars, First Lieutenant of Cavalry, served as 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics from August 15 
to December 15, 1912. He could not remain for his full 
detail, however, since he had been on staff duty during the 
major part of the preceding six years and under the "Man- 
chu Act", had not completed sufficient service with troops to 
allow detached duty.^"^ 

The organization was continued as a regiment of six com- 
panies, band, signal corps, and bugle corps. The trum- 
peters and signallers were not selected until after they had 
received the full preliminary military instruction. Drill 
was given three times a week in the fall, all companies drill- 
ing at the same hours. Less attention was paid to setting- 
up exercises and more to infantry drill than before. This 
work was supplanted in the winter by a schedule of one 
period per week of practical instruction in the Armory; 
one period of theoretical work with instruction of the 
privates by the company commanders and separate classes 
for the non-commissioned officers, lieutenants, and cap- 
tains ; and one period of gymnasium work under Ernest G. 

207 The Daily lowan, September 13, October 24, December 10, 1912. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



265 



Schroeder, Director of Physical Education. Cadet officers 
were selected, as previously, on the basis of the showing 
made by the candidates in a special preparatory class held 
before the year's work commenced followed by a competi- 
tive examination.^"^ 

There were 412 men on the roster on October 29, 1912, 
fifty-five of whom were excused during the fall term for 
participation in athletics. Fifty-nine students were ex- 
cused from military training altogether, fifty of these being 
required to substitute physical training.^"^ 

UNDER LIEUTENANT COEBIT S. HOFFMAN 

Corbit S. Hoffman, First Lieutenant, Twenty-third In- 
fantry, arrived at the University on January 8, 1913.^^*' 
He continued the military work under the schedule laid out 
by Lieutenant Mars. An examination in the theoretical 
work, with a grade of 75 per cent required for passing, was 
taken by all students. Morning drill in the spring quarter 
was held four mornings a week with ceremonies Friday at 
4 :30 P. M. until the instruction of the year was completed. 
The usual prize drills and ceremonies were held but the an- 
nual encampment was omitted because of lack of tentage. 
Lieutenant Hoffman was ordered back to service with his 
regiment for the same reason as Lieutenant Mars — he had 
been on staff duty instead of on duty with troops for a part 
of the previous five years.^^^ 

UNDEE LIEUTENANT EOBEET T. PHINNEY 

Robert T. Phinney, First Lieutenant, Twenty-first In- 
fantry, arrived at the University to take up his duties on 

208 The Daily lowan, September 18, 19, 25, October 16, 20, 24, November 21, 
27, 1912. 

209 The Daily lowan, October 29, 1912. 

210 The Daily lowan, January 9, 1913. 

211 The Daily lowan, January 9, March 13, April 17, September 21, 24, 1913. 



266 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



October 16, 1913, Sergeant Major Eahming having been 
acting commandant in the meantime.-^^ 

Lieutenant Phinney developed the tactical side of the 
instruction to a greater extent than his predecessors had 
done. Practical instruction for his first year was given 
three hours per week during the fall and spring and one 
hour per week throughout the winter with one hour of gym- 
nastics and one hour of theoretical work in addition. The 
theoretical instruction given by the cadet captains was 
made more specific than in the past. Lectures were given 
on military history, camp sanitation, target practice, minor 
tactics, guard duty, and care of the rifle. This system of 
lectures was used instead of the previous practice of as- 
signing sections in the drill regulations for study and reci- 
tation. A Stacey military relief map was purchased and 
used for the problem work in minor tactics after the series 
of lectures had been completed. Weekly classes for the 
oflficers and non-commissioned officers were conducted by 
the commandant.^^^ 

In his second year Lieutenant Phinney introduced Moss 's 
Manual of Military Training as a theoretical textbook. 
The physical training was omitted and two hours of theo- 
retical work was given during the winter. Lecture recita- 
tions were conducted and a written examination was given 
at the conclusion of the work. Special instruction classes 
were held semi-weekly for those who had failed to pass the 
final examinations. Drill of two companies at a time was 
held on the floor of the Armory. The same system of in- 
struction was continued the following year.^^* 

After the separation of the freslimen and sophomores 
into separate companies the freshmen received practical 

212 The Daily lowan, September 24, October 3, 17, 1913. 

213 The Daily lowan, January 6, 15, 21, 23, February 4, 5, 1914. 

21* The Daily lowan, December 3, 10, 13, 1914, January 15, May 4, 1915. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



267 



drill in the fall and tlie sophomores were given advance 
guard, rear guard, and outpost problems across the river. 
The entire regiment was taken across the river for tactical 
problems one night a week. Instruction in trench warfare 
and military engineering was also taken up and bayonet 
drill was added to the course on account of the physical 
benefits involved. The system of morning drills was con- 
tinued and special tactical walks for the officers and officer 
candidates were added during the spring.^^^ 

The increase in the University enrollment permitted the 
organization of new units although most of the increase 
was among the professional students who were not required 
to take military work. At the close of the first two years 
under Lieutenant Phinney the six company organization 
was changed to a regiment of eight companies of six squads 
each, a hospital corps detachment — organized among the 
pre-medical students — a radio corps, a bugle corps, and a 
fifty piece band. The radio corps was an outgrowth of the 
signal corps, the signal equipment having been called in at 
the time of the Mexican Border mobilization. Semaphore 
instruction had been taken up by the company musicians in 
place of the instruction given to the special detachment. 
In 1915-1916 the signal corps was reorganized as a wireless 
detachment and a portable radio outfit was constructed.^^^ 

The regiment had increased from 457 men in September, 
1913, to 500 in October, 1915. At the latter date there were, 
in addition, 118 men excused from military work by the 
committee, 52 excused for athletics, and 52 who had not yet 
reported for drill who were added to the regiment at a 
later date. A shrinkage of about twenty per cent from the 

215 The Daily lowan, October 29, November 3, 11, 1914, April 10, May 4, 
13, September 26, November 6, 1915; Daily Old Gold, January 25, 1916. 

216 The EawTceye, 1917 ; The Daily lowan, December 10, 1913, February 4, 
1914; requisition for parts for wireless outfit, October 18, 1915, in the files of 
the Military Department, 



268 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



figures of the first semester could be expected for various 
causes.2^'^ It was necessary to secure two hundred addi- 
tional rifles together with their accoutrements, making a 
total of five hundred rifles available for the regiment. A 
request for machine guns to be used in the organization of 
a machine gun company was refused because of the need of 
all available machine guns for Mexican Border duty.^^^ 

Sub-calibre and outdoor rifle practice was required of 
all cadets. In the winter of 1915-1916 the sophomores were 
allowed to choose between six weeks of infantry drill or 
the same amount of gallery practice and elected the latter. 
The freshmen had gallery practice following -the sopho- 
mores. Practice with the service rifle was held at the State 
range at Mid River after its completion, the Company I 
range having been abandoned. Four hours of practice at 
the range were required of all students after they had com- 
pleted the spring drill. Revolver practice, held under the 
bleachers on Iowa Field, was introduced for the officers and 
musicians. Firing was held with both the 22 calibre and 45 
calibre pistols. A new trophy was offered for rifle shoot- 
ing — the Phinney Cup — to be held each year by the com- 
pany with the highest aggregate score in a special match 
competition.2^^ 

The cadet uniform was changed to an olive drab uniform 
instead of the cadet gray pattern, the new uniform consist- 
ing of an olive drab serge blouse and breeches, canvas leg- 
gings of the modified cavalry pattern, service hat, and 
white hat cord. These uniforms were of more durable 
material than the older style and were supplied by M. C. 

217 The Daily lowan, October 5, 1913, October 27, 1915, December 10, 1916; 
Daily Old Gold, April 1, 1916. 

218 The Daily lowan, December 17, 1913 ; Daily Old Gold, February 22, 1916. 

219 The Daily lowan, January 7, April 13, 1916; Daily Old Gold, March 3, 
25, 1916 ; The Hawleye, 1917. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



269 



Lilley and Company for $15.50, or ten cents more than the 
others. For 1914-1915 the sophomores in gray formed the 
first battalion and the freshmen in olive drab the second 
battalion. This separation of classes was continued the 
following year for convenience in instruction.^^** 

During 1914-1915 a new addition was made in the rear of 
the Armory to furnish locker rooms, exercise rooms, and a 
swimming pool. In connection with this construction the 
control of the building passed from the Department of Mili- 
tary Science and Tactics to that of the Department of 
Physical Education for Men. The basement was excavated 
under the drill floor to allow for a dirt track, the military 
training classes were forced off the drill floor, and the gun 
lockers placed around the track. It was necessary to hold 
winter drills on the dirt floor of the basement in choking 
clouds of dust. Moreover, the parade grounds were cut up 
into tennis courts and it was necessary to hold outdoor 
drills on such plots of ground as could be found. Condi- 
tions were such that in 1915-1916 the Military Department 
rented the hall of Company A, Iowa Pioneer Engineers, for 
drm.221 

At the suggestion of the joint faculty military conmiittee 
of the colleges of Liberal Arts and Applied Science the fol- 
lowing resolution requiring military training was passed by 
the faculty of the College of Pharmacy on March 24, 1916 : 

It was moved by Professor Kuever that beginning with the Uni- 
versity year 1916-1917 all men students be required to take one and 
one-half years of military training, the last half year to be the 

220 Letter from Lieutenant Phinney to the President of the State University, 
dated September 25, 1914; The Daily lowan, October 13, November 20, 1914. 

^t^Becord of the Board of Education (University), Book E, p. 393, Book G, 
pp. 245-247; The Daily lowan, October 7, 1914, October 2, 1915; letter of 
Superintendent John M. Fisk to Lieutenant Phinney, dated October 18, 1915; 
letters of Lieutenant Phinney to the President of the State University, dated 
October 19, November 24, 1915, March 27, 1916. 



270 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



theoretical part of hospital corps work; the understanding being 
that any student who is physically unable to drill shall be required 
to take physical training instead of military training.222 

The only outside activities of importance at this time 
were the holding of the first cadet hop at which attendance 
was restricted to uniformed members of the cadet regiment, 
and the sending of an exhibition company of five squads to 
the military tournament at Cedar Rapids on October 12, 
1915. The hop was held at the Armory on December 6, 
1915, and was a success. Music was supplied by the Univer- 
sity band. The expenses of the exhibition company were 
paid by the Cedar Rapids Commercial Club who financed 
the exhibition and from reports in the Cedar Rapids news- 
papers it is evident that the University company made a 
favorable impression.^^^ 

To provide for an additional locker room for the gym- 
nasium, the band was moved from its quarters in the Ar- 
mory to the third floor of the old boiler house and armory 
building. It increased in size to forty members in 1913- 
1914 and 1914-1915, and to fifty members in 1915-1916. The 
allowances for the band included $25.00 to each of fifteen 
elective members, $5.00 each for twenty additional members 
for commencement week, and $25.00 additional for the band- 
master for commencement week. The annual concert given 
in 1916 was so popular that it was necessary to repeat it a 
few weeks later. On both occasions the Natural Science 
Auditorium was filled to capacity.^^* 

Minutes of the Faculty of the College of Pharmacy, January 14, March 
24, 1916. 

223 Letters of Lieutenant Phinney to General Hubert A. Allen, dated October 
23, 1915, and to the President of the State University, dated October 4, 1915; 
letter of General Allen, dated October 15, 1915 ; The Daily lowan, December 2, 
5, 9, 1913, October 12, 14, 1915. 

224 The Daily lowan, January 21, February 17, October 21, 1914, September 
29, 1915, September 27, 1916; letter of Lieutenant Phinney to the Secretary of 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



271 



V 

PERIOD OF THE WORLD WAR 

UNDER OAPTAIN MORTON C. MUMMA 

Captain Morton C. Mumma returned from duty with Per- 
shing's expedition into Mexico for his second detail as 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics in the sununer 
of 1916. He was relieved after the completion of one year 
of service at the time of the recall of all officers from de- 
tached duty to active service on account of the World War. 

In accordance with a resolution of the Liberal Arts facul- 
ty all male students in the Liberal Arts College were re- 
quired to take two hours of military training and two hours 
of physical training for the first two years instead of three 
hours of military training. A similar rule was passed by 
the faculty of the College of Applied Science but in this 
case the physical training was postponed until the third and 
fourth years. Under this scheme all setting-up exercises 
were omitted from the military work and a part of the in- 
struction in hygiene was transferred to the Department of 
Physical Education. At the same time the grounds for 
which students might be excused from military training 
were reduced to physical disability. No excuses were per- 
mitted on the plea of outside work or heavy courses. Those 
exempted from training on physical grounds were required 
to enter special corrective gymnastic classes and the sys- 
tem of demerits employed by the Military Department was 
also adopted for the physical training classes and the same 
penalties applied.^^^ 

the State TJniveredty, dated June 9, 1915; budgets for the University, from 
1912-1913 to 1915-1916 inclusive. The total amount — $500 — remained un- 
changed but this is the first time a definite statement of the distribution of the 
fund was recorded. 

225 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1915-1916, p. 205; Daily Old 
Gold, January 21, 1916; The Daily lowan, September 20, November 10, 1916; 



272 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Several changes were made in tlie organization of the 
regiment. The enrolhnent of 736 cadets required the for- 
mation of new companies and the regiment was increased 
to a ten company organization. Separate engineer com- 
panies for the applied science students were formed for 
the first time and formed a provisional third battalion of 
two companies. Freshmen and sophomores were again in- 
structed in the same companies. Since there were not 
enough rifles for all cadets a large hospital corps of about 
eighty pharmacy and pre-medical students was organized. 
The system of selecting the cadet officers by examinations 
was abandoned and the selections were now made on the 
basis of ability and the length of prior service.^^® 

The course of instruction laid most emphasis upon prac- 
tical warfare and tactics. Drill was held twice a week by 
each company independently. The classes were scheduled 
at 10 :00, 11 :00, and 3 :30 on Mondays, Tuesdays, "Wednes- 
days, and Thursdays and at 4:30 on Mondays and Wed- 
nesdays. The engineering students drilled at 4 :30 on Tues- 
days and Thursdays. These periods were devoted to in- 
fantry drill in the fall and spring and to lecture-recitations 
over assigned sections in Moss's Manual of Military Train- 
ing in the winter. All officers were required to attend an 
officers ' class at least once a week in addition to giving two 
hours a week to the instruction of their companies. Bat- 
talion commanders devoted four to eight hours a week to 
the supervision of the work of their battalions and the other 
field and staff officers were assigned as instructors in spe- 
cial subjects. Special technical instruction was given to 
the engineering companies, the hospital corps, and the 
semaphore and wig-wag signalling detachments. A sand 

Minutes of the Liberal Arts Faculty, January 19, 1916; Minutes of the Faculty 
of the College of Applied Science, January 28, 1916. 

220 The Daily lowan, September- 22, 24, October 4, December 10, 1916. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 273 



table with models of the different types of field construction 
■was added to the equipment and employed in giving instruc- 
tion to the infantry on trench warfare and to the engineers 
on field fortifications. 

A voluntary non-commissioned officers' class in tactical 
problems and the principles of command was conducted by 
the cadet major, Paul E. Rockwood. Weekly classes held 
in the evening were attended by over sixty students. Pref- 
erence was given to these men in the selection of the non- 
commissioned officers. Morning drill was continued in the 
spring and this was followed by compulsory gallery prac- 
tice for all cadets. A sham battle between the two infantry 
battalions was held on Saturday afternoon, April 14th. 
The cadets entrained to Oakdale and fought their way back. 
The engineer cadets devoted the afternoon to digging tren- 
ches back of the Armory, which were later used for instruc- 
tion of the students in trench warfare. A ten mile practice 
march for the regiment was held on Saturday, May 26th. 
Bayonet instruction was given in physical training 
classes.2^'^ 

On March 2, 1917, the University was granted an infantry 
unit of the Eeserve Officers' Training Corps, which had 
been established by the National Defense Act of June 3, 
1916, as a means of securing properly trained officers for 
the Officers' Eeserve Corps. Land grant colleges esta- 
blished under the terms of the Morrill Act were required to 
secure units; entrance of other institutions is voluntary, 
but at least one hundred men have to be enrolled before a 
unit may be established. For the technical units this mini- 
mum is fifty men. The colleges maintaining units are re- 
quired to have military training for at least three hours per 
week for at least two years. All physically fit male students 
at land grant schools are required to take this work. 

227 The j)aily lowan, September 20, October 4, November 23, December 7, 
10, 1916, February 8, April 13, 17, 18, 25, May 20, 24, 25, 1917. 



274 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



All uniforms and necessary equipment are supplied by 
the government and provision is made for supplying ma- 
terial in greater abundance and of the latest types. Stu- 
dents who contract to take an additional five hours per week 
of instruction and to attend the required summer instruc- 
tion camps during the third and fourth years are enrolled 
in the advanced course and receive commutation of sub- 
sistence at not less than thirty cents per day for a period 
of twenty-one months. Graduates from the four year 
course receive reserve commissions as second lieutenants 
in the army without examinations. 

As soon as the regulations in regard to the R. 0. T. C. 
were announced a request was made by the University for 
both infantry and engineer units. No engineer units were 
formed, however, because of the onset of the war. The 
requirements were then increased to three hours of mili- 
tary training and two hours of physical training for two 
years. Under the terms of the law additional officers and 
non-commissioned officers could be assigned to the colleges 
and, as a result of this provision, Chief Trumpeter Jacob 
Maier, Cavalry, retired, was detailed to the University on 
April 11, 1917. He assumed charge of the property of the 
department and became the instructor of the bugle corps. 
The majority of the benefits to be received under the act 
could not be secured, however, because of the need of all 
officers and all equipment for war service.^-^ 

"With the passing of the control of the Armory into the 
hands of the Department of Physical Education and the 
growth of the cadet regiment there was need of a more 
adequate drill hall than that afforded by the 65 by 120 foot 
basement of the Armory. This basement allowed insuffi- 

228 The Daily lowan, October 5, 1916, February 11, 16, 25, March 4, April 11, 
1917; General Orders of the War Department No. 49, 1916; Minutes of the 
Liberal Arts Faculty, February 14, 1917. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



275 



cient drill area for the maneuver of even two companies. 
In 1917 Captain Mumma asked $150,000 for the erection of 
an armory 200 by 400 feet in size with a clear span drill 
hall of 200 by 360 feet and a like appropriation for the 
State College at Ames. This sum would have given these 
institutions two of the largest armories in the country. 
The amount requested was reduced to $125,000 each and 
the sum appropriated on April 10th as a special appro- 
priation separate from the building appropriations of the 
two schools. With the declaration of war and the arrange- 
ment of steel priorities by the government it was impossible 
to secure the structural steel for the sum appropriated and 
it was necessary to postpone the erection until after the 
war.22^ 

Several miscellaneous activities were carried out during 
the year 1916-1917. A special Military Edition" of The 
Daily lowan was issued on December 10th carrying stories 
about the different activities of the Military Department.^^" 
A tag day was held on March 28th to secure a seventy-five 
to one hundred foot steel flag staff. It was planned to 
place the flag staff west of the Old Capitol and have retreat, 
with the University band's assistance, three nights each 
week. The sum of $235.76 was secured but it was impos- 
sible to secure a flag staff through the Quartermaster Corps 
after the beginning of war and prices from outside concerns 
were too high. The profits from the several preceding 
military balls which were to have been added to the fund 
were devoted to the purchase of a regimental standard. 
The money received in the tag sale was turned into the 

229 Becord of the Board of 'Education (University) , Book G, p. 397, Book H, 
pp. 235, 247, Book I, p. 51 ; Biennial Report of the Iowa State Board of Edu- 
cation, 1914-1916, p. 63, 1916-1918, p. 10; Laws of Iowa, 1917, Cli. 261; The 
Daily lowan, March 18, 21, 23, April 11, 1917. 

230 The Daily lowan, December 10, 1916. 



276 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



memorial union fund after the war as the wood pole pur- 
chased by the University for the S. A. T. C. served the pur- 
pose satisfactorily.^^^ 

The only variation in the uniform was the change of the 
officers' insignia from that of the regular army to the new 
cadet insignia.2^2 It was impracticable to hold competitive 
drill for the Lilley automatic pistol and the Coast sword 
and they were awarded to the captains of the two best com- 
panies on the basis of their work throughout the year. In- 
dividual competitive drills, followed by a military field day, 
were held as usual.^^^ Arrangements were completed by 
Captain Mumma for the organization of a National Guard 
Cavalry Squadron at the University with the muster out of 
the squadron then organized in the State. The plan was 
never carried out, however, since the squadron was con- 
tinued in service with the beginning of the war. 

The band was organized with fifty-five pieces during the 
year and following the close of school a band of twenty of 
the members made a ten weeks chautauqua tour in Iowa, 
Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. They were billed as 
"Van Doren's University of Iowa Band".^^* 

With the declaration of war the responsibilities of the 
Department of Military Science and Tactics were increased. 
Even as early as February 10, 1917, a mass meeting had 
been held to see about the possibilities of juniors, seniors, 
and faculty members taking military drill. A mass meet- 
ing of juniors and seniors in the College of Liberal Arts, 
held on April 16th, petitioned the faculty for compulsory 
military drill five hours per week, substitution of this drill 
for three hours of University work, and drill from April 

231 The Daily lowan, March 28, 29, May 11, 1917, March 6, 1919. 

232 The Daily lowan, December 10, 1916. 

233 The Daily lowan, June 1, 3, 1917. 

234 The Daily lowan, November 7, 22, 1916, April 28, September 18, 1917. 



t 

THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 277 



23rd until commencement. A minority was in favor of 
three hours of drill without credit. The faculty passed res- 
olutions requiring five hours of drill per week of all upper 
class students with the option of dropping a three hour 
course or of taking one additional credit for the work. It 
is said that the faculty would have required such military 
training even if the students had not forced the issue. 

The faculties of the colleges of Applied Science, Phar- 
macy, and Homeopathic Medicine had already passed simi- 
lar drill requirements at the petition of the students. The 
faculty of the Dental College had recommended the accep- 
tance of the opportunities offered by the Military Depart- 
ment for the military training and, although the instruc- 
tion was voluntary, practically all the students had already 
signed for the work. One hundred and twenty out of the 
one hundred and thirty-eight law students were already 
drilling three hours per week under law students who were 
officers in the cadet regiment. "With the approval of the 
graduate council, a voluntary company of graduate stu- 
dents was formed. The applied science students dropped 
five hours of engineering work per week and took two hours 
of military drill and a three hour Saturday morning class 
devoted to range work, map sketching, field fortifications, 
and similar subjects. 

Instruction in these special companies was given by the 
cadet officers who were available upon the conclusion of 
morning drill and the government inspection. They were 
aided by the non-commissioned officers and privates of the 
regiment. A faculty company of about seventy men was 
also organized and drilled under Captain Mumma three 
hours per week. In addition the University supplied in- 
structors for drilling the students at Grinnell and Cornell 
colleges and the Cedar Eapids high school. These organi- 
zations were drilled by the University men several nights 

VOL. XXI — 18 



278 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



each week and held drill under the command of their own 
students the rest of the time. Cornell College, for instance, 
required drill of her students twelve hours per week since 
they had never received any previous military instruc- 
tion.235 

By April 3rd, Captain Mumma had received inquiries 
from over two hundred and fifty alumni in regard to com- 
missions in the Officers' Eeserve Corps. In response to 
this demand the University sent out circulars of informa- 
tion and questionnaires to all graduates of less than ten 
years standing. With the announcement of the decision 
to apply the appropriations for the R. 0. T. C. summer 
camps to the holding of officers' training camps Captain 
Mumma was appointed examining officer for the Univer- 
sity. Almost five hundred men applied for admission to 
the camp and it was necessary to establish a special office 
in the Old Stone Capitol to handle the applications and to 
give out numbers indicating the time, two or three days 
later, when each man might return to be interviewed. 
Several of the men who applied found to their surprise that 
they were rejected because they had always secured exemp- 
tion from military training while in the University or be- 
cause of their attitude and record while taking the work. 
A total of one hundred and twenty-five students, ten faculty 
members, a large alumni quota, and some representative 
men from the National Guard — all but a few of whom had 
taken military training at the University — ^were sent to the 
first training camp at Fort Snelling.-^^ 

Military instruction was introduced in the summer ses- 
sion of 1917 for the benefit of those students who were sub- 

235 Tlie Daily lowan, February 8, 11, April 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 25, 
27, May 3, 1917; Minutes of the Faculty of the College of PJiarmacy, April 16, 
1917; Minutes of the Liberal Arts Faculty, April 18, 1917. 

236 The Daily lowan, April 3, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, May 3, November 28, 1917; 
The lawa Alumnus, Vol. XIV, pp. 264, 265. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



279 



ject to the draft or were applying for admission to the 
second officers ' training camp. The instruction was given 
by Cadet Colonel Paul E. Eockwood, assisted by Sergeant 
Eahming and Sergeant Maier. The following courses 
were given: a practical course in infantry drill; theory of 
drill and principles of tactics ; problem section — a two hour 
daily laboratory period for the solution of tactical prob- 
lems ; small arms firing in the gallery and on the Mid Eiver 
range ; and a special class for prospective officers covering 
theory of collective fire, military law, and company ad- 
ministration. Special bayonet drill and signal instruction 
at seven in the morning and a military sketching class under 
Arthur C. Trowbridge of the Department of Geology were 
required as a part of this last course. Academic credit was 
given for all courses except the infantry drill. A similar 
course was given in the second summer session.^^'^ 

UNBEE CAPTAIN ANDREW C. WEIGHT 

Andrew C. Wright, Captain of Infantry, retired, was de- 
tailed for duty at the University commencing in September, 
1917, in pursuance of the War Department 's policy of call- 
ing retired officers to active duty at educational institu- 
tions. He had been retired on account of physical disa- 
bility incurred while on duty in the Philippines. Sergeant 
Maier remained with the department while Sergeant Eah- 
ming was commissioned a captain in the National Army 
and assigned as adjutant to Colonel Mumma at the Small 
Arms Firing School at Camp Perry, Ohio. Mark A. Kelly, 
First Sergeant of Infantry, was added to the department 
staff in November and served for the remainder of the 
year. Captain Wright died on July 15, 1918, immediately 

237 University of Iowa Service Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 17, June 2, 1917; Sum- 
mer Session for 1917, Schedule for Second Term; The Daily lowan, May 18, 26, 
30, 1917; The EawTceye, 1919. 



280 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



after the conclusion of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps 
camp where he had been senior instructor of one of the 
battalions.'^^^ 

The work of the department was carried on much the 
same as it had been under Captain Mumma. There was no 
drill requirement for third and fourth year men and pro- 
fessional students since all those who were expected to be 
called into service could enter the regular companies. The 
initial registration for the year was 550 as compared with 
736 the year before. The organization was reduced to six 
companies of infantry, two companies of engineers, sani- 
tary detachment, signal detachment, bugle corps, and band. 
It was frequently necessary to reorganize the companies 
because of the loss of men who entered the service. The 
strength of the basic course had fallen to 372 men by April 
4, 1918. 

The men who were in training for fall athletics were re- 
quired to take military drill in addition. Company Q, 
formed of these men, drilled on Saturday afternoons and at 
other convenient periods. Instruction was altered to con- 
form to the conditions in France with emphasis placed on 
trench warfare and trench construction. It was impossible 
to arrange more than two drill periods per week and the ex- 
tra hour was made up by Saturday afternoon drill periods 
in the fall and morning drill in the spring. The morning 
drills commenced the week daylight saving was introduced 
and were hampered by the darkness at five o'clock, sun 
time. All companies were drilled after school at the same 
periods. Outdoor drill was held whenever the weather per- 
mitted throughout the year and lecture-recitations by the 
company officers for the remainder of the time. Numerous 
demonstrations of special topics were given by students on 

238 The Daily loican, September 15, November 29, 1917, April 23, 24, 1918 ; 
Iowa City Daily Citizen, July 15, 1918. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 281 



leave from the officers' training camps. Two maneuvers 
were held west of Iowa City on Saturday, May 18th, from 
1 :30 to 5 :00 and on Tuesday, May 21st, from 4 :30 to 6 :00. 

All cadet officers acted as instructors with the companies 
for three periods per week and received the advanced 
course instruction of the E. 0. T. C. in two additional hours 
per week. This instruction consisted of special work in 
drill regulations, field service regulations, tactical prob- 
lems, and military law. For this work the liberal arts stu- 
dents were granted two hours of academic credit per semes- 
ter which could be applied toward the degree requirements. 
Since there are no electives in the College of Applied 
Science the students of this college carried the work with- 
out credit in addition to their full required schedule.^^^ 

In accordance with the regulations governing the Re- 
serve Officers' Training Corps the cadets received commu- 
tation of uniforms at the army contract price. This 
amounted to $14.00, the students being required to pay the 
balance of $9.95 on the purchase price.^*" It was impossible 
to receive the other equipment benefits because of war con- 
ditions. 

Competitive company drills were held as usual. Awards 
were made on the basis of the appearance of the company 
at inspection and the score made in company drill, the 
members of the winning company being allowed a vacation 
from drill for a week. The individual events were held 
among the cadets at the E. 0. T. C. camp at Fort Sheri- 
dan.2*i Governor's Day was scheduled for June 7th during 
the commencement week and was to have been held with 
two companies organized from the remaining cadets of the 

239 The Daily lowan, September 18, 27, 28, October 4, December 4, 8, 1917, 
January 15, 24, February 3, March 21, 27, April 20, May 14, 21, 1918. 

2*0 The Daily lowan, October 4, 6, 1917. 

2" The Daily lowan, May 4, 1918. 



282 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



regiment. It was not held, however, because Iowa Field 
was flooded by high water and the water was standing in 
the basement of the Armory and in the gun loekers.^*^ 

In the fall of 1917 the band went to Evanston for the 
Northwestern football game. Four hundred and fifty-eight 
dollars were collected by tag days and the balance of the 
expenses — $125.92 — was borne by the members of the 
band. Two winter as well as several campus concerts were 
given. A thirteen week chautauqua tour on the Midland 
circuit was made by a band of twenty-five players selected 
from the University band.^** 

A one months camp was held at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, 
from June 3 to July 3, 1918, for the members of the different 
E. O. T. C. units of the middle western States. The eleven 
men taking the advanced course were required to attend 
and fifty-eight volunteers from the basic course were select- 
ed. It was necessary for these cadets to leave the Univer- 
sity a week before the end of the semester in order to begin 
the camp. The cadets received uniform allowances and had 
all expenses paid but received no pay. A total of 2600 
students was organized as a regiment of sixteen com- 
panies. They were quartered in the barracks constructed 
for the ofl&cers' training camp the year before. Students 
from the advanced course, basic course, and junior units 
from military academies were in the same companies and 
were instructed together. A schedule of instruction in in- 
fantry subjects was carried out involving ten hours of 
evening study, ten hours of conferences, and from twenty- 
seven to thirty-six hours of drill and field work each week.^** 

242 The Daily lowan, May 7, June 1, 1918. 

243 The Daily lowan, December 11, 12, 21, 1917, March 24, 26, April 19, 25, 
May 1, 1918. 

244 The Daily lowan, April 17, May 14, 17, 25, June 2, 1918; Training Camps 
for Selected Members of the Senior Division, E. 0. T. C, June S-July 3, 1918 
(in manuscript). 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



283 



Infantry drill and target practice for the summer session 
students at the University were held under Sergeants Maier 
and KeUy.245 

FEDERAL INSPECTIONS 

Federal inspections have been made practically every 
year since the first one on October 24, 1887, with the excep- 
tion of the period of the Spanish-American War, when 
there were no Federal officers detailed at the University. 
While the inspectors ' reports as given out for publications 
are usually considered in the light of "taffy" for the school 
it is worthy of note that, with one exception, the reports 
have been uniformly commendatory of the Military De- 
partment, except for minor items.^*^ Even in that one case 
the reports of the inspectors for the remaining years of the 
detail of the Professor of Military Science and Tactics were 
commendatory of the officer and his work. 

The following quotations are typical of the published 
reports of the various inspectors: '* 'The vim and en- 
thusiasm, as well as the military bearing, accuracy of ca- 
dence and length of step, I have never seen surpassed in 
any similar orgaization. ' ' '^^'^ ' * The inspector general said 
that the battalion was in the most satisfactory condition of 
any that he had inspected this season. "^^^ "Major Brush 
stated that the battalion drill was of high order and would 

245 The Daily lowan, April 7, 1918. 

246 The Vidette-Beporter, October 22, 1887, May 16, supplement, June 18, 
1891, May 31, 1892, September 28, 1893, October 10, 1896, May 22, 1897; 
S. U. I. Quill, May 14, 1892, p. 152, May 21, 1892, p. 157, May 6, 1893, p. 351, 
September 21, 1895, p. 9, October 10, 1896, p. 47; The Daily lowan, May 7, 
1902, June 2, 3, 1903, May 18, 1904, May 23, 1905, September 28, 1906, May 
28, 1907, September 23, 1908, September 20, 1910, September 17, 1911, Sep- 
tember 19, 1913, May 3, October 29, 1914, April 28, 1915, September 24, 1916, 
May 26, 1920. 

247 The Vidette-Beporter, June 18, 1891. 

248 S. V. I. Quill, May 21, 1892. 



284 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



be ranked three, the highest obtainable marking. He said 
that the drill would have been an honor to a battalion of 
the regular army."^^^ In 1911 the inspector placed the 
University first among the thirty-three institutions he had 
inspected. A similar report was made in 1914.^^° 

THE STUDENTS' AEMY TEAINING CORPS 

The Department of Military Science and Tactics passed 
out of existence in the fall of 1918 with the organization of 
the Students ' Army Training Corps. Some of the students 
who had attended the R. 0. T. C. camp at Fort Sheridan, 
together with other students and faculty members, returned 
to the Fort for an additional training period of six weeks. 
These men enlisted as privates in the army and received 
army pay. One week before the conclusion of the camp, an- 
nouncement was made that fifty per cent of the men would 
be commissioned as second lieutenants. These men were 
sent to the different colleges and acted as company com- 
manders in the formation of the S. A. T. C. The military 
work at the University was carried out directly by the War 
Department with the members enlisted in the army and 
living in barracks. The military training requirements 
were withdrawn and no military instruction was given to 
those students not in the S. A. T. C. or the Naval Training 
Unit. 

VI 

FROM THE WORLD WAR TO 1922 

After the closing down of the S. A. T. C. steps were taken 
at once for the reestablishment of the Department of Mili- 
tary Science and Tactics. Albert L. Lane who had been 

240 The Daily lowan, June 3, 1903. 

250 The Daily lowari, September 17, 1911, October 29, 1914. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



285 



Commandant of the S. A. T. C. at the Iowa State College 
at Ames was placed in charge of the department on January 
7, 1919. He was an engineering graduate and the holder 
of a temporary commission of captain of infantry, later re- 
ceiving a permanent commission as first lieutenant of en- 
gineers. Roy C. Gore, Second Lieutenant of Infantry, was 
assigned as an assistant in the department. 

UNDER COLONEL MOBTON C. MTJMMA 

Colonel Morton C. Mumma was detailed as Professor of 
Military Science and Tactics for the third time on January 
14, 1919. He had not completed his work in connection 
with the Small Arms Firing School, however, and did not 
report until February 9th. In the meantime Captain Lane 
and Lieutenant Gore proceeded with the reorganization of 
the cadet regiment. At this time Colonel Mumma held a 
temporary commission as colonel of cavalry and the per- 
manent commission of a major in the same service. After 
discharge from his temporary commission he received a 
permanent commission as lieutenant colonel of cavalry.^^^ 

In addition to the above named officers it was possible 
for the University to receive the detail of additional officers 
as instructors under the provisions of the National De- 
fense Act. The following officers have been on duty at the 
University from January, 1919, to June, 1922:252 

Morton C. Mumma, Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics, 
February 9, 1919, to date 
Eay C. Hill, Major of Infantry 
Senior Instructor, Infantry Unit, 
September 27, 1920, to date 

251 The Daily lowan, January 2, 19, February 2, 11, 1919. 

252 From information supplied by Master Sergeant William DeForest 
Eahming. 



286 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Gaston Lee Holmes, Major of Cavalry- 
Instructor, Infantry Unit, 
January 25, 1921, to June 11, 1921 

Frederick R. Palmer, Major in Q. M. C. 
Senior Instructor, Motor Transport Unit, 
November 11, 1919, to September 24, 1921 

Elton L. Titus, Major in Medical Corps 

Senior Instructor, Medical and Dental Units, 
October 8, 1921, to date 

Robert S. Batman, Captain of Infantry 
Instructor, Infantry Unit, 

September 21, 1921, to September 19, 1922 
(Deceased) 

John N. Douglas, Captain in Q. M. C. 
Senior Instructor, Motor Transport Unit, 
October 31, 1921, to date 

Charles S. Gilbert, Captain of Infantry 
Instructor, Infantry Unit, 
September 23, 1921, to date 

Thomas E. Martin, Captain of Infantry, retired 
Instructor, Infantry Unit, in charge of Rifle Practice, 
May 20, 1921, to date 

Michael 'Keef e, Captain of Philippine Scouts, retired 
Adjutant and Supply Officer, 
July 11, 1921, to date 

John S. Young, Captain of Philippine Scouts, retired 
Supply Officer, 
February 6, 1921, to August 31, 1922 

Albert Riani, First Lieutenant of Engineers 
Senior Instructor, Engineer Unit, 
September 11, 1920, to date 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 287 



Albert L. Lane, First Lieutenant of Engineers 
Instructor, Infantry Unit, 
January 7, 1919, to December 6, 1920 

Roy C. Gore, Second Lieutenant of Infantry 
Instructor, Infantry Unit, 
January 7, 1919, to October 28, 1919 

James J. Gibney, Warrant OflScer 

Instructor, Engineer Unit, Assistant in Rifle Practice, 
April 18, 1920, to date 

Lewis J. Law, Warrant Officer 
Instructor, Engineer Unit, ' 
March 12, 1920, to date 

Master Sergeant Rahming and Chief Trumpeter Maier 
also returned for duty with the R. 0. T. C. In addition 
there have been on the average five non-commissioned offi- 
cers on duty with the department as assistants in instruc- 
tion and administration of the various units.^^^ 

The military drill requirement was returned to the same 
basis as it was before the war — three hours per week for 
two scholastic years. Students who had been in military or 
naval service were exempted from further training except 
in the case of those men who had been enlisted in the Stu- 
dents' Army Training Corps : these men were excused from 
the instruction for twenty-four weeks on the basis of the 
amount of training they had received. Many of the stu- 
dents who had been in active service but who had not had 
sufficient coUege military training to comply with the re- 
quirements of the law for entrance into the advanced course 
volunteered and served as cadet officers in the instruction 
of the students.254 

2S3 Catalogue of the State University of Iowa, 1919-1920 to 1922-1923. 

Minutes of the Liberal Arts Faculty, March 12, October 8, 1919; The 
Daily lowan, April 24, 1920. 



288 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



It was only natural that, with the general post-war re- 
lapse, there should be an indifference on the part of the 
students to military trainiag. This indifference gradually 
wore away as the victims of the Students' Army Training 
Corps completed their required work and the spirit of the 
regiment is now as good if not better than before the war. 
The University was officially reported as one of the first of 
the middle western universities to bring its Military De- 
partment to pre-war standards.^^^ 

The usual scheme of instruction was carried out as far 
as it was possible to do so during the period from January 
to June, 1919. The department was hindered by the diffi- 
culties of organizing the work of instruction in the middle 
of the year as well as by the confusion arising from the 
general reorganization of all classes in the University. The 
first drill was held on January 27, 1919. Drills were held 
out-of-doors whenever the weather permitted. Theoretical 
instruction iu infantry drill and tactics for the liberal arts 
students and in military engineering for the engineers was 
given at the other periods. The classes were held twice 
weekly with the third hour made up by Saturday drills and 
practice marches in the spring. 

Morning drills were not held because of the difficulties of 
conducting such drills under the daylight saving law. It 
was impossible to give any hospital corps instruction dur- 
ing this and the following year because of the lack of equip- 
ment and the senior pharmacists were excused from the 
work on this account. The organization consisted of a regi- 
ment of eight companies two of which were engineer com- 
panies, a sanitary detachment, a signal detachment, a bugle 
corps, and the band. All organizations drilled without uni- 
forms because the uniforms which were to be issued by the 

258 The Daily lowan, October 26, 1919. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



289 



War Department did not arrive until the month of May, too 
late to be of any service.^^^ 

The chief event of the year 1919-1920 was the formation 
of the technical units of the Eeserve Officers' Training 
Corps in addition to the infantry unit. Requests were made 
to the "War Department for the granting of signal corps, 
engineer, motor transport, and coast artillery units. The 
engineer and motor transport corps units were granted to 
the University during the summer. Membership in the 
engineer unit is restricted to students of the College of 
Applied Science and the motor transport unit is largely 
made up of the students of that college, a few students from 
the College of Commerce being allowed in the administra- 
tive section. 

Instruction of each of the units is held independently ex- 
cept for the regimental formations in the spring. The 
technical equipment consists of motor trucks, motor cars, 
and motorcycles, together with repair parts and special as- 
semblies and sectioned parts for instruction and a complete 
mobile machine shop for the motor transport instruction. 
The engineering instruments and equipment were not re- 
ceived until the summer of 1920. Until that time it was 
necessary to restrict the technical instruction to theoretical 
work. 

This special technical equipment together with the stock 
of uniforms and the infantry equipment makes a total of 
over $181,000 worth of government property which has 
been issued to the University by the War Department for 
instructional purposes.^^'' 

At the present time the two technical units cover the 

256 Minutes of the Faculty of the College of Pharmacy, January 22, Decem- 
her 2, 1919; The Daily lowan, January 21, 26, March 30, AprU 15, 17, 1919. 

Minutes of the Board of Education (University), Book J, p. 253; Eeport 
of the Professor of Military Science and Tactics to the Inspecting Officer, 
April 11, 1922, from the files of the Military Department. 



290 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



courses of instruction prescribed by the War Department, 
that of the motor transport unit covering infantry drill and 
the fundamental military subjects, maintenance of vehicles, 
automotive engineering, and military convoys, and that of 
the engineer unit covering the military fundamentals, field 
fortifications, and military engineering. All drill sections 
meet two hours per week at convenient hours of the day 
with a third period set aside for battalion instruction. It 
has been impossible to hold the spring maneuvers for the 
past two years. Morning drills were abandoned after 1920 
by faculty request.^^^ 

The third armory and drill hall was erected with the 
appropriations made for this purpose in 1917 but it was 
necessary to reduce the size of the drill floor from 200 by 
360 feet to 160 by 210 feet because of the high price of mate- 
rials. Offices and storerooms were constructed running 
the length of each side of the building and the permanent 
office section in front was omitted to keep the cost down. 
Although the building was erected in 1920 it was not uti- 
lized until a year later because of the lack of funds for the 
interior trim, heating, and lighting. The department moved 
into the new building in February, 1922, and commenced 
using it for class purposes. The completion of this first 
section of the Armory permits of the holding of battalion 
drills throughout the winter months as well as providing a 
sufficient number of classrooms and adequate storerooms 
and shops. Forty acres adjoining the building have been 
acquired and set aside for drill grounds. By permission of 
the Military Department the Armory is also used for Uni- 
versity basketball games and other indoor games which can 
not be accommodated in the old Armory, now known as the 
Men's Gymnasium.2^^ 

288 The Daily lowan, October 26, 1919, March 12, 31, April 24, 1920. 
2ti9Mi7mtes of the Board of Education (University), Book K, pp. 43, 107, 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



291 



The Governor's Day ceremonies have been revived and 
have been held for the past three years in connection with 
the annual military field day and exercises. These exer- 
cises have been moved ahead and are now held before com- 
mencement week. The entire day is set aside for the 
various track events and the competitive drills with the 
Governor 's review following the completion of the different 
events in the afternoon. For the 1922 field day Colonel 
Mumma was able to secure silver plaques as permanent 
awards for the winners of the different events in addition 
to the traveling trophies and medals. These plaques were 
the gift of the local business men and of the officers of the 
department. 

Medical and dental units of the E. 0. T. C. were formed 
at the University in the fall of 1920. The medical unit is 
limited to the work of the advanced course, as the basic 
work is taken with the pre-medical course. The work of the 
advanced course is restricted to three hours per week in- 
stead of five because of the heavy schedule of the students 
of the College of Medicine. Major Titus, the senior instruc- 
tor of the medical unit, has also been in charge of the dental 
unit. 

The University has been well represented at each of the 
six weeks military training camps held in the summer. 
Table III shows the attendance from the University at each 
of the various camps.^^" While the conduct of these camps 
is of interest it has no place in a history of the Military De- 
partment as they have not been under its jurisdiction. 

116-117, 155, 287, 371; The Daily lowan, October 7, November 13, 1919, Febru- 
ary 24, 1920. 

260 From information supplied by Master Sergeant William DeForest 
Eahming. In 1918, 11 advanced students and 58 from the basic course were 
sent to Fort Sheridan where all branches of the service were given training. 



292 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Table III 



State University of Iowa 


Cadets at R. 0. T. C. 




Summer Camps 










Beanch of 


Course 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


Service 














Infantry 


Advanced 




7 


8 


12 


7 




Basic 






5 


1 


8 


Coast Artillery 


Advanced 




1 


1 






Motor Transport 


Advanced 






15 


30 


12 




Basic 






17 


2 


261 


Engineer 


Advanced 






7 


15 


2 




Basic 






1 


4 


4 


Medical 


Advanced 










44 


Dental 


Advanced 










12 


Totals 


Advanced 


11 


8 


30 


57 


77 




Basic 


58 




23 


7 


12 




Grand Total 


69 


8 


53 


64 


89 



The organization of the Officers ' Club in November, 1921, 
at the suggestion of Colonel Mumma was one of the chief 
outside activities of the year 1921-1922. Colonel Mumma 
had suggested such a club in 1910 but it was not organized 
at that time. The club was organized by the cadet officers 
and the officers on duty with the Military Department with 
the idea of having a professional military organization for 
the better acquainting of the cadet officers with each other 
and for the discussion of military problems and yet one 
avoiding the setting up of a certain clique as was the case 
with the two anaemic organizations of Scabbard and Blade 
which had been attempted. With this object in view mem- 
bership is open to all cadet officers and former cadet officers, 
over three-fourths of whom have joined the organization. 

281 No basic course men could be sent to the 1922 M. T. C. camp on account 
of lack of funds for traveling expenses. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



293 



Monthly dinners, followed by a talk by some guest of the 
club or by business sessions, are given. The club has taken 
over the responsibility for the conduct of the military ball 
and in addition gives a series of informal military dances 
during the year. Club rooms in a business block adjoining 
the University have been furnished and are open to mem- 
bers at all times. The dues for the support of the organiza- 
tion including the cost of the monthly dinners are $3.50 
initiation fee and $15.00 annual dues.^®^ 

In 1919 the band was reorganized by Dr. Van Doren with 
the remnant of the S. A. T. C. band, of which he had been 
the leader, as a nucleus. The following year the "War De- 
partment issued sufiicient instruments for the formation of 
a second band of forty pieces. Both sections of the band 
drilled together for ceremonies and other military forma- 



Table rv 



Statistics 


OF Military Department, April 11, 1922 




Infantry 


Engineer 


M. T. C. 


Med. 


Dent. 


Total 


Basic Course 














1st year 


489 


50 


31 


2 




572 


2(1 year 


221 


47 


22 


4 


12 


306 


Totals 


710 


97 


53 


6 


12 


878 


Advanced Course 














3rd year 


13 


13 


33 


66 


9 


134 


4th year 


6 


5 


7 






18 


Totals 


19 


18 


40 


66 


9 


152 


Organizations 














Companies 


8 


2 


2 








Battalions 


2 


IBn. 


jointly 








Band 


1 













262 The Daily lowan, March 8, 1910, November 17, 1921. 
VOL. XXI — 19 



294 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tions but held separate practices. Since that time only one 
band of seventy or eighty pieces is trained instead of the 
two bands.^®^ 

The growth of the Military Department since the war 
and the increase of the work of instruction is evident from 
the statistics of enrollment in the cadet regiment on April 
11, 1922, given in Table IV.^^* 

It is said that the Department of Military Science and 
Tactics at the State University of Iowa has had the longest 
consecutive history of any such department in any non- 
land grant and non-military college. During this period 
of forty-eight years the military training given to the 
students has been of value not only as regards the benefits 
of the discipline and the individual benefits to the student 
body but also to the country in training for war, for ''the 
experiences of the "World War demonstrated conclusively 
the value of military training in colleges and universities. 
There is no question but that the college man who entered 
one of tlie Officers ' Training Camps after having had mili- 
tary training in college had the advantage from the very 
start over the man without such training. He advanced 
more rapidly and in general retained his advantage 
throughout the war. ' ' 

Alan C. Rockwood 

The State Historical Society op Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

263 The Daily lowan, January 5, October 19, November 1, 11, 1919. 

264 Beport of the Professor of Military Science and Tactics to the Inspecting 
Officer, April 11, 1922, from the files of the Military Department. 

265 Letter from Colonel Mumma, dated July, 1922. 



APPENDIX A 



FIRST REGULATIONS OP THE S. U. I. BATTALION 
Report of the Committee on Military Matters 

To the Board of Regents. 
Gentlemen : 

We your Committee to wliom was referred the report of 
the Professor of Military Science and Tactics beg leave to report as 
a course of Drill, Study and Regulations as follows, to wit : 

I 

1st For purposes of Tactical instruction, the able bodied male 
students of the Academical Department of the State University will 
be organized into a Battalion of four companies distinguished as 
"A", "B", "C" and "D" companies respectively. 

2nd Students will be excused from the performance of military 
duty upon certificate of physical disability from the Assistant Sur- 
geon of the Battalion approved by the Professor of Military Science 
and Tactics and the President of the University. 

3d The Battalion Staff will consist of 

1 First Lieutenant Adjutant ) . 

^. . ^ . J > Seniors 

1 First Lieutenant Quartermaster | 

1 Sergeant Major | 
1 Quartermaster Sergeant V Juniors 

1 Color Sergeant ) 
4th Each Company will be composed of one-fourth of the total 
number of the military students, and having for officers : 
1 Captain ] 

1 First Lieutenant >• Seniors 

2 Second Lieutenants ) 

1 First Sergeant ) 

4 Duty Sergeants j Seniors [Juniors] 

4 Corporals Sophomores 

Privates other miUtary 

students 



268 Minutes of the Board tf Begents, Book A, pp. 501-505. 



295 



296 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



5th The Battalion shall have a silken color, similar to the Iowa 
State Infantry regimental color, with the words ' ' State University 
of Iowa" on a scroll beneath the State Arms; and shall also have 
camp colors Like those of the State Infantry regiments, substituting 
the letters " S. U. I. " for the regimental number. 

II 

1st. The Professor of Military Science and Tactics shall assign 
such of these officers, non-commissioned officers and privates, as he 
may deem fit, in addition to their usual company or battalion duties 
to special duty as instructors of Tactics or other necessary branches 
of military instruction, in such manner as he may deem most con- 
ducive to the best interests of the military department of the Uni- 
versity. 

2d. The Professor of Military Science and Tactics shall be, under 
these regulations, charged with the immediate direction and super- 
intendence of the military duties of the students, both as regard 
practical and theoretical instruction, as well as with execution 
of other commands for their military government, emanating from 
the Board of Regents. 

It shall be his duty to cause the course of study established, to 
be carried into effect, and to submit for the approval of the Board 
of Regents such changes therein, and in these regulations gener- 
ally, as experience in his judgment and in that of the Faculty or 
Board of Regents may, from time to time, suggest; and for such 
and other purposes he will consult with the Faculty as often as may 
be deemed necessary, 

III 

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION 

1st. Military duties shall commence with the beginning of the 
first term of the Academical year and credit for proficiency be 
given proportionate to that in other classes to be determined by the 
Academic Faculty. 

2d. The course of instruction will be practical from the begin- 
ning of the Academical year until November 15th, and during the 
third term, and theoretical from November 15th until the end of 
the winter term. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 297 



3d. The practical instruction shall comprise so much of the 
school of the soldier, company and battalion (Infantry Tactics, 
Upton) and of the school of the piece (Artillery Tactics) as may be 
necessary for the students for their proper appearance at all kinds 
of review, parade, &c., &c., prescribed by the tactics. 

4th. The theoretical course of instruction shall comprise, for the 
Senior class, from Nov. 15th until the end of the winter term, reci- 
tations or lectures once each week in Field Fortifications, Outpost 
Duties, and lectures on the Science of War. 

For the Junior class, from Nov. 15th to the end of the winter 
term recitations once each week in Infantry and Artillery Tactics. 

5th. All recitations and lectures will be regulated by the Pro- 
fessor of Military Science and Tactics, under the direction of the 
Faculty. 

IV 

UNIFORM 

AU articles of uniform, &c. must be made in strict conformity 
with the approved patterns, and no student other than members of 
the Battalion shall be permitted to wear this uniform excepting 
graduated military students, and those who have been honorably 
discharged from the Battalion : the former to wear a diagonal half 
chevron of single gold lace on each arm below the elbow, extending 
from seam to seam, the front end nearest the cuff, and one half an 
inch above the same ; according to pattern. 

Coat : Double-breasted frock coat, of cadet grey cloth , . 
. . according to pattern $15.00 

Overcoat: Grey Kersey, double breasted, to reach two 
inches below the knee .... cape of the same material 
as the coat, seventeen inches in length .... according 
to pattern 22.25 

Trowsees : Cadet grey cloth, with a black stripe, one inch 
wide, down the outer seam, welted at the outer edges; ac- 
cording to pattern 7.00 

Caps : Of cadet grey cloth, chasseur pattern, with the Uni- 
versity badge in front, top of badge to be even with the top 
of the cap; according to pattern 1.50 



298 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Univeksitt Badge : A gold embroidered wreath on a black 
velvet ground, encircling the letters "S. U. I." in silver old 
English characters; according to pattern 1.35 

Buttons : Gilt, one inch in diameter, bearing in raised form 
the Arms of the State of Iowa, and underneath, the letters 
"S. U. I.;" according to pattern. 

Gloves: [of White Berlin; according to pattern] 25 

Insignia of Rank 
[Gives description of insignia of rank according to the West Point 
Cadet system of insignia] 

V 

REGULATIONS 

1. Drills for an hour each will take place (weather permitting) 
on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays P. M., during the first term 
till Nov. 15th and the third term. 

2. All students are required to be on their respective company 
parade grounds, duly armed and equipped, between the first and 
second calls for duty, and in ranks at the last tap of the drum — 
2d call. 

3. The arms or other public property for the use of the students 
shall not be taken from the office of the Professor of Military Sci- 
ence and Tactics except for duty. Each student's arms and ac- 
coutrements shall be marked with his name or designated number, 
and no student shall lend or exchange his arms or accoutrements, 
or use those of any other student, without the permission of that 
Professor. 

4. No student shall alter his musket by scraping, filing, cutting, 
or varnishing the stock, barrel, or any other part of it ; nor shall 
the lock be removed, or be taken apart without the permission of 
the Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

5. Applications to be excused from military duty must be made 
in writing, and in time for the student to report to the Officer of 
the Day before duty begins. 

6. All permits to be absent from any military duty must be 
approved by the Professor of Military Science and Tactics, and be 
deposited with the Officer of the Day. No permit will bear the 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



299 



name of more than one student, and no student shall leave or ab- 
sent himself from any military duty for the purpose of obtaining a 
permit to be excused from said duty. 

7. Any student reported for a military offense and having a 
satisfactory explanation for the same, shall explain it in writing 
according to the following form, and present it at the office of the 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics not later than the second 
orderly hour following its publication. If the explanation be satis- 
factory that Professor will erase the report ; if it is not satisfactory 
he will forward same, with his report of offenses, to the President 
for his decision. No explanation will be received after the time 
herein specified unless sickness, absence or some other unavoidable 
cause — which must be stated in the explanation — shall have pre- 
vented its presentation as herein required ; in which event it must 
be rendered without unnecessary delay. 

8. Explanations will include only such statements of facts, and 
of conduct or intentions of the student as may be necessary to a 
full and correct understanding of the case, but will not be made 
the medium of complaint or criticism, or of irrelevant remarks. 
The jurisdiction of the Battalion officers respecting offences re- 
ported, ceases vsdth their report, and all communications in refer- 
ence thereto must be made to the Professor of Military Science and 
Tactics. 

9. [Provision was made here for the form of explanation for an 
offense. This was to give the date, the offense and the explanation 
for it, and was to be signed by the person submitting it, his com- 
pany and rank also being given.] 

10. All explanations or other official communications will be 
written on white, ruled "letter paper," and shall be, when deliv- 
ered to their address, of the size of a half sheet of paper folded 
into three equal parts; no such communication being made on a 
piece of paper of less size than one of such parts. 

11. The Officer of the Day will be detailed from the roster of 
senior officers, and will report to the Professor of Military Science 
and Tactics at orderly hours on the day following his detail. 

12. He will cause all signals to be sounded at the proper time by 
the Orderly Musician. He will be present at aU parades and roll- 
calls during his tour, and require that the absentees be reported to 
him. 



300 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



13. On being relieved he will submit to the Professor of Mili- 
tary Science and Tactics a report of all violations of the regula- 
tions or orders which may come to his knowledge during his tour 
of duty, stating the names of each offender, with a clear and def- 
inite description of his offense, and the circumstances of time and 
place, when not necessarily understood, adding in a column of re- 
marks such explanations as may be appropriate. He will add to 
his report that he has faithfully performed all the duties enjoined 
by the Professor of Military Science and Tactics, and Regulations, 
and shall present with it all permits that may have come into his 
hands during his tour. 

14. All official communications from students, intended for the 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics, will be addressed to the 
Battalion Adjutant. 

15. Orderly hours will be from 9 A. M. to 10:20 A. M., (except 
on Saturdays and Sundays), at which time the Professor of Mili- 
tary Science and Tactics will transact business with students in his 
office, and where the Battalion Adjutant may be found from 8 to 
8 :30, and 11 to 12 A. M. on the same days. 

16. The Professor of Military Science and Tactics shall cause a 
Register to be kept of all offences which may take place in his de- 
partment, and shall, at the end of every week, report to the Presi- 
dent the names of those Students who have been guilty of offences, 
and the action taken thereupon. 

17. Strict attention to all Military duties and proprieties is 
required, and for all offences and misconducts therein, demerits will 
be given at the discretion of the Professor of Military Science and 
Tactics, and the demerits given for Military offences will affect the 
standing of the student in the University, and any student receiv- 
ing ten or more demerits for military offences during any one term, 
shall be suspended two weeks from the Institution. The same 
respect and obedience is due the officers and non-commissioned 
officers of the Battalion in the line of military duty, as to the 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

By order of Lieut. Schenck, Prof. Military 
Science and Tactics 

Official: R. J. Wilson 

R. J. Wilson 1st Lieut, and Adjutant. 

1st Lieut, and Adjt. 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



301 



VI [Added in Regents' minutes] 

The Professor of Military Science and Tactics will select from 
their respective classes the Staff Lieutenants and non-commissioned 
officers for their soldier like bearing, attention to and knowledge of 
military duties and from the Senior class sixteen members from 
whom the Battalion under his direction will elect four as Captains, 
four as first and eight as second Lieutenants, to be approved by him 
and assigned to the different companies in the order of their elec- 
tion. These officers and non-commissioned officers will hold their 
appointments during good conduct and strict attention to duty. 

N. B. The course of instruction includes, under the head of 
Theoretical Instruction : 

1st. Composition and organization of Armies — in different 
countries from earliest historic ages to the present day. 

2d. The supply of Armies — showing the mode of arming, 
equipping, clothing, and feeding armies by the leading nations. 

3d. Moving of Armies — including transportation by land or 
water ; marches in our own or a friendly country and marches in 
the vicinity of an enemy. 

4th. Passage of Rivers — on ice, by fords, by boats, &c. 

5th. Military Bridges — improvised from boats of the country ; 
the construction and use of pontoon bridges ; the repair and preser- 
vation of bridges and the destruction of the same ; the theory and 
use of flying bridges; of bridges on casks and inflated skins; the 
attack and defense of different kinds of bridges with historical 
notices of military bridges in general. 

6th. Field Fortifications — showing mode of construction of the 
different kinds of field works ; of attacking and defending the same. 

7th. Theory of Fire — including the phenomena of the com- 
bustion of gun powder; the theory of the flight of projectiles and 
principles of gunnery; discussion of the shapes and properties of 
projectiles and the principles of target practices; calculation of 
initial velocities, &c. 

8th. Principles of Strategy. 

9th. Historical sketches of guns and small arms from the earli- 
est times down to the present day. 

Your committee would respectfully recommend that the sum of 
two hundred and fifty dollars be appropriated for incidental ex- 



302 IOWA JOUKNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



penses of this chair, and the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars 
be appropriated for the purpose of erecting a building for the 
protection of the section of Artillery in charge of this chair. 

Your committee would call the attention of the Board to the 
establishment of Signal Stations by the U. S. Government at vari- 
ous points in the U. S. for the benefit of Agriculture, Commerce 
and Science and would recommend that the Chairman of this 
Board be directed to apply to the Hon. Sec't'y- of War for the 
detail, to report to the Prof, of Military Science and Tactics, [of] 
an observation Sergeant of the Signal Service of the U. S. Army for 
the establishment of a Signal Station and for instruction of stu- 
dents in Heterology, Climatology, and practical Telegraphy. All 
of which is respectfully submitted. 

Aethue T. Reeve 

For Committee 

On motion the foregoing report of the Committee on Military 
Matters was adopted except so much of same, or that part, relating 
to the appropriation of money and all that part of said report re- 
ferring to finances or appropriations is referred to the Committee 
on Appropriations and Finances. 

On motion of Judge McKean the following resolution was passed : 
Resolved that any student of the University may be excused for 
good cause from serving under military drill by the President. 

Adopted. 



APPENDIX B 



EXPENDITURES OF THE UNIVERSITY FOR 
MILITARY TRAINING 

The following table is compiled in order to determine as nearly 
as possible tlie direct cost of military training to the University. 
It is compiled from the annual reports of the Secretary of the Uni- 
versity and the University budgets in the minutes of the various 
governing bodies. All expenditures directly charged against the 
department are included but indirect charges, such as heat, light, 
and janitor service can not be ascertained.^^' 



DATE 


PURPOSE 


FOE MILITARY 
DEPARTMENT 


FOR BAND 


1863-1865 


Military 


$500.00268 




June 2, 1866 


Arms lost, etc. 


78.09 




1874-1875 


Equipment, etc. 


387.41 




1875-1876 


Equipment, etc. 


221.35 




1877-1878 


Equipment, etc. 


50.00 




1878-1879 


Equipment, etc. 


75.00 




1879-1880 


Equipment, etc. 


17.20 




1880-1881 


Equipment, etc. 


38.63 




1881-1882 


Equipment, etc. 

Band for commencement 


22.62 


$100.00 


1882-1883 


Equipment, etc. 
Band 


26.27 


211.69 


1883-1884 


Equipment, etc. 
Band music, etc. 
Drum major's uniform 


34.90 


233.65 
50.00 



267 Prior to the year 1890-1891 the expenditures were itemized in reports and 
not summarized by departments. The totals given before this year are the sum 
of the individual expenditures which are obviously for labor and materials for 
the Military Department. Incidental band expenditures are included in the 
incidental military appropriations. 

268 Of the total of $2000 appropriated for military and gymnastic training, 
$1924.68 was expended. It is uncertain how much of the $500 set aside for 
military training was spent for this purpose and how much was applied to the 
gymnastic work. 

303 



304 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



DATE 



1884-1885 



PURPOSE 



FOB MILITARY 
DEPARTMENT 

33.40 



FOR BAND 



269 



Equipment, etc. 
Band 

Equipment, etc. 
Band 

Equipment, etc. 
Band 

Equipment, etc. 
Band 

Exchange of U. S. arms 
Band 
Band 

Band instructor 
Military supplies, etc. 
Band 

Band instructor 
Military supplies 
Band instructor 
Military supplies 
Band instructor 
Military supplies 
Band instructor 
Military supplies 
Band instructor 
Military supplies 
New band instruments 
Band instructor 
Military supplies 
Band instruments 
Band instructor 
Military supplies and 

band instruments 
Military instructor 
Band instructor 
Military supplies 

260 Due to a change in the form of reporting expenditures it is impossible to 
ascertain the military expenditures from 1887-1888 to 1889-1890, inclusive. 

270 Publication of Vogdes's Notes on Minor Tactics was also allowed 
$100.00 but this was returned from the sale of the books. 



1885- 1886 

1886- 1887 

1887- 1888 

1888- 1889 

1889- 1890 

1890- 1891 



1891-1892 



1892-1893 



1893-1894 



1894-1895 



1895-1896270 



1896-1897 



1897-1898 



1898-1899 



25.26 



34.25 



188.25 



125.00 



74.97 



75.00 



75.00 



75.00 



68.07 



56.59 



126.29 
300.00 

12.00 



251.53 

155.90 

196.00 

200.00 

200.00 
200.00 
169.17 

125.00 
176.30 

141.00 

127.03 

149.73 

150.00 

100.00 
139.25 

250.00 
100.00 



100.00 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



305 



DATE PURPOSE FOR MILITARY FOR BAND 

DEPARTMENT 

1899- 1900 MiHtary instructor 300.00 

Band instructor 100.00 

"Military" 99.50 

1900- 1901 Military instructor 300.00 

Band instructor 100.00 

Military supplies 179.48 

1901- 1902 Salaries 500.00 150.00 

Apparatus and supplies 182.00 
Missing arms claimed by 

War Department 182.45 

1902- 1903 Salaries 500.00 150.00 

James Kirby, armorer 60.00 
Apparatus, supplies, 

and rent 150.00 

1903- 1904 Salaries 500.00 150.00 

J. F. Kirby 60.00 

Apparatus and supplies 117.69 

1904- 1905 Salaries 500.00 150.00 

H. M. Pratt, armorer 60.00 
Compensation to 

professional students 

playing in band 150.00 

Apparatus and supplies 50.00 

1905- 1906 Salaries 240.00 150.00 

Band support 250.00 

Apparatus and supplies 50.00 

Lost arms and equipment 94.55 

1906- 1907 Salaries 288.00 150.00 

Band support 250.00 

Officers' sabres and belts 177.00 

Supplies 51.31 

Cases for rifles 213.50 

1907- 1908 Salaries 288.00 300.00 

SuppHes 150.08 

1908- 1909 Salaries 288.00 300.00 

SuppHes, etc. 180.46 

1909- 1910 Salaries 300.00 300.00 

Supplies, equipment, etc. 85.00 



306 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



DATE 


PURPOSE 


FOR MILITABT 


FOR BAND 






DEPARTMENT 




1910-1911 


Salaries 


288.00 


500.00 




Supplies, equipment, etc. 


249.98 




1911-1912 


Salaries 


1000.00 


500.00 




Band members 




500.00 




Supplies, equipment, etc. 


612.84 




1912-1913 


Salaries 


1000.00 


500.00 




Band members 




465.00 




Supplies, etc. 


243.08 




1913-1914 


Salaries 


1008.34 


500.00 




Supplies, etc. 


523.17 






Band members 




500.00 


1914-1915 


Salaries 


1000.00 


500.00 




Band members 




460.00 




Supplies, etc. 


411.32 




1915-1916 


Salaries 


1000.00 


800.00 




Band members 




475.00 




Supplies, etc. 


376.56 




1916-1917 


Salaries 


1020.83 


925.00 




Band members 




505.00 




Supplies, etc. 


1008.83 




Summer Ses- 








sion, 1917 


Salaries 


300.00 




1917-1918 


Salaries 


1663.32 


1100.00 




Band members 




495.00 




Supplies, etc. 


1048.22 




Summer Ses- 








sion, 1918 


Salaries 


225.00 




1918-1919 


Salaries 


936.66 


1200.00 




Supplies 


916.70 






Assistance 


24.05 




1919-1920 


Salaries 


1840.00 


1700.00 




Supplies, assistance. 








printing, and equipment 


717.73 






Band members 




750.00 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



307 



DATE PUEPOSE FOB MILITARY FOE BAND 

DEPARTMENT 

1920- 1921 Salaries 2400.00 1700.00 

Supplies, assistance, 

printing, and equipment 1788.78 

Band members 500.00 

1921- 1922 Salaries 2400.00 1700.00 

Band 500.00 
Supplies, etc. 2022.91 



Total $34,893.89 $22,951.25 

Cost per year 730.00 559.78 

Estimated cost per year per man 3.00 



APPENDIX C 



PEOFESSORS OF MILITARY SCIENCE AND TACTICS 



YEAKS 



NAME 



1874-1875 Alexander D. Schenck 

1877-1879 James H, Chester 

1880-1883 George A, Thurston 

1883-1886 Edward C. Knower 

1886-1889 Joseph Califf 

1889-1893 George W. Read 

1893-1897 Charles B. Vogdes 

1897-1898 Hanson E. Ely 



May- June, 
1898 

1898- 1899 

1899- 1900 

1900- 1901 

1901- 1905 



f. a. soleman 
George S. Schaeffer 
Frederick S. Holsteen 
Gordon F. Harkness 
George Ritter Burnett 



1905-1909 Charles W. Weeks 



1909-1912 Morton C. Mumma 



308 



RANK 

First Lieutenant, 
2nd. Artillery- 
First Lieutenant (Brevet 
Captain), 3rd Artillery 
First Lieutenant, 
3rd Artillery 
First Lieutenant, 
3rd Artillery 
First Lieutenant, 
3rd Artillery 
First Lieutenant, 
5th Cavalry 
(now a Major General) 
First Lieutenant, 
1st Infantry 
Second Lieutenant, 
17th Infantry 
(now a Major General) 

Cadet Major 

Cadet Major 

Cadet Major 

Cadet Major 

First Lieutenant, 

9th Cavalry, retired 

First Lieutenant 

30th Infantry 

(now a Lieutenant Colonel 

of Infantry) 

First Lieutenant, 

2nd Cavalry 

(now a Lieutenant Colonel 
of Cavalry) 



THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT 



309 



TEAES 



NAME 



BANK 



August 15- 
December 15, 

1912 James A. Maes 



January 1- 
August 1, 

1913 CoEBiT S. Hoffman 



1913-1916 RoBEET T. Phinnet 



1916- 1917 Moeton C. Mumma 

1917- 1918 Andeew C. Wright 

1919-1923 Moeton C. Mumma 



First Lieutenant of 
Cavalry (now a Major 
in the Air Service) 



First Lieutenant of 
Infantry (now a 
Major of Infantry) 
First Lieutenant of 
Infantry (now a 
Major of Infantry) 
Captain of Cavalry 
Captain of Infantry, 
retired 

Lieutenant Colonel of 
Cavalry 



VOL. XXI — 20 



APPENDIX D 



BAND DIRECTORS 



YEAR NAME 

1881- 1882 A. A. (WmJ) Ladd 

1882- 1883 T. B. McAuley 

Albert Xanten 

1883- 1884 C. W. Wmcox 

Albert Xanten 

1884- 1885 C. W. Wilcox 

A. J. Maughlin 

1885- 1886 V. R. Lovell 

J. H. Dickey 

1886- 1887 John H. Sinnett 

Frank S. Aby 
F. B. Tracy 

1887- 1888 John H. Sinnett 

F. B, Tracy 

1888- 1889 W. B. LaForcb 

F. E. Smith 

1889- 1890 F. Spevacek 

1890- 1893 F. W. Thompson 

1893- 1894 U. R. BmLS 

Mill Hess 

1894- 1895 Hugh A. "Whittbmore 

1895- 1896 R. J. Gaines 

F. McClelland 

1896- 1898 F. McClelland 
1898-1903 0. A. KucK 
1903-1905 F. R. Molsberry 

1905- 1906 Orie Elmer Van Doren 

1906- 1909 Henry G. Cox 
1909-1911 Howard J. Barnum 
1911- Orie Elmer Van Doren 



title 
Leader 

Musical director 
Executive leader 
Musical director 
Leader 

Musical director 
Leader 

Musical director 
Leader and manager 
Musical director 
Musical director 
Leader 

Musical director 
Musical director 
Leader 

Musical director 

Musical director and leader 

Leader and director 

Leader and director 

Leader 

Leader 

Leader 

Leader 

Director and captain 
Director and captain 
Director and captain 
Band master 
Band master 
Band master 



310 



APPENDIX E 



SENIOR CADET OFFICERS 



YEAB 


NAME 


BANK 


1898 


F. A. SOLEMAN 


Major 


1901-1902 


"W. 0. Coast 


Major 


1902-1903 


R. M. Anderson 


Major 


1903-1904 


H. E. Spanqleb 


Major 


1904-1905 


C. P. SCHENCK 


Major 


1905-1906 


Wylie Webb Fay 


Major 


1906-1907 


No major appointed 




1907-1908 


I. C. Hastings 


Major, 1st Battalion 




n "TTl T* 

E. E. RORICK 


Major, 2nd Battalion 


1908-1909 


R. V. Cook 


Major, 1st Battalion 




J. C. HOLLMAN 


Major, 2nd Battalion 


1909-1910 


E. S. Harden 


Colonel 


1910-1911 


W. L. SCHENCK 


Colonel 


1911-1912 


Clifford Powell 


Colonel 


1912-1913 


H. F. Fuller 


Colonel 


1913-1914 


James L. Chapman 


Colonel 


1914-1915 


Carroll B. Martin 


Colonel 


1915-1916 


Chase W. Hoadley 


Colonel 


1916-1917 


Floyd Philbrick 


Colonel 


October, 1917, to 






January 15, 1918 


Paul R. Rockwood 


Colonel 


January 15, 1918 






to June, 1918 


Lewis B. Miller 


Colonel 


1919 


James A. Hollings worth 


Colonel 


1919-1920 


Verne M. Myers 


Colonel 


1920-1921 


Lowell S. Newcomb 


Colonel 



This table which was compiled from the catalogues of the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa gives the senior cadet officers since the first appointment of cadet 
majors as before that time the seniority among the cadet captains is un- 
certain. 



311 



312 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



YEAK NAME BANK 

1921-1922272 Robert L. Block Colonel, Infantry 

LovELL F. Jahnke Colonel, Engineers 

Alan C. Rockwood Colonel, M. T. C. 

Francis V. Morrison Colonel, M. T. C. 

272 Under a new ruling of the War Department it was necessary to appoint 
a cadet colonel in command of the regiment who had not completed four years 
of training. The ofiScers who had completed more than this amount of instruc- 
tion were commissioned as cadet colonels and assistant instructors. 



I 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 

Mississippi Valley Beginnings. By Henry E. Chambers. New 
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1922. 389 pp. Maps, plates. His- 
torians have found in the Mississippi Valley a fertile field for study 
and this volume contains a large amount of material on the history 
of the region. It covers the period from the earliest settlements 
down to about 1850. The French and Spanish regimes, the west- 
ward movement of the English, life among the pioneers, the coming 
of the Acadians, the purchase of Louisiana, western unrest, the 
advance of slavery, traffic on the Mississippi, and the organization 
of the district into Territories and States are presented in vivid 
language. 

The story is in popular style and the emphasis throughout is 
upon the personal side of history. The picture of pioneer living 
conditions is painted in detail, while incidents of political and mili- 
tary activities are subordinated. 

Since the population of Iowa in 1840 was slightly more than 
43,000, and that of "Wisconsin a little less than 31,000, one may 
question the statement of the author that "By 1840 the south- 
eastern corner of Iowa began to receive a part of the overflow 
from population streams pouring into Wisconsin and Missouri. ' ' 

The volume is provided with a bibliography and an index. 



A Prehistoric Island Culture Area of America, an extensive 
paper by J. Walter Fewkes, is included in the Thirty-fourth An- 
nual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. The report 
covers the West Indies. 

Volume forty-one of the Archives of Maryland contains the 
third installment of the Proceedings of the Provincial Court of 
Maryland, 1658-1662, edited by Bernard Christian Steiner. 

The Creation of the Presidency, 1775-1789, a monograph by 

313 



314 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Charles C. Thaeh, Jr., appears in a recent number of the Johns 
Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. 

Source Material for the Study of American History in the Libra- 
ries of Chicago is the title of an article compiled by George B. 
Utley and printed in a recent number of The Papers of the Biblio- 
graphical Society of America. 

Volume one of the Records of the Moravians in North Carolina, 
edited by Adelaide L. Fries, has just been published as one of the 
Publications of the North Carolina Historical Commission. The 
account covers the years 1752 to 1771. 

The Bulletin of the Virginia State Library for April-July, 1922, 
contains Justices of the Peace of Colonial Virginia, 1757-1775, re- 
printed from a manuscript record deposited in the Virginia State 
Library. 

Charles W. Moores is the author of a biographical monograph 
entitled Abraham Lincoln, Lawyer, recently reprinted in the Indi- 
ana Historical Society Publications from the Proceedings of the 
American Bar Association for 1910. 

The Office of Sheriff in Scotland: Its Origin and Early Develop- 
ment, by C. A. Malcolm, is one of the articles in the Scottish His- 
torical Review for January. 

Robert H. Lowie is the author of a monograph on Crow Indian 
Art published in a recent number of the Anthropological Papers of 
the American Museum of Natural History. In the same publica- 
tion Mr. Lowie has a monograph on The Material Culture of the 
Crow Indians. 

Literature of Buffalo, taken from the Municipality of Buffalo, 
New York — A History, by Henry Wayland HiU, Connecticut Col- 
lege, by Benjamin T. Marshall, The Narragansett Trail, by Thomas 
W. Bicknell, Early Discoveries and Explorations, by Frank R. 
Holmes, and Marquette's Monsters, by Jacob P. Dunn, are among 
the articles in Americana for January. 

Pluralism: A Point of View, by George H. Sabine, and The In- 
fluence of Political Platforms on Legislation in Indiana, by Burton 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



315 



y. Berry, are two articles in The American Political Science Re- 
view for February. 

The three articles in The J ournal of Negro History for January 
are the following: The Educational Efforts of the Freedmen's Bu- 
reau and Freedmen's Aid Societies in South Carolina, 1862-1872, 
by L. P. Jackson; The Religion of the American Negro Slave: His 
Attitude Toward Life and Death, by G. R. Wilson ; and Prudence 
Crandall, by G. Smith Wormley. 

The first installment of To Nebraska in '57, a diary of Erastus 
F. Beadle, is published in the February number of the Bulletin of 
the New York Public Library. After his return from Nebraska, 
Mr. Beadle became a resident of New York City where he was a 
member of the firm publishing "Beadle's Dime Novels", a series 
begun in 1860. 

Was the Nebraska Administrative Code Repudiated at Last Elec- 
tion?, by Ealph S. Boots, The National Budget System, by H. M. 
Lord, and The Legislative Body in City Manager Government, by 
Henry M. Waite, are three of the articles in the February issue of 
the National Municipal Review. 

Some Aspects of Protection Further Considered, by Frank D. 
Graham, and Prices and the Quantity of Circulating Medium, 
1890-1921, by Holbrook Working, are two of the papers in The 
Quarterly Journal of Economics for February. The March num- 
ber contains, among others, an article on The Tariff Act of 1922, 
by Abraham Berglund, and Financial Argument for Federal Aid 
to Education, by Rufus S. Tucker. 

The January number of The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science contains a large number of papers 
on the general subject. Public Welfare in the United States. In 
the issue for March the subject is the Direct Primary. Among the 
articles is one on The Workings of the Direct Primary in Iowa, by 
Frank E. Horack, 

Continuations of three papers — Salem Vessels and Their Voy- 
ages, by George Granville Putnam; Essex County Vessels Cap- 



316 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tured 'by Foreign Powers, 1793-1813; and The Suppression of 
Piracy in the West Indies, by Francis B. C. Bradlee — are found 
in the January issue of The Historical Collections of the Essex In- 
stitute. The articles by Mr. Putnam and Mr. Bradlee are continued 
in the April number. Forty Years Ago in Salem: Extracts from 
the Diary of Francis H. Lee is another paper in this number. 

Land Utilization in the United States: Geographical Aspects of 
the Problem, by 0. E. Baker, is one of the papers in The Geograph- 
ical Review for January. Massachusetts and Its Position in the 
Life of the Nation, by Calvin Coolidge, America's Amazing Bail- 
way Traffic, by William Joseph Showalter, Missouri, Mother of the 
West, by Frederick Simpich, and sixteen pages of colored illustra- 
tions, entitled Western Views in the Land of the Best, are the four 
contributions to the April number. 

Fields for Besearch in Southern History after Beconstruction, by 
Ella Lonn, Possibilities for Besearch in New Orleans, by Julie 
Koch, and The Study of State History in the High Schools of Mis- 
souri, by E. M. Violette, are three of the articles in the January 
issue of The Historical Outlook. In the number for February 
are reports of the meetings of associations and committees. The 
Besponsibility for the Failure of Compromise in 1860, by W. E. 
Tilberg, and History as a Social Study, by Harriet E. TueU, are 
two of the papers in the March issue. The April number contains, 
among others, an article by W. H. Ellison on Geographic Influ- 
ences in Pacific History and one by E. D. Ross on Nationalization 
of the Democratic Party. 

WESTERN AMERICANA 

Frederick Jackson Turner and Frederick Merk have recently 
issued a revised List of Beferences on the History of the West. 

El Palacio for February 15, 1923, contains a report on the pur- 
poses and work of the School of American Research by the direc- 
tor, Edgar L. Hewett. 

The Biver of Lost Mills is the title of an article relating to Iowa, 
by Florence L. Clark, published in The Northwestern Miller for 
October 18, 1922. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



317 



The Eopewell Mound Group of Ohio, by Warren K. Moorehead, 
has been published by the Field Museum of Natural History as a 
number in their anthropological series. 

The Industrial Development of Kansas, by P. F, Walker, has 
been published in two parts by the University of Kansas as Engi- 
neering Bulletin, No. 12. 

From Vermont to Vermontville is the title given to a letter and 
biographical sketch relating to the experiences of Mr. and Mrs. 
Sylvester Cochrane in their emigration to Michigan in 1838, which 
are published in the January number of the Burton Historical Col- 
lection Leaflet. 

The Tear Book of the Society of Indiana Pioneers for 1922 con- 
tains an address by Jacob P. Dunn on The Religious Life of the 
Pioneer Settlers of Indiana and reminiscences by John C. Wright 
entitled Living and Religious Customs of Pioneers in Western 
Indiana. 

The Jahriuch der Deutsch-Amerikanischen Historischen Gesell- 
schaft von Illinois, Volume XX-XXI, for 1920 and 1921, contains 
an extended article by B. A. Uhlendorf on Charles Sealsfield: 
Ethnic and National Problems in His Works. Sealsfield was a 
native of Moravia who wrote a number of novels relating to the 
Mississippi Valley, especially the southwest. He died in Switzer- 
land in 1864. 

The Influence of Chicago Upon Abraham Lincoln, an address 
delivered by William E. Barton before the Chicago Historical Soci- 
ety on February 10, 1922, has recently been issued in pamphlet 
form by the University of Chicago Press. 

The Wisconsin Archeologist for December, 1922, contains a study 
of the archeological discoveries around Lake Monona, prepared by 
Charles E. Brown. 

Calif ornian Kinship Terminologies, a monograph by Edward 
Winslow Gifford, has been published as a recent number of the 
University of California Publications in American Archaeology 
and Ethnology. 



318 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



A Study of " Monarchial" Tendencies in the United States, from 
1776 to 1801, a monograph by Louise Burnham Dmibar, is pub- 
lished in the University of Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences 
for March, 1922. 

Four of the papers in the January number of The Quarterly 
Journal of the University of North Dakota are the following: 
Electioneering in Eighteenth Century England, by Clarence 
Perkins; Improving North Dakota Bar Admission Requirements, 
by Lauriz Void; A Bird's Eye View of General Educational Ad- 
ministration in North Dakota with Suggestions for Its Betterment, 
by George A. McFarland; and A Brief Survey of the Teaching 
Situation in the Elementary Schools of North Dakota, by Francis 
M. Garver. 

lOWANA 

The History of Fort Dodge, by J. H. Schaffner, is continued in 
the January, February, and March numbers of The Community 
Builder, published by the Ft. Dodge Chamber of Commerce. 

The Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society for January con- 
tains another installment of D. S. Fairehild's Physicians Who Lo- 
cated in Iowa in the Period Between 1850 and 1860. 

Bace Discrimination in Naturalization, by D. 0. McGovney, and 
The Coronado Coal Case and Its Consequences, by George C. Lay, 
are the two articles in the March issue of the Iowa Law Bulletin. 

Captain John Grout of Watertown and Sudhury, Massachusetts, 
and Some of His Descendants: A Contribution Toward a Genealogy 
of the Grout and Allied Families With Special Reference to the 
Line of Henry Whittemore Grout of Waterloo, Iowa, compiled by 
Elizabeth E. Boice Jones, has recently been published by Henry 
Whittemore Grout. 

Willson Alexander Scott, by Ida M. Huntington, Dr. Julius A. 
Reed, a State Builder, by James L. Hill, and A Pioneer Story, by 
Mrs. P. V. Van Arsdale, are the three articles in the Annals of 
Iowa for April, 1922. There is also a series of short extracts from 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



319 



newspapers relating to Keokuk, the Indian chief, under the title 
Historical Resources of the Historical Department of Iowa. 

SOME RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IOWA AUTHORS 

Bordwell, Percy, 

An Eighteenth Century Deed (Iowa Law Bulletin, January, 
1923). 

Briggs, John Ely, 

Legislative Episodes (The Palimpsest, March, 1923). 

Brown, Bernice, 

April Floods (Hearst's International, February, 1923). 
The Cross-Beam (The Century Magazine, February, 1923). 
The Shining Road. New York : G. P. Putnam 's Sons. 1923. 

Brown, Charles Reynolds, 

The Art of Preaching. New York : Macmillan Co. 1922. 

Buckmaster, Richard Price, 

Chasing the Crooks (The American Furrier, November, 1922). 
New York Fur Center of the World (The American Furrier, 
October, 1922). 

A Sorceress that Never Dies (The American Furrier, Novem- 
ber, 1922). 

Bunten, Florence Hines, 

The Night Path (Scribner's Magazine, February, 1923). 

Burrows, J. M. D., 

Ventures in Wheat (The Palimpsest, February, 1923). 

Canaday, Elizabeth, 

The Gift of Prayer (Iowa Children's Home Herald, December, 
1922). 

Case, Clarence Marsh, 

Non-Violent Coercion. New York : Century Co. 1923. 

Clark, Florence L., 

The River of Lost Mills (The Northwestern Miller, October 18, 
1922). 



320 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Cooper, Zada M., 

Drugs and Medicines of the Bible (Spatula, December, 1922). 
The Pharmacist in Literature (Spatula, November, 1922). 

Corcoran, H. J., 

Municipal Fire Protection (American Municipalities, Febru- 
ary, 1923). 

Craig, Hardin, 

Terentius Christianus and the Stonyhurst Pageants (Philo- 
logical Quarterly, January, 1923). 

Edwards, J. H., 

The Duties of an Electrical Engineer of a Coal Mining Com- 
pany (The Transit, January, 1923). 

Eldred, Myrtle Meyer, 

Growing, Sturdy School Children (Fruit, Garden and Home, 

January, 1923). 
Poor Little Things (Iowa Children's Home Herald, December, 

1922). 

Eriksson, Erik McKinley, 

The Third Year of the League of Nations (The Historical Out- 
look, April, 1923). 

Flanagan, Hallie F., 

The Curtain (The Drama, February, 1923). 

Ford, Arthur H., 

Better Voltage Regulation Increases Output (Electrical World, 
January 6, 1923). 

Electrical Engineering as a Profession (The Transit, Decem- 
ber, 1922). 

Gardner, Nellie E., 

Feeding and Saving the Intellects of Russia (The Iowa Alum- 
nus, February, 1923). 

Glaspell, Susan, 

Dwellers on Parnassus (The New Republic, January 17, 1923). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



321 



Haines, Austin, 

The Crimes of Law Enforcement (The New Eepublie, Febru- 
ary 14, 1923). 

Harris, Clare Winger, 

Persephone of Eleusis. Boston : The Stratford Co, 1923. 
Harwood, Herbert M., 

Los Angeles Possesses a Tested Stability — Hoover (Los 
Angeles Realtor, December, 1922). 

Higbee, Frederick G., 

A Site for the Iowa Memorial Union (The Transit, December, 
1922). 

Hill, James L., 

Br. Julius A, Beed, a State Builder (Annals of Iowa, April, 
1922). 

Holiday, Sara G., 

Back of the Scenes at a Summer Camp (The Arrow of Pi Beta 
Phi, December, 1922). 

Horack, Frank E., 

The Workings of the Direct Primary in Iowa (The Annals of 
the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
March, 1923). 

Horack, H. Claude, 

Character Qualifications and Disbarment Proceedings (Iowa 
Law Bulletin, January, 1923, and Journal of the American 
Judicature Society, April, 1923). 

House, Ralph E., 

The Present Status of the Problem of Authorship of the Celes- 
tina (Philological Quarterly, January, 1923). 

Hovey, Alma Burnham, 

Where's Minnie (The Midland, January, 1923). 

Hsu, Leonard, 

The Antiquity of Chinese Law (China Review, November, 
1922). 



322 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Chinese Legal System (American Bar Association Journal, 
December, 1922). 

Hunter, Grace, 

Canoeing on the Cedar (The Midland, January, 1923). 

Huntington, Ida M., 

Willson Alexander Scott (Annals of Iowa, April, 1922), 

Ibershoif, C. H., 

A Note on Kleist's Prim von Somber g (Journal of English 
and Germanic Philology, University of Illinois, October, 

1922) . 

Jones, Lawrence C, 

Piney Woods and Its People. New York : Fleming H. ReveU 
Co. 1923. 
Knight, Frank H., 

Business Management; Science or Art? (Journal of Business, 
March, 1923). 
Lambert, Byron J., 

What Is an Engineer (The Transit, January, 1923). 
McGovney, D. 0., 

Race Discrimination in Naturalization (Iowa Law Bulletin, 
March, 1923). 
Mahan, Bruce E., 

A Confederate Spy (The Palimpsest, February, 1923). 
The Iowa Thespians (The Palimpsest, January, 1923). 
Pleasant Hill Dramatics (The Palimpsest, January, 1923). 
May, Stella Burk, 

Blue Butterflies and Oreen Parasols (Good Housekeeping, 
February, 1923). 
Merriam, Charles S., 

Nominating Systems (The Annals of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science, March, 1923). 
MitcheU, J. B., 

County Libraries (Iowa Library Quarterly, January-March, 

1923) . 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



323 



Moore, Ora Clayton, 

I'd Bather Have — (The Normal Instructor and Primary 
Plans, December, 1922). 

Nelson, Richard W,, 

Business and the Present Immigration Situation (Journal of 
Business, March, 1923). 

Parker, Maude, (Mrs. Richard Washburn Child) 

The Home of the Free (Smart Set, December, 1922). 

Parkhurst, Henry Clinton, 

The Siege of Corinth (The Palimpsest, January, 1923). 

Patrick, G. T. W., 

The Emergent Theory of Mind (Journal of Psychology, De- 
cember 21, 1922). 

Piper, Edwin Ford, 

Sweetgrass Range (poem) (Des Moines Register, February 25, 
1923). 

Quick, John Herbert, 

The Eawheye (The Ladies Home Journal, March, April, 1923). 

Renter, Bertha Ann, 

A Man of Vision (The Palimpsest, March, 1923). 

Roberts, George E., 

Fall of Agricultural Prices (Proceedings of the Academy of 
Political Science in the City of New York, January, 1923). 

Rockwood, Elbert "W., 

Beautifying the Streets of Small Cities (The Independent, 
October 21, 1922). 

Rockwood, Laura 0., 

Beautifying the Streets of Small Cities (The Independent, 
October 21, 1922). 

RusseU, Charles Edward, 

Railroad Melons, Rates and Wages; a Handbook of Railroad 
Information. Chicago : C. H. Kerr & Co. 1922. 



324 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Schmidt, Louis Bernard, 

An Unworked Field of Mississippi Valley History (The Iowa 

Journal of History and Polities, January, 1923). 
The Westward Movement of the Corn Growing Industry in the 
United States (The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 
January, 1923). 

Seashore, Carl E., 

Comments on the Plan for Sectioning Classes on the Basis of 

Ability (School and Society, November 4, 1922). 
The Gifted Student and Research (Science, December 8, 1922). 
Progressive Adjustment Versus Entrance Elimination in a 

State University (School and Society, January 13, 1923). 
Sectioning Classes on the Basis of Ability (School and Society, 

April 1, 1922). 

Sherman, Edith Bishop, 

Firewood (St. Nicholas, January, 1923). 

Sherman, Jay J., 

History of the Office of County Superintendent of Schools in 
Iowa (The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, January, 
1923). 

Sigmund, Jay G., 

The Lone Linden (Caprice, December, 1922), 

Simons, Henry C, 

The Tax Exemption Question (Journal of Business, March, 
1923). 

Smertenko, Johan J., 

The American Short Story (The American Bookman, January, 
1923). 

Iowa — A Mortgaged Eldorado (The Nation, December 13, 
1922). 

Smith, Charles Stephenson, 

Helping Create a New World Psychology (The Iowa Alumnus, 
February, 1923). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



325 



Smith, Harold T., 

The Over-Capitalization of Iowa Farm Land (Journal of Busi- 
ness, March, 1923). 

Swanson, Harold N., 

Corn: Moods from Mid-America. Grinnell: Malteaser Pub- 
lishing Co. 1922. 

Trowbridge, Arthur C, 

A Geologic Reconnaissance in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas 
Near the Bio Grande. Washington: Government Printing 
Office. 1923. 

Van Arsdale, Mrs. P. V., 

A Pioneer Story (Annals of Iowa, April, 1922). 
Van Ek, Jacob, 

A Contested Election (The Palimpsest, March, 1923). 
Walling, K. L., 

Cause and Remedy for Fire Losses (American Municipalities, 

January, 1923). 
WalHs, EoUand S., 

The Disposal of Municipal Refuse (American Municipalities, 

January, 1923). 

Ward, Charles Frederick, 

The Writings of a Fifteenth Century French Patriot, Jean 
(II) Juvenal des JZrsms (Philological Quarterly, January, 
1923). 
Waterman, Earle L., 

Value of Sanitary Surveys to the City (American Municipali- 
ties, February, 1923). 
Willson, Dixie, 

3Ian in You (McClure's Magazine, January, 1923). 
Wing Dreams (Child Life, January, 1923). 

SOME RECENT HISTORICAL ITEMS IN IOWA NEWSPAPERS 

Sketch of the life of Zerah Cottrell, in the Waterloo Courier, Janu- 
ary 1, 1923. 

VOL. XXI — 21 



326 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



A township map of Iowa in 1854, in the Webster City Daily News, 
January 3, 1923. 

Buffalo in Hancock County, in the Britt News, January 3, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of H. V, Dwelle, in the Northwood Anchor, Janu- 
ary 3, 1923. 

Coal famine at Rockwell City in 1882, in the Rockwell City Bepuh- 
lican, January 4, 1923. 

Samuel Maxwell, former slave, in the Arlington News, January 4, 
1923. 

Sketch of the life of John Schneider, early settler in Plymouth 
County, in the Le Mars Sentinel, January 5, 1923. 

The Norwegian settlers in Story County, in the Nevada Journal, 
January 5, 1923. 

Recollections of the Mississippi River, by J. M. Turner, in the 
Burlington Saturday Evening Post, January 6, 1923. 

Iowa's first locomotive, in the Des Moines Capital, January 7, 1923. 

Diary of Joseph Lawless, in the Des Moines Register, January 7, 
1923. 

George W. Kingsnorth's story of the Sully expedition, in the Sioux 
City Tribune, January 9, 1923. 

Old graves in gravel pit at Arnold's Park, in the Marslialltown 
Times-Republican, January 9, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Catherine Tallmann, said to have been 
the oldest resident of Iowa, in the Anamosa Journal, January 
11, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Frederick Wichman, in the Mason City Ga- 
zette, January 12, 1923, and the Watei'loo Courier, January 13, 
1923. 

The blizzard in 1873, in the Des Moines Register, January 14, 1923, 
the Estherville Democrat, January 17, 1923, the Sabula Ga- 
zette, January 25, 1923, the Lime Springs Sun-Herald, Febru- 
ary 1, 1923, and the Guttenberg Press, February 22, 1923. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 327 

Chronology of Iowa, in tlie Elgin Echo, January 18, 1923. 
Early railroad time table, in the Tama Herald, January 18, 1923, 
Early days in Burlington, by J. L. Waite, in the Burlington Hawk- 

Eye, January 21, 28, February 4, 11, 18, 25, March 4, 11, 18, 

25, 1923. 

The Hamilton family, in the Iowa City Press-Citizen, January 23, 
1923. 

The Shakers in Iowa, in the Oskaloosa Herald, January 24, 1923. 
Sketch of the life of J. E. King, in the Eldora Herald, January 25, 
1923. 

The old school bell in Winterset, in the Winterset Madisonian, 
January 25, 1923. 

The first printing press in Iowa, in the Monticello Times, January 
25, 1923. 

The landing place of JoUet and Marquette, in the Washington 
Journal, January 26, 1923. 

Some old time furniture owned by Arch Foster, in the Welster 
City Journal, January 27, 1923. 

The press of early Keokuk, in the Burlington Saturday Evening 
Post, January 27, February 3, 10, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of L. H. Kurtz, in the Des Moines Tribune, Janu- 
ary 29, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Edward Corrin, in the Cedar Falls Record, 
January 29, 1923. 

Former editors of the New Sharon Star, in the New Sharon Star, 
January 31, 1923. 

A short history of Prairie Township, Mahaska County, in the New 
Sharon Star, January 31, 1923. 

Early recollections of New Sharon, in the New Sharon Star, Janu- 
ary 31, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Julius A. Reed, in the Davenport Democrat, 
February 1, 1923. 



328 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Mrs. Jennie Sturgis Kelley, first white child born in Black Hawk 
Oounty, in the Waterloo Courier, February 1, 1923. 

Pioneer life in Page County, by Mabel H. Kenea, in the Clarinda 
Journal, February 1, 1923. 

The bond of John R. Duncan, recorder of Monroe County, in the 
Alhia BepuMican, February 1, 1923. 

Recollections of a pioneer, from the diary of Sarah Welch Nossa- 
man, in the Pella Chronicle, February 1, 8, 1923. 

Code making in 1848, in the Fort Dodge Messenger, February 2, 
1923, and the Waterloo Courier and the Council Bluffs Non- 
pareil, February 3, 1923. 

E. L. Raff and John Shadley, Civil War veterans, in the Davenport 
Democrat, February 2, 1923. 

Early settlers in Traer, in the Traer Star-Clipper, February 2, 
1923. 

Sketch of the life of Crom Bowen, in the Des Moines Tribune, 
February 3, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Thomas K. Isherwood, old time Mississippi 
River pilot, in the Davenport Times, February 3, 1923. 

The story of the death and burial of Black Hawk, in the Davenport 
Democrat, the Burlington Gazette, the Marshalltown Times- 
Bepuhlican, and the Ottumwa Courier, February 6, 1923, and 
the Des Moines Capital and the Muscatine Journal, February 
7, 1923. 

Mrs. Maggie Hickey McNally, first white child born in Palo Alto 
County, in the Emmetsburg Tribune, February 7, 1923, 

The first banquet in Iowa, held at Burlington in honor of Governor 
Lucas, in the Newton Record, February 8, 1923, 

John W, Anderson helped Lincoln's campaign, in the Des Moines 
Register, February 11, 1923. 

Early history of Iowa, by Goodwin Garst, in the Coon Rapids 
Enterprise, February 16, 1923, 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



329 



Sketcli of the life of John Blaul, in the Burlington Gazette, Febru- 
ary 16, 1923. 

Troubles of early newspaper editors, in the Waterloo Courier, 

February 17, 1923. 
Kambles in the "West in 1852, edited by Fred A. Bill, in the 

Burlington Saturday Evening Post, February 17, 24, March 3, 

10, 1923. 

William Torley and John E. Jarrett, West Point's oldest citizens, 
in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, February 18, 1923. 

Scrap book owned by Seth Dean of Glenwood has items of MiUs 
County history, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, February 18, 
1923. 

Early days in the Waterloo post office, by George F. Althouse, in 
the Waterloo Courier, February 19, 1923. 

Early days on the Mississippi, by J. A. Kraus, in the Clinton Her- 
ald, February 19, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of H. J. Wieneke, in the Iowa City Press-Citizen, 
February 20, 1923, and the Des Moines Register, February 
28, 1923. 

Pioneer experiences in Hancock County, in the Kanawha Bepuh- 
lican, February 21, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Mary E. Todd, early settler at Pella, 
in the Knoxville Journal, February 22, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Leonora F. Foote, in the Iowa Falls Cit- 
izen, February 23, 1923. 

The archives of Iowa, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, February 
23, 1923, and the Sioux City Journal and Cedar Bapids Gor 
zette, February 27, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of David J. Fredler, one of the oldest settlers 
of Wapello County, in the Ottumwa Courier, February 26, 
1923. 

WiUson Alexander Scott, the donor of the capitol grounds at Des 
Moines, in the Des Moines Tribune, March 1, 1923. 



330 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Rafting on the Upper Mississippi, by J. W. Darrah, in the Bur- 
lington Saturday Evening Post, February 24, March 3, 10, 17, 
24, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Isaac N. Kramer, in the Cedar Bapids Gazette, 
March 1, 1923. 

An indictment for murder in early Van Buren County, in the 
Storm Lake Tribune, March 1, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Paschal Holmes, stage driver in Lee County, 
in the Keokuk Gate-City, March 1, 1923. 

Stage coach days in Cedar Rapids, in the Cedar Bapids Gazette, 
March 2, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Senator William Boyd Allison, in the Dubuque 
Herald, March 3, 1923. 

Early days in Waterloo, by Mrs. Mary J. LaBarre, in the Waterloo 
Courier, March 3, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of John W. Darrah, in the Burlington Saturday 
Evening Post, March 3, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Captain Samuel S. Hanks, cousin of Abraham 
Lincoln and Mississippi River pilot, in the Davenport Times, 
March 5, 1923, and the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, 
March 10, 1923. 

Sergeant Nicholas Bouquet, color bearer of the Twenty-fifth Iowa 
Infantry, in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, March 7, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Thomas Brandon, in the Allia News, March 8, 
1923. 

Execution at Charles City, in the Charles City Press, March 9, 1923 

First Iowa college graduates, in the Oskaloosa Herald, March 15, 
1923. 

Old French trap found at Hamburg, in the Blanchard Herald, 
March 15, 1923. 

Marriage of Samuel C. Muir to an Indian woman, in the Des Moines 
Plain Talk, March 15, 1923. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 331 

Sketch, of the life of James F. Horton, in the Sioux City Tribune, 
March 16, 1923. 

River traffic on the Des Moines River, by W. H. H. Barker, in the 
Oskaloosa Herald, March 17, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Annie Lapora Flurie, first white girl born 
in Sioux City, in the Sioux City Journal, March. 18, 1923. 

Samples of early paper money owned by J. R. Dunham, in the 
Waterloo Courier, March 20, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of W. A. Burnap, in the Clear Lake Reporter, 
March 20, 1923. 

Forty years ago in Lu Verne, by Verne E. Ellis, in the Lu Verne 
News, March 21, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of John P. Irish, in the Atlantic News-Telegraph, 
March 21, 31, 1923. 

The blizzard in 1856, in the Mason City Gazette, March 22, 1923. 

John Brown in Iowa, in the Oakland Acorn, March 22, 1923. 

The survey of the Des Moines Valley Railroad, by James Carss, in 
the Keosauqua Republican, March 22, 1923. 

Early days in Harlan and Shelby County, in the Harlan Republi- 
can, March 22, 1923. 

Anniversary of the discovery of the Upper Mississippi by J oKet and 
Marquette, in the Waukon Standard, March 22, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of George A. Gordon, in the Emerson Chronicle, 
March 23, 1923. 

Lyons in 1858, in the Clinton Herald, March 24, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Marcellus M. Crocker, in the Des Moines 
Capital, March 26, 1923, and the Sioux City Journal, March 
29, 1923. 

Steamboat bell used by Webster City school, in the Boone Pioneer, 
March 26, 1923. 

Some famous Bibles in Iowa, in the Des Moines Tribune, March 28, 
1923. 



332 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Life in pioneer Iowa, in the Des Moines Register, March 28, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Andrew Thompson, in the Waterloo Tribune, 
March 28, 1923. 

Reminiscences of Wright County, by Mrs. A. K. Ketchum, in the 
Welster City News, March 28, 1923. 

Pioneer business men of Des Moines, in the Des Moines Capital, 
March 30, 1923. 

A prairie fire in 1856, by E. B. Walker, in the Waterloo Courier, 
March 31, 1923. 



HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES 

PUBLICATIONS 

The Medford Historical Register for December, 1922, contains an 
article on Medford Church Anniversaries. 

The Wilderness Trail, by George Ives Haight, is a short but 
interesting paper in the March number of the Chicago Historical 
Society Bulletin. 

The Indiana Historical Commission has recently published the 
Proceedings of the Southwestern Indiana Historical Society as 
Bulletin No. 16. The meeting was held at Evansville, Indiana, on 
January 31, 1922. 

The First Publishers of Truth, by Ernest E. Taylor, is one of the 
papers in a recent number of The Journal of the Friends' His- 
torical Society. 

Two Seasons' Work in Archaeology in Colorado, by Jean AUard 
Jeancon, is one of the short articles in the Bulletin of the State 
Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado for November, 
1922. 

In addition to the reports of the State Historical Society and 
local auxiliary societies, the Proceedings of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin for 1922 contains a report entitled The 
Draper Collection of Manuscripts, by Joseph Schafer. 

The Quarterly Publication of the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio for October-December, 1922, contains the annual 
report of the Society for the year 1922. 

Early New England Nomenclature, by Donald Lines Jacobus, is 
an interesting study in local history in The New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Register for January. 

New Jersey Paper Currency, 1709-1786, by "William W. Brad- 
beer, and A Walking and Riding Journey West in 1811-'12, a 

333 



334 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



diary by John Force, are two of the contributions in the Proceed- 
ings of the New Jersey Historical Society for January. 

The three articles in the January issue of The American His- 
torical Review are European History and American Scholarship, 
by Charles H. Haskins ; The London Mission of Thomas Pinckney, 
1792-1796, by Samuel F. Bemis; and Historical Research in Russia 
during the Revolutionary Crisis, by A. Presniakov. 

The True Story of the Virginia and the Monitor, by William 
Tindall, is an article of general interest in the January number of 
The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. There is also a 
report of the proceedings of the Virginia Historical Society for 
1921 and a list of the officers and members of the Society. 

The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society for Janu- 
ary contains the first installment of what is known as the * ' Certifi- 
cate Book" — the manuscript volume containing the record of the 
land claims in early Kentucky. The certificates issued on proof of 
settlement and preemption rights took the place of deeds. The 
original is in the possession of the clerk of the Fayette County 
court. 

The Southwestern Historical Quarterly for January contains a 
paper by Charmion Olair Shelby on St. Denis's Declaration Con- 
cerning Texas in 1717. There are also installments of continued 
articles : Indian Policy of the Republic of Texas, by Anna Muckle- 
roy ; Memoirs of Major George Bernard Erath, by Lucy A. Erath ; 
and The Bryan-Hayes Correspondence, edited by E. W. Winkler. 

Three articles in The Georgia Historical Quarterly for Decem- 
ber, 1922, are the following: New Light Upon the Founding of 
Georgia, by W. B. Phillips; The Activities of the Missionaries 
Among the Cherokees, by L. M. CoUins ; and Development of Agri- 
culture in Lower Georgia from 1890 to 1920, by R. M. Harper. 
There is also another installment of the Howell Cobb Papers, edited 
by R. P. Brooks. 

The Indiana Magazine of History for December, 1922, contains 
five articles: Tecumseh and Pushmataha, by J. Wesley Whicker; 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



335 



Pioneer Life in Boone County, by Jane Gregory Stevenson; Pio- 
neer Stories of the Calumet, compiled by J. "William Lester; 
Pennville, by Ida Helen McCarty; and Pioneer Homesteads, by 
Julia Le Clere Knox. 

"Volume fifty-five of the Proceedings of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society contains reports on various meetings including the 
annual meeting in April, 1922. Among the papers and addresses 
are the following: A Chaplain of the Revolution, by Edward 
Waldo Emerson; The Seizure of John Hancock's Sloop "Liberty", 
by George G. WoUdns ; and How Massachusetts Raised Her Troops 
in the Revolution, by Jonathan Smith. 

The Nevada Historical Society Papers, 1921-1922, contains the 
following papers and articles: Historical Sketches and Reminis- 
cences of Dayton, Nevada, by Fanny G. Hazlett; The Truckee 
River, by Robert L. Pulton ; A Brief Survey of the Musical History 
of Western Nevada, by Gertrude Streeter Vrooman; The Washo 
Language, by Grace Dangberg; and The Lake of the Deep Blue 
Waters, by Gilberta Turner. 

The January issue of The Washington Historical Quarterly con- 
tains the following articles and papers : The Building of the Walla 
Walla & Columbia River Railroad, by W. W. Baker; The Spokane, 
Portland and Seattle Railroad Company, by L. C. Gilman; a con- 
tinuation of Newspapers of Washington Territory, by Edmond S. 
Meany; Notes on the Life and Historical Services of Thomas W. 
Prosch, by Charles W. Smith; Professor Channing and the West, 
by Samuel Flagg Bemis ; and an installment of Origin of Washing- 
ton Geographic Names, by Edmond S. Meany. 

The Mormon Winter Camp on the Niobrara, by Ed A. Pry, and 
My Recollection of the Early Grange in Nebraska, by T. N. Bobbitt, 
are two of the short papers in Nebraska History and Record of 
Pioneer Days for January-March, 1922. In the April-June num- 
ber Robert Harvey contributes an article on The Paul Brothers of 
St. Paul. 

Rhode Island in 1784, by Paul C. Nicholson, The Wallum Pond 
Estates, by Harry Lee Barnes, and Rev. George Whitefield's Ac- 



336 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



count of His Visit to Rhode Island in 1740, are three of the contri- 
butions in the January number of the Rhode Island Historical So- 
ciety Collections. 

Wisconsin, by William Ellery Leonard, a second installment of 
The Yankee and the Teuton in Wisconsin, by Joseph Schafer, The 
Grand Army of the Republic and the Wisconsin Department, by 
Hosea W. Rood, Empire: A Wisconsin Town, by W. A. Titus, and 
Micajah Terrell Williams — A Sketch, by Samuel M. Williams, 
are the articles in the March number of The Wisconsin Magazine of 
History. The Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin in 1840 is con- 
cluded in this number. 

Some Aspects of Pittsburgh's Industrial Contributions to the 
Civil War, by Louis Vaira, The Archaeology and Early History of 
the Allegheny River, by Geo. P. Donehoo, Western Pennsylvania 
and the Election of 1860, The Attitude of the Pittsburgh News- 
papers Toward the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, by Don R. Kovar, Appli- 
cation of Veto Power by Abraham Lincoln, by Anna Prenter, and 
an account of the presentation of a bust of William Pitt to the city 
of Pittsburgh are articles included in the January number of the 
Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 

The Michigan History Magazine for October, 1922, contains a 
large number of articles and papers, among which are the follow- 
ing: The Indian as an Orator, by R. Clyde Ford; Early Days in 
the Upper Peninsula, by T. A. Felch; The Michigan Club, by Henry 
A. Haigh; Chief Pokagon and His Book, by Fred Dustin; Some 
Place Names of Hillsdale County, by Archie M. Turrell; The 
Underground Railroad, by Martha D. Aiken; Michigan's First 
Justice of The Peace, by William W. Potter; The Beginnings of 
Dutch Immigration to Western Michigan, 1846, by Henry S. 
Lucas ; and A Brief History of the Geological and Biological Sur- 
vey of Michigan, by R. 0. Allen and Helen M. Martin. 

Volume nineteen of the Ontario Historical Society Papers and 
Records contains a large number of papers and articles, among 
which the following may be noted: Public Life and Services of 
Robert Nichol, by E. A. Cruikshank; When Jefferson Davis Visited 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 337 

Niagara, by A. J. Clarks ; The Historical Position of the Six Na- 
tions, by Asa R. Hill; The Diary of Benjamin Lundy Written 
During His Journey Through Upper Canada, January, 1832, edited 
by Fred Landon ; and Deep Waterways Movements — Their Origin 
and Progress in Ontario, by James Mitchell. Volume twenty con- 
tains an article on The Exploring Expedition of Dottier and 
Galinee in 16€9-70, by E. A. Cruikshank, and The Ancaster 
"Bloody Assize" of 1814, by Wm. Renwick Riddell. 

State Historical Societies, by A, H, Shearer, is one of the papers 
in The Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Asso- 
ciation for October, 1922, The various kinds of historical societies 
and their special lines of work are described. Other articles are : 
Caledonia in the Nation's Wars, by Harriet B. Dow; Some Early 
Dutch Manuscripts, by A. J. F. von Laer; and An Ogdenshurg 
Letter of 1811, by Comfort Williams. 

The Missourian, by Walter B. Stevens, A Century of Missouri 
Music, by Ernst C. Krohn, How Clay County Celebrated Her Cen- 
tennial, by Ethel Massie Withers, The Five Oldest Family News- 
papers in Missouri, by Grace L. Gilmore, a continuation of Shelby's 
Expedition to Mexico, by John N. Edwards, and Pioneer Life in 
Southwest Missouri, by Wiley Britton, are the articles in the Janu- 
ary issue of The Missouri Historical Review. 

The Minnesota History Bulletin for August-November, 1921, 
contains three articles : Charles Phelps Noyes, by William W, Cut- 
ler; Charles Wilherforce Ames, by Arthur Sweeney; and Knute 
Steenerson's Recollections — The Story of a Pioneer. The issue 
for February, 1923, is a fur trade number. The two articles are 
The Fur Trade in Minnesota During the British Regime, by Wayne 
E. Stevens, and The Story of the Grand Portage, by Solon J. Buck. 
Among the documents is A Description of Northern Minnesota by a 
Fur-trader in 1807. 

Early Scientist of Philadelphia, by Edgar Fahs Smith, a contin- 
uation of George Croghan and the Westward Movement (1741- 
1782) , by A. T. Volwiler, The Washington Pedigree, by G. Andrews 
Moriarity, another installment of The Second Troop Philadelphia 



338 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



City Cavalry, and a Diary of Wm. F. Eighee of a Trip Made to 
Western Pennsylvania in 1816-17, contributed by Wm. H. Wood- 
well, are the articles and papers in the January issue of The 
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. The article by 
Mr. Volwiler and The Second Troop Philadelphia Cavalry are con- 
tinued in the April number, which contains in addition a biograph- 
ical sketch of Philander Chase Knox, by Albert J. Beveridge. 

Volume twenty of the Publications of the Nebraska State His- 
torical Society is a collection of newspaper items chiefly relating 
to the fur trade operations and the traffic along the highways to 
Oregon and C,aHf ornia. Much of this material was taken from the 
Missouri Republican and the Missouri Intelligencer. The items 
are given chronologically, the index providing the means by which 
material concerning special places, persons, and events may be 
collected. Since newspapers are unusually valuable in presenting 
the contemporary view point, this compilation is decidedly worth 
while. The reader is confused, however, by the lack of distinction 
between direct quotations and summaries and between quoted 
paragraphs set in smaller type and notes in the same type which 
are inserted as explanations in the text instead of in the foot-notes. 

In addition to the records of the annual meeting of the Society 
the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 1921 
contains the following papers read at the meeting : The Making of 
Abraham Lincoln and the Influence of Illinois in His Development, 
by William E. Barton; Art in Historic Communities, by R. E. 
Hieronymus ; The Industrial Development of Illinois, by John M. 
Glenn; Some Governmental Problems in the Northwest Territory, 
1787-1803, by Chester J. Attig; Indian Trails Centering at Black 
Hawk's Village, by John H. Hauberg; The Union League: Its 
Origin and Achievements in the Civil War, by E. Bently Hamilton ; 
and Peter Cartwright in Illinois History, by William W. Sweet. 
There are also two articles by Luelja Zearing Gross — The Zear- 
ings. Earliest Settlers of the Name in Illinois, and A Sketch of the 
Life of Major James Roberts Zearing, M. D. A collection of letters 
from Major Zearing is included. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



339 



The Oregon Question, 1B18-1S28, by Verne Blue, and Education 
in the Oregon Constitutional Convention of 1857, by Ira W. Lewis, 
are tbe two articles in The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical So- 
ciety for September, 1922. Among the Documents are the follow- 
ing : The Mission Record Book of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Willamette Station, Oregon Territory, North America, with an 
introduction by Charles Henry Carey; Letter of Abraham Lincoln 
to James T. Thornton, and Letter of John Ordway, of Lewis and 
Clark Expedition, to His Parents. The number for December, 
1922, contains an article by F. W. Howay on John Kendrick and 
His Sons. In addition there are two documents: Methodist An- 
nual Reports Relating to the Willamette Mission, edited by Charles 
Henry Carey, and Letters of Dr. John McLoughlin to Edward 
Ermatinger, with an introduction by T. C. EUiott. 

The Louisiana Historical Quarterly for July, 1921, contains 
four papers relating to the judiciary. Three of these. Courts and 
Law in Colonial Louisiana, Servinien's Case — 1752, and an in- 
stallment of Cahildo Archives, are edited by Henry Plauche Dart. 
The Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana are continued 
and A. B. Booth has an article on Louisiana Confederate Military 
Records. Rights of Women in Louisiana, by W. 0. Hart, Gayarre's 
Report on the Louisiana Archives in Spain, edited by Henry 
Plauche Dart, and a further installment of Records of the Superior 
Council of Louisiana, make up the number for October, 1921. In 
the issue for January, 1922, are the following papers: Remy's Lost 
History of Louisiana, by Henry Plauche Dart; a review of The 
Commerce of Louisiana During the French Regime, 1699-1763, by 
N. M. Miller Surrey, written by Grace King; William Johnson's 
Journal; Henry Vignaud: A Person Sketch, by Edward Alexander 
Parsons; and more Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana. 

The three articles in The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 
for December, 1922, are the following : Nativism in the Forties and 
Fifties with Special Reference to the Mississippi Valley, by George 
M. Stephenson; The Origin and Early History of the Farmers' 
Alliance in Minnesota, by John D. Hicks ; and The Development of 



340 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Industries in Louisiana During the French Regime, 1673-1763, by 
Mrs. N. M. MiUer Surrey. The March number contains three 
articles: Old Franklin: A Frontier Town of the Twenties, by Jonas 
Viles ; Kentucky Neutrality in 1861, by Wilson Porter Shortridge ; 
and Celoron de Blainville and French Expansion in the Westward 
Journeys of John Filson, 1785, is a contribution under the heading 
Notes and Documents. The extra number for February, which is 
the Proceedings of The Mississippi Valley Historical Association, 
1920-1921, contains the report of the officers of the IMississippi 
Valley Historical Association and a large number of papers and 
addresses among which are the following: State and Local History, 
by Clarence H. McClure ; Popularizing State History, by Floyd C. 
Shoemaker; The Mohegan Indians East and West, by George A. 
Wood; The Character and Leadership of Stephen A. Douglas, by 
William 0. Lynch; Ohio's German Language Press in the Cam- 
paign of 1920, by Carl Wittke; The Attempt of New Orleans to 
Meet the Crisis in Her Trade with the West, by Erastus Paul 
Puckett; and History in the State Normal Schools, by Walter P. 
Davison, 

ACTIVITIES 

The Nevada Historical Society has recently issued its eighth 
biennial report for the years 1921-1922. 

A meeting of the Historical Society of Marshall County was held 
at Marshalltown on January 16, 1923. Professor Glenn N. Merry 
gave an address on Abraham Lincoln. 

On the 21st of February, 1923, a meeting was held at Ida Grove 
for the purpose of organizing a county historical society. G. C. 
Morehead of Ida Grove was elected president of the new organiza- 
tion and Miss Sophia Edmundson, also of Ida Grove, was chosen 
secretary. A vice president was chosen from each township. 

The fifteenth annual meeting of the Ohio Valley Historical Asso- 
ciation was held in the building of the Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Society at Columbus, Ohio, on November 24 and 25, 
1922. Clarence E. Carter, president of the Association, delivered 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



341 



an address on "The State and Historical Work". W. E. Dodd 
gave addresses on "Lee and the Confederacy" and "The New 
Foreign Policy of the United States". W. W. Sweet read a paper 
on "Circuit-Rider Days in Ohio, 1812-1826" and E. M. Coulter 
discussed "The Downfall of the Whig Party in Kentucky". 

The sixteenth annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley His- 
torical Association was held at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, on 
March 29 to 31, 1923. The program was followed with only a few 
changes. Among the papers were three by Iowa representatives: 
"The Economic Basis of the Populist Movement in Iowa", by 
H. C. Nixon; "The Genesis of the American Steel Navy, 1880- 
1890", by W. I. Brandt; and "The Mercenary Factor in the Cre- 
ation of the Union Army, 1861-1865", by Fred A. Shannon. At 
the session of State and local historical societies, Benj. P. Sham- 
baugh read a paper on "Publication Activities of a State Historical 
Society". The presidential address was delivered by Solon J. 
Buck following the dinner given by the Oklahoma Historical Soci- 
ety. The attendance was large considering the location of the 
meeting which was more distant than usual from the geographical 
center of the Association membership and the spirit was cordial and 
optimistic. At the annual business meeting held on Friday, March 
30th, Eugene C. Barker was elected president and Mrs. Clara S. 
Paine was reelected secretary-treasurer. Theodore C. Pease, Roy 
Gittinger, and Wilson P. Shortridge were chosen as the new mem- 
bers of the executive committee and Lester B. Shippee, Herbert A. 
KeUer, and Louise P. Kellogg were added to the board of editors. 
Thomas P. Martin was appointed chairman of the teachers section 
and Bessie L. Pierce secretary. Lester B. Shippee was elected to 
the newly created office of assistant managing editor. The meeting 
in 1924 will be held at Louisville, Kentucky. 

THE STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

The United States Food Administration for Iowa, by Ivan L. 
Pollock, is now in press. This work will appear in two volumes 
and wiU constitute a part of the Iowa Chronicles of the World War. 



342 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Benj. F. Shambaugli, the Superintendent, and Bruce E. Mahan 
represented the State Historical Society of Iowa at the meeting of 
the Mississippi Valley Historical Association at Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma, on March 29 to 31, 1923. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society : Mr. Reed Babcock, Sheldon, Iowa ; Mr. R. S. Beall, 
Mount AjT, Iowa; Mr. J. W. Beard, St. Joseph, Missouri; Mrs. 
J. A. W. Burgess, Iowa Falls, Iowa ; Mr. George C. Carpenter, Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mrs. C. V. Cave, Greene, Iowa; Mrs. Ada Porter 
Dahl, Storm Lake, Iowa; Mrs. Jeannette Geelhoed, Pella, Iowa; 
Mr. Paul M. Godehn, Chicago, Illinois; Mr. Ewald A. Heiden, 
Sheldon, Iowa; Mr. Frank D. Hicks, Iowa City, Iowa; Mrs. H. C. 
Houghton, Jr., Red Oak, Iowa; Miss Blanche B. Johns, Le Mars, 
Iowa; Mrs. Claude H. Koon, Iowa Falls, Iowa; Mrs. William 
Larrabee, Clermont, Iowa; Mr. A. W. Lewis, Odebolt, Iowa; Mr. 
E. H. Rickman, Battle Creek, Iowa; Mr. Jno. A. Senneff, Mason 
City, Iowa ; Miss Bessie J. Sperring, Thompson, Iowa ; Mr. Walter 
S. Stillman, Council Bluffs, Iowa ; Miss Laura Belle Walker, Forest 
Grove, Oregon ; Mr. Lynn J. Watts, Hedrick, Iowa ; Mr. Ernest L. 
Weaver, Clarinda, Iowa; Mr. Frank F. Wilson, Mount Ayr, Iowa; 
Mr. Raymond Wilson, Sac City, Iowa ; Mr. C. J. Ahmann, Remsen, 
Iowa; Mr. J. W. Bonnell, Miles, Iowa; Mr. M, M. Dryden, Mount 
Vernon, Iowa; Mr. Donald G. Hunter, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. 
A. M. Sanders, Odebolt, Iowa; Rt. Rev. W. A. Pope, Le Mars, 
Iowa; Mr. A. 0. H. Setzepfandt, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. J. F. 
Sproatt, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. John H. Steck, Washington, Iowa; 
Dr. A. M. Stocking, Peoria, Illinois ; Rev. Jas. M. Williams, Boone, 
Iowa; Mr. Edwin Delahoyde, Exira, Iowa; Mr. Fred W. Hann, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. Irving H. Hart, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Mr. 
M. R. Huesehen, Holstein, Iowa; Dr. Fred Moore, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. D. M. Odle, Spencer, Iowa; Mr. H. J. Ries, Tiffin, Iowa; 
and Mr. Herman H. Trachsel, Emerson, Iowa. Mr. Dan E. Clark, 
Eugene, Oregon, and Mr. John M. Galvin, Council Bluffs, Iowa, 
have been enrolled as life members. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 

The twenty-fourtli annual conference of the Iowa Daughters of 
the American Revolution was held at Cedar Rapids on March 20-22, 
1923. Benj. F. Shambaugh delivered an address on "A Quarter 
of a Century of Historical Work in Iowa." 



343 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Alan C. Rockwood, a graduate student in electrical engineering 
at the State University of Iowa. Received the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts in 1921 and that of Bachelor of Engineering in 
1922. He was a member of the cadet regiment at the State 
University from 1916 to 1922, having been cadet colonel during 
the year 1921-1922. He has been editor of The Transit, the 
engineering publication of the University, during the year 
1921-1922. 



344 



THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

Established bv Law in' the Year 1857 
Incorpobated: 1867 and 1892 

Ij O C A T E D AT I O W A C I T Y I O VV A 



RALPH P. LOWE 
S. J. KIRK WOOD 
F. H. LEE 
W. PENN" CLAEKE 



FORMER PRESIDENTS 

JAMES W. GRIMES First President 
ROBERT HUTCHINSON 
M, J. MOBSMAN 
WTLLIAM G. HAMMOND 

i:iy)R(iE G. WRIGHT 



JOSIAH L. PICKARD 
PETER A. DEY 
EUCLID SANDERS 



OFFICERS 

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH Superintendent 

NLARVIN H. DEi' President 

PAUL A. KORAJB Treasurer 



BOARD OF CURATORS 

Elected by the Society Appointed by the Governor 

Arthur J. Oox Charles M. Dutcheb Lillian Clark Cary William G. Kerk 

Marvin H. Dey Morton C. Mumma Mary E, Coon Chas. E. Pickett 

Hfnry G. Walker W. O. Coast John M. Grimm A. C. Smith 

^. A. SwiSHiB W. L. Bywatf.e AfARY H. S. Johnston Helen S. Taylor 

Thomas Farrell H. O. Weaver 



MEMBERSHIP 

Any person may become a member of The State Historical Society of 
Iowa upon election by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance 
fee of $3.00, 

Membership in this Society may be retained after the first year upon the 
payment of $3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shall be entitled to receive the quarterly and ail other 
publications of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Society Iowa City Iowa 



THE 

lowA Journal 

of 

H i storj^eavd Pol it ics 

JULY 1923 




PublisKed Quaoi^erlyby 

THE Smm fflSTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

Iowa. City Iowa. 



Eater«d December 28 1002 at lovra City Iowa as sccond dasB matter under act of CongTMS of July 16 1894 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 





Vol XXI 


JULY 19S3 


No 3 



CONTENTS 



Congregational Life in Muscatine, 1843-1893 

Ieving Bbbdine Eiohman 

The Economic Basis of the Populist Movement 

in Iowa .... Herman Olaeenob Neson 

The Development of Trans-Mississippi Political 

Geography Ruth L. Hioansrs 

A Document Relating to Dutch Immigration to Iowa 

in 1846 .... Henry Stephen Ltjoas 

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THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

JULY NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY-THREE 

VOLUME TWENTY-ONE NUMBER THREE 



VOL. XXI — 22 



CONaREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE ^ 
1843-1893 

Before Muscatine could be Congregational, it was neces- 
sary that it be Anglo-Saxon; and before it was Anglo- 
Saxon, it was first Indian, and then French. 

The Muscatine or Mascoutin Indians dwelt at the mouth 
of the Iowa River, whence they commanded and occupied 
what is now known as Muscatine Island — a spot called by 
French explorers the Grand Mascoutin, Grand Mascoutin 
being an abbreviation of the French phrase — La Grande 
Prairie des Mascoutins. Just when Muscatine Island be- 
came known to Anglo-Saxons as the Grand Mascoutin is 
uncertain, but it was earlier than 1805; for in that year 
Zebulon M. Pike, who was ascending the Mississippi River 
from St. Louis, made camp — as, on August 25th, he records 
in his Journal — "on the prairie marked [on his map] as 
Grant's Prairie" — a misnomer evidently for "La Grande 
Prairie" or "La Grande Prairie des Mascoutins". 

Muscatine — the present-day Muscatine — has, then, in a 
sense had a local habitation and a name from a date some- 
what earlier than 1805.^ But as a white man's settlement 
it has existed only since about 1836, when some cabins were 
built near the river. In 1839 it was incorporated under the 
name of Bloomington; and in 1849 the name Bloomington 

1 An address delivered before the First Congregational Church of Muscatine 
on the seventy-fifth anniversary of its founding, November 17, 1918. 

2 For detailed comment on the name Muscatine and its history, see Mascoutin 
— A Eeminiscence of the Nation of Fire in Eichman's John Brown Among the 
Quakers and Other Sketches. Interesting supplementary material may be found 
in Coues's The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, 180S-1807, general 
index under "Muscatine". 



347 



348 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



was changed to Musquitine, or, as it is now written, 
Muscatine. 

Congregationalism, as likewise Presbyterianism, came to 
Iowa as a result of the opening of the Black Hawk Pur- 
chase to settlement in 1833 — a district including all of 
eastern Iowa as far north as Turkey River. It came by 
way of Dubuque, and if other Mississippi River settlements 
were at all like that one, there was much need of it. "Du- 
buque in 1836", writes the Reverend Asa Turner, a Presby- 
terio-Congregational home missionary from Yale, "we did 
not call a civilized place. True there were some half breeds 
and some whole breeds and a few miners, but it wasn't 
anything anyhow". 

It was at Fort Madison, in 1836, that the first Congrega- 
tional sermon was preached in Iowa, and Brother Turner 
was the preacher. On the journey to Fort Madison the 
missionary evidently took note of the site of Muscatine, for 
he mentions the place as * ' disfigured by one log cabin. ' ' In 
1838, however, Stephen Whicher, who settled here in 1839, 
wrote: " Bloomington, aside from its prospect of being the 
seat of government for Iowa Territory, will be an impor- 
tant place for trade. There are now not a dozen houses in 
the place ; there may be two dozen cabins ; not a lawyer in 
the place, nor a preacher in the neighborhood. I asked a 
woman why they had no preaching. She said that chickens 
were scarce ; that when the poultry yards became well sup- 
plied, there would be no scarcity of preachers ! The day is 
not far distant, however, (perhaps five years) when Bloom- 
in gton will equal Dayton Ohio [five thousand souls] in 
wealth and population. ... A good preacher who 
could live here without levying contributions upon the peo- 
ple would be the most powerful engine to make this town 
what it should be. ' ' 

If Congregationalism — and hence Congregational life — 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 349 



may be said to have come to Iowa in 1836 in the person of 
the genial Asa Turner, it came to Muscatine in 1843 in the 
person of young Alden B, Eobbins, twenty-six years old, a 
native of Salem, Massachusetts, and a graduate of Amherst 
College and Andover Theological Seminary. Muscatine in 
1843 was a place of perhaps seven hundred people — not 
five thousand or more, as Mr. Whicher had so confidently 
predicted in 1838. Even so, according to Truman 0. 
Douglass, historian of the Iowa Pilgrims, it was a ''smart 
town". Its chief lack was a meeting house — an evangel- 
ical one. "You look in vain for the least sign of a church", 
writes a thirty-niner, **and the bell of the boat sounds ten- 
fold more like your church-going bell at home than you will 
hear for years to come if you tarry this side of the Father 
of Waters. There are those here whose eyes fill with tears 
at the sound of that bell reminding them of the church bells 
of New England." But our thirty-niner was somewhat in 
error. There was a church in Muscatine in 1843. Alden B. 
Robbius at no time in his life looked with favor on Catholi- 
cism, but in this year of his coming he was honest enough to 
say: ''There are more than seven hundred people in the 
town, and there is no meeting house in the place except a 
small Romish Chapel, which is opened only occasionally." 
The chapel referred to, be it observed, stood at the corner 
of Second and Cedar streets, where, in the rear of the 
Graham Drug Store, it stands yet. "For several Sabbaths 
after my arrival", Mr. Bobbins continues, "I preached at 
the Court House. There are connected with the Church 
twenty-four members — eleven males. We are all poor but 
we are hoping and working .... It is essential that 
we should immediately erect a house. ' ' 

Of the sermons preached at the courthouse, the first — 
noted by Mr. Bobbins in a pocket diary which he kept — 
was on the text from Jeremiah: "If thou hast run with the 



350 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



footmen, and they have wearied thee, then how canst thou 
contend with horses ? ' ' The erection of a house of worship 
was promptly undertaken, for on December 8, 1844, the 
society held services in a structure located on a hill at what 
to-day is the corner of Fourth and Sycamore streets. On 
this occasion the sermon was from the significant text: 
*'And the Lord said unto the servant, Go out into the high- 
ways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my 
house may be filled." The walls of the church were of 
home-burned brick, but the shingles for the roof came from 
Lowell, Massachusetts, and the bell — the same still in use 
— from Boston. This bell weighed some six hundred pounds 
and was hung in a wooden belfry at the rear of the building, 
whence the designation, "the Stern Wheel Church". Later 
designations — after the young pastor had had opportunity 
to give Muscatiners a taste of his quality on the slavery 
question — were "the damned Yanl^ee Church", and 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin". 

In 1852 a new Congregational Church building was erect- 
ed on a hill at the corner of Third and Chestnut streets. It 
had a spire seventy feet high, would seat five hundred and 
seventy-six persons, and cost seven thousand dollars. In 
1857 it became necessary to take down this building be- 
cause of the grading of Third Street, and a house of wor- 
ship was put up out of the old materials on the rear of the 
same lot at the new level. This building still stands, and 
after serving as an armory and drill hall — a use which 
would have met with the entire approval of its old-time 
pastor — is now occupied as a printing office. The use of 
the building for church purposes, however, came to an end 
in 1893 when it was superseded by a modern structure 
erected close beside it. The latter fell a prey to fire in 1907 
and in 1908 was replaced by the present building. 

In 1843 Reverend Asa Turner complained lustily of the 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 351 



way in which the new Iowa towns were infested with law- 
yers. He said that Burlington with eighteen hundred in- 
habitants had twenty-six lawyers but no Presbyterian or 
Congregational minister. Whether Eeverend Alden B. 
Bobbins in 1843 found a superfluity of lawyers in Muscatine 
is not revealed, but the town did not lack for legal talent : 
there were such practitioners as Ralph P. Lowe, Joseph 
"Williams, S. Clinton Hastings, Stephen Whicher, William 
G. Woodward, David Caesar Cloud, Jacob Butler, and J. 
Scott Richman. 

S. Clinton Hastings — afterwards Chief Justice in two 
States and member of Congress from one — was a not in- 
frequent attendant upon the sermons of Mr. Robbins, which 
he pronounced Ciceronian in style — something they cer- 
tainly were not and did not pretend to be. As for Stephen 
Whicher, he became a member of the Yankee church in 
1845. He was tall, slender, and reserved in manner. His 
features were regular — the nose straight, the mouth 
nearly a straight line, and the eyes deep set and glowing. 
John Gr. Whittier, the poet, who saw him in 1854, said of 
him that he was **a witty and cultured man". Witty he 
assuredly was — acridly so upon occasion. To this day the 
tradition of his wit — with selected specimens — lingers 
with the Muscatine bar. His ability withal was of the best. 
He had studied his profession in the office of Henry Clay, 
and in course of time he achieved the honored position of 
United States District Attorney for Iowa. Apropos of 
lawyers as Christians, the writer remembers that one even- 
ing at prayer meeting in the Congregational Church an 
insurance agent raised the question of the eligibility of 
lawyers to the Kingdom of Heaven and was broadly smiled 
at by the pastor for his pains. Lawyers might be a dubious 
moral quantity, but what about insurance agents ! 

Two other lawyers of the Muscatine contingent of 1843 



352 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



became Congregationalists — William G. Woodward and 
Jacob Butler. The former, like Stephen Whicher, was a 
thirty-niner. He was courtly, highly social, a graduate of 
Dartmouth College, and professionally a disciple of Rufus 
Choate under whom he had gained admittance to the bar. 
In Iowa he became a justice of the Supreme Court and a 
State Senator. He was a singer withal, and in the church 
of Mr. Bobbins had charge of the music for many years. 

The official records of the Congregational Church of 
Muscatine have from the first been scrupulously kept, and 
from them, between 1843 and 1891, there may be gleaned 
bits of Congregational life. 

On November 20, 1843, Alden B. Bobbins was invited to 
officiate as pastor "for the present". Between 1843 and 
1857 his salary, in so far as it was locally paid, grew from 
$150 in 1845 to $500 in 1849, $600 in 1852, $1000 in 1855, 
and $1200 in 1857 — sums equivalent in general purchasing 
power to three or four times as much as the same amounts 
to-day. It is interesting to note that although formally 
invited to become the permanent pastor of the church in 
1849, and reminded of this call in 1851, Mr. Bobbins took 
his time about deciding. In fact he did not accept till 1852 
when the salary was increased to $600. And even after 
acceptance of the call, it was not till 1854 that the pastor 
became a member of his own church — the church over 
which he had presided for ten consecutive years — through 
a letter from "the Church of Christ in Amherst College". 
It was in January, 1853, that Mr. Bobbins was formally 
installed as permanent pastor, and Stephen Whicher thus 
describes the occasion: "The night was beautiful and the 
whole ceremony went off in good New England style ; only 
no ball was held by the j'-oung people, and the ministers had 
no 'phlip' — a favorite New England winter drink made of 
beer, sugar, rum, and hot iron." 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 353 



Congregational discipline in the forties, fifties, and even 
the sixties and seventies of the past century, was a thing 
different from what it has become since. There were then, 
even in Muscatine, not a few citations of members to ap- 
pear and show cause why they should not suffer humiliation 
for their sins. As one examines the entries of the records, 
he almost feels himself back in the seventeenth century, 
with the journals of William Bradford of Plymouth Planta- 
tion and of John Winthrop of Massachusetts Bay under his 
eyes. To illustrate. In 1844, on October 29th, we read that 
"this day evening a church meeting was held at the house 
of Rev. A. B. Robbins a house near the Court House", to 
take into consideration charges preferred against a certain 
brother. The first charge was of ' * taking away three horses 
and one wagon and selling the same and converting the 
proceeds to his own private use". Then followed other 
charges, the indictment concluding with a charge of having 
sold "certain bedding and a buffalo skin to his own use." 
The accused put in a defense in the nature of confession 
and avoidance, but his guilt was deemed established, and on 
April 5, 1845, he was voted into outer darkness. 

No other church trial seems to have been so formally 
conducted as this one, but in 1856 it was resolved that "we 
consider the case of Brother Giles Pettibone charged with 
running the ferry boat on the Sabbath". A motion was 
promptly made that Brother Pettibone be "excommuni- 
cated"; but he owned up to his delinquency with such 
engaging frankness, sorrow, and repentance that he was 
let off with "suspension from the privileges of church 
fellowship for one week." Giles evidently had profited by 
familiarity with the text, "A soft answer turneth away 
wrath". 

But early Congregational Church discipline in Musca- 
tine, though tinged with Puritanism, was not nearly so 



354 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



rigid as it might have been. On the subject of amusements, 
for example, the records reveal but two entries. One bears 
the date of November 13, 1856, and reads: "After some 
conversation in reference to the attendance upon the theatre 
and the patronizing of dancing schools by Christians, we 
adjourned." The other entry, dated July 20, 1869, records 
a vote that the examining committee on membership ' ' ear- 
nestly remonstrate with any of the members who practice 
dancing, ball attending, and card playing". No mention is 
here made of the theatre, but it is mentioned that two of the 
brethren "are commonly reported to bring reproach upon 
the Church by habits of intoxication". 

Dancing, in all pioneer communities, is a form of amuse- 
ment so spontaneous, so natural, that everybody able to 
command the not ungraceful use of his two legs responds 
to it. When therefore in the forties or fifties any Musca- 
tiner received a note "respectfully requesting the pleasure 
of his company at a Cotillion Party" — under the patron- 
age, as cotillion parties then often were, of Dr. George 
Reeder, Mr. J. B. Dougherty, Mr. John "W. Richman, Mr. 
Chester Weed, Mr. Joseph Bridgman, Mr. Luke Sells, Mr. 
Ben Beach, and Dr. 0. P. Waters — the party to be given 
at the Iowa House, or the American House, or the Ogilvie 
House, on a stated evening of November or February — 
the probabilities were that he would contrive to attend. 
Little wonder that in order to keep Congregationalists from 
joys so exotic to their faith, yet so rapturous, church action 
now and again was required. Indeed, as late as 1869, Mr. 
Robbins muses in bitterness thus: "A dance close by — 
two squares off — had at least two of our members." 

As the year 1860 drew near in these United States, the 
question that dwarfed all others in the public mind was the 
question of African or negro slavery. On this question the 
attitude of Mr. Robbins and his "Uncle Tom's Cabin" 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 355 



churcli was of course unequivocal and resolute. One mem- 
ber, however — a gentleman from Missouri admitted to 
fellowship in 1855 — was not in sympathy with the church 
and its pastor on the slavery question, and in 1858 he 
openly accused the pastor of "lying" in regard to the 
South. A church trial followed. It was short and sharp, 
and was marked by the passing of a resolution that the 
church "has the fullest confidence in the integrity, faithful- 
ness, wisdom, and piety of its beloved and long-tried pastor ; 
and that we hold as enemies to the Church any who make 
efforts to break down his influence as a minister of Christ." 
But — and here the plot thickens — a further resolution 
that the pastor's critic "is guilty and be expelled from the 
fellowship of this Church" failed to pass. Now on both 
resolutions the sisters of the church, for the first time in 
its history, had been permitted to vote ; and this permission, 
it appears, had been granted to them over the protest of 
the pastor who had contended that for Congregational 
sisters to vote on, or even discuss, any matter of church 
business was not only contrary to the practice of the Musca- 
tine church but contrary to that of Congregational churches 
in general. What then was the situation? It was this. By 
the votes of the sisters in the Lord — votes wholly out of 
order, at that — a traducer of the pastor had escaped pun- 
ishment. One can but feel some curiosity as to what there 
was about the Missouri gentleman that won for him such 
indulgence from the Congregational sisterhood. 

Whatever it was, the sisters paid for it in the end, as 
sisters are apt to pay for their indulgence, for at a subse- 
quent meeting of the church it was voted that "in accord- 
ance with the uniform usage of Congregational Churches, 
the power of debating and voting on all business matters in 
this Church shall for the future be confined to the male 
members". Did not the Bible say: "Let your women keep 



356 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



silence in the churches .... And if they will learn 
anything, let them ask their husbands at home : for it is a 
shame for women to speak in the church". * ' Let the woman 
learn in silence with all subjection .... I suffer not 
a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but 
to be in silence." 

Be it added that at the same church meeting a further 
expression of confidence in the pastor was put on record, 
to the effect that his ''free and outspoken testimony against 
the sins of Slavery and Intemperance" met with unqualified 
approval. But one month later our Missourian — did the 
sisters again rally to him? — was given a letter of dismissal 
and recommendation to the Presbyterian Church of Musca- 
tine. 

Between 1861 and 1865 there raged the great American 
Civil War. The Congregational Church in Muscatine, as 
was to have been expected, was ardent in its support of 
President Lincoln and the boys in blue. But rather 
strangely no mention of the war or its causes is to be found 
anywhere in the Congregational Church records. In 1857, 
during the very height of the slavery contest, a negro wom- 
an sought admission to the church on the strength of a 
letter from the African church of the town, but it was voted 
not to receive her. The entry states : **In the opinion of the 
majority of the Church, the reasons of the applicant for 
being received into this Church rather than to labor for 
Christ in the Church and among the people of her own color 
are not satisfactory." Hardly consistent — Avas it — that 
in 1857 "Uncle Tom's Cabin" should stand open to Uncle 
Tom and at the same time remain closed to Aunt Dinah? 
As regards the Civil War itself, a suggestion of it is per- 
haps contained in the church record of April 11, 1861, that 
"Brother George "W. Van Horne just named by President 
Lincoln United States Consul at Marseilles, France, having 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 357 



requested a letter of dismission and recommendation for 
himself and wife from this Church to any Evangelical 
Church of Marseilles, a motion was entertained that it be 
granted. ' ' 

But while the church records between 1861 and 1865 
failed to make mention of the war, the pastor himself did 
not : the pulpit was fairly clarion on the subject of the great 
struggle. So much so was it, that on Sunday, October 27, 
1861, the pastor's diary records the following: "Some one 
broke in the front window glass with a club during preach- 
ing. The devil is alarmed. ' ' 

Outstanding events of the Civil War period were: the 
firing on Fort Sumter in 1861 ; the Emancipation Proclama- 
tion, and the Union victories of Vicksburg and Gettysburg 
in 1863 ; the contest for the presidency between Lincoln and 
McClellan in 1864 ; and the constitutional amendment abol- 
ishing slavery, the surrender of General Lee and the 
assassination of President Lincoln in 1865. On all of these 
events Mr. Bobbins spoke. In the early years of the war 
he often likened the southern rebellion to the "Rebellion of 
man against God". The Lincoln-McClellan contest of 1864 
he characterized as ' ' Choice of God or Devil" ; and, apropos 
of the surrender of Lee in 1865, he noted: "Up to Dr. 
Wniiam 0. Kulp's to talk and sing and pray, with thanks 
for the victory over Lee's army surrendered to Grant- 
Front windows illuminated in the evening!" Lincoln's 
assassination finds mention in his diary thus : * ' Saturday, 
April 15th, 1865: News of Lincoln's and Seward's Assassi- 
nation came to-day. " "Sunday, April 16th : House of wor- 
ship covered with crape for President Lincoln. " " Sunday, 
April 23rd : Preached to full House on death of President 
Lincoln. " " Sunday, May 7th : ' Preached on Finding out a 
Man' — with allusion to John Wilkes Booth." What text 
was chosen for the sermon on Abraham Lincoln is not 



358 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



stated, and this we can but regret. No clergyman could 
excel the pastor of the Uncle Tom's Cabin Church" in 
selecting texts that were themselves sermons. 

But, as was natural, the war interest of Alden B. Bobbins 
centered in the Emancipation Proclamation and the pro- 
posed constitutional amendment to back it up. On Thurs- 
day, May 28, 1861, he had said at prayer meeting: "The 
thing to be prayed for now is Emancipation"; and on 
Sunday, September 7th, he had noted : ' ' Preached in favor 
of emancipation of slaves. Full house — some excitement. " 
His joy, therefore, when, on January 3, 1863, he heard of 
the Proclamation of Emancipation was profound. ''Glori- 
ous dawn of hope for the country!", he exclaims, "more 
than three million people set at liberty ! ' ' 

For the Congregational pastor, as for all loyal Musca- 
tiners, the war possessed deep interest in its local aspects. 
Down on Muscatine Island in 1862 was encamped the 
Thirty -fifth Iowa Regiment of Infantry — a body of men 
almost entirely from Muscatine County. Twenty-three of 
them were from the Muscatine Congregational Church, and 
the colonel, Sylvester G. Hill, was closely allied to that 
church through the membership in it of his wife, Martha J. 
Hill. To this regiment Mr. Bobbins was an unofficial chap- 
lain. He ate with the men at mess ; he preached to them on 
''The True Idea of a Soldier"; and when, in November, 
they left for Dixie, he gave to each of the twenty-three men 
from his own church a copy of the Psalms — one copy at 
least bearing the inscription: "He teacheth my hands to 
war and my fingers to fight." Nor was his chaplainship 
uncolored by tragedy. In June, 1864, it fell to him to 
preach the funeral sermon of Frederick Hill, son of Colonel 
S. G. Hill, killed at Yellow Bayou, Louisiana ; and the same 
year, in December, to preach the funeral sermon of Colonel 
Hill himself, killed at the battle of Nashville. On the latter 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 359 



occasion his diary reads : ' ' Funeral of Colonel Hill at the 
church. Church crowded. Preached on the * Breaking of a 
Strong Rod'." 

The Muscatine soldiers were the pastor's staunch friends ; 
still Satan, it seems, would not let them or him alone, for 
one evening in 1864, when he was attending a soldier's re- 
ception, ''the devil", he tells us, **took advantage of things 
and run in a dance. ' ' 

Whatever the pastor might think of women as voters, he 
was proud of them as workers in the Soldiers Aid Society. 

Abolitionists are loyal", he wrote in 1863. "All of the 
women of my church are Abolitionists. They would give 
away their last chemise for the Union." Mr. Bobbins took 
pride in the Muscatine soldiers and in the local women war- 
workers ; but those in the community in whom he took the 
greatest pride in connection with the war were the negroes. 
The negro had been freed, and when, as was true in Musca- 
tine for many years after 1865, the black citizens, on Janu- 
ary first, marched through the streets in celebration of 
their freedom, they stopped in front of the Bobbins dwelling 
on West Hill and gave three cheers. "It is a great honor", 
notes the pastor in 1868, "and one moving my heart. I 
mean to have a larger flag at the door next year." 

We have now traced the course of Congregational life in 
Muscatine from 1843 to the end of 1865 — a period of 
twenty-two years. Long before 1865 the Congregational 
Church had become firmly fixed in the community as a 
power to be reckoned with, and when in 1868 Alden B. 
Bobbins completed the twenty -fifth year of his pastorate, 
it was voted by the church, that "the event be celebrated 
by appropriate social and other arrangements." Prior to 
1868 annual celebrations of various kinds had been held — 
anniversaries of the founding of the church, and of the 



360 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



pastor's birthday — the 18tli of February. In 1867 the 
birthday occasion — the pastor's fiftieth — had been cele- 
brated with special emphasis. The supper served, includ- 
ing some desperately strong coffee, was pronounced by the 
Muscatine Journal "perfectly gorgeous"; and a little 
speech which the pastor made in recognition of a multitude 
of gifts, ''as classical as an essay by Macaulay." Among 
the gifts was a poem by Dewitt C. Eichman : 

Thine the firm soul — the Puritanic wiU — 
That bends nor swerves to right or left to court 
The wooing breeze of favor or renown. 

Notable as the fiftieth birthday celebration in 1867 had 
been, it was felt that the twenty-fifth anniversary of the 
pastorate in 1868 should surpass it, and the happy idea was 
conceived of causing the celebration to take the form of a 
''pastoral silver wedding". It took place on Wednesday, 
November the 18th — a time of the year but little earlier 
than that of the landing of the Pilgrims on Plymouth Rock. 
"A great crowd", notes the pastor, "many charming letters 
and tokens of interest, among them a silver watch and 
chain. ' ' And, on the Sunday following, the pastor preached 
again the sermon he had preached on his first Sunday in 
Muscatine — then Bloomington — from the text: "If thou 
hast run with the footmen and they have wearied thee, then 
how canst thou contend with horses?" At this mid-period 
of Mr. Robbins's life — true though it was that, as the birth- 
day poem said, "his will had bent nor swerved to court the 
wooing breeze of favor or renown" — honors fell thick 
upon him for in 1869 Amherst College, his Alma Mater, 
conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

The charter members of the Muscatine Congregational 
Church — those signing the Articles of Faith in November, 
1843 — numbered twenty-six — twelve men and fourteen 
women. In 1853 the membership seems to have been about 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 361 



90 ; in 1866 it was 209 ; and as late even as 1883 it did not 
exceed 241. In 1866 the pastor in his diary says: ''All — 
brothers and sisters too — so far as I know, are Republi- 
cans and Radicals. Temperance professedly, and most of 
them anti-tobacco." Still there were drawbacks. Mr. 
Robbins's people might be "Republicans and Radicals", 
but some of them would steal off to dances, desert prayer 
meeting for concerts, and — a notable few — get intoxi- 
cated. In 1851 the pastor describes Muscatine as *'a sad 
and guilty reckless town"; nor did he speak much better of 
it in the sixties, for it was then distinctly pro-whiskey at 
municipal elections, and there were in it not a few Copper- 
heads. It required only the coming of a theatre to bring 
down a genuine malediction, and in 1867 a theatre came - - 
a lurid vaudeville, the Black Crook. * ' Shamefully low state 
of intelligence and morals indicated by the crowds going to 
such a theatre !", the pastor exclaims. Despite drawbacks, 
however, the church prospered. In 1865 the pastor's salary 
was increased from $1200 to $1300. In 1866 it was made 
$1600; and in 1868, $1800. Above $1800 it never rose. In 
fact in 1874 it became fixed at $1500. The deduction conse- 
quently is a fair one that the heyday of the church — its 
golden era — was from about 1853 to 1870. This is con- 
firmed by the course of the church benevolences which for 
fourteen years, 1848 to 1861, maintained an average of 
$1000 a year. 

During the first twenty-five years of its existence the 
church bore on its roll many names of more than local 
significance. Among them, as already pointed out, were 
Stephen Whicher, William G. Woodward, Jacob Butler, 
and George W. Van Horne. The last two have been men- 
tioned — the one as pioneer lawyer and the other as United 
States Consul at Marseilles — but they should be mentioned 
again; Butler as a financier and as speaker for one session 

VOL. XXI — 23 



362 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of the Iowa House of Representatives, and Van Home as 
editor and lecturer. Then there were Dewitt C. Eichman, 
already alluded to as poet, but deserving notice as public 
speaker and Judge of the Circuit Court; Henry O'Connor, 
major in the Union army, fiery Republican orator, and for 
long years solicitor of the Department of State at Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Suel Foster, horticulturist of state wide prom- 
inence; and Frank L. Underwood, southwestern banker. 
Two other members of the church of more than local dis- 
tinction there were — Finley M. Witter, educator, scientist, 
and convert to Darwinism when to be known as such took 
courage, and Mrs. Cora Chaplin Weed, musician, devotee 
of culture, and inspirer of youth. Sylvester G. Hill, killed 
in 1864 at Nashville, was a Congregationalist in all but 
name, and the same may be said of Thomas Hanna, lawyer 
and State Senator. With these two should be associated 
Chester Weed — after his marriage in 1873 to Miss Cora 
Chaplin — Muscatine's European traveller when to have 
traveled in Europe yet brought a measure of renown. 

Deacons the church had of course : Samuel Lucas, Pliny 
Fay, Cornelius Cadle, and, after the removal of Mr. Fay to 
California in 1873, Suel Foster — each (Samuel Lucas per- 
haps excepted) a man with individuality enough to have 
been the original of the deacon immortalized by Oliver 
Wendell Holmes in his "Wonderful One Hoss Shay". It 
was Deacon Cadle, however, who most abounded in all that 
was deaconlike. He had dry humor (a bit broad), and dis- 
criminating appreciation of good cheer. Cornelius Cadle 
came to Muscatine the same year as Mr. Robbins — 1843 — 
and lived, he says, ''next house" to him. Like Stephen 
Whicher, Mr. Cadle thought Muscatine destined to great 
things. In 1844 he described it as *4n latitude 41° 20"," 
containing "about one thousand inhabitants", and "the 
most important point above St. Louis". 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 363 



Mr. Cadle relished the society of the Congregational 
pastor, but twelve years were required to bring him into 
the church fold. Apropos of the smashing of a barrel of 
crockery shipped to him about this time from New York, 
we find him announcing the fact with the comment: **In the 
general wreck of matter I had the heartfelt satisfaction of 
finding a bottle of Irish whiskey". And as late as 1847 he 
addressed to a distant friend the query: "Don't you feel as 
if you would like to be in Canal Street again, with all our 
old companions, and a few of champagne?" But by 1848 
regeneration had so far set in with him that he wrote: "I 
have adopted the cold water system both externally and 
internally and never drink any more whiskey punch. . . . 
A year ago I joined the Sons of Temperance and have kept 
remarkably sober since then." 

The future deacon's taste for good things is shown by 
the mention which he makes of the wild game all about 
Muscatine. "We have no oysters", he writes in 1843, "but 
then we have lots of wild game which may be had without 
poaching. Quails sell here in winter for 25 to 27 cents a 
dozen, and if you think that too dear, just open your win- 
dows (those who have any) and they will fly in to you. The 
old settlers think when they become more civilized they 
will come in ready cooked". "It would make the mouths of 
the New Yorkers water", he repeats, "to see the quails 
here. . . . They walk through the town in droves of 
twenty to fifty .... we have had hardly anything 
else to eat for a month past, and eat from ten to twelve a 
day. . . . Two men with a net can catch from five hun- 
dred to one thousand in half a day. They think of offering 
up the prayers of the church for protection against them." 

As a result of so much abundance, reinforced by a disci- 
plined taste, what more natural than that Mr. and Mrs. 
Cadle — Mr. Cadle had married in Muscatine in 1848 — 



364 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



should in 1850 begin observing Thanksgiving Day in a style 
which, as maintained throughout the fifties, sixties, and 
seventies, was the admiration and despair of all Congrega- 
tional Muscatine, at least. The menu — I speak in part 
from personal knowledge — comprised two large turkeys 
one at each end of a long table, a chicken pie, oysters — for 
by the fifties oysters had begun to appear west of the Mis- 
sissippi — mashed potatoes, turnips, onions, cranberry tart, 
pickles, jellies, mince pie, pumpkin pie, and last — the 
masterpiece of the occasion — a real English plum pudding, 
made from a recipe brought by ancestral Cadles from 
merrie England in the eighteenth century. 

In 1851 Mr. Robbins tells us that on Thanksgiving Day 
he dined at Mr. D. C. Cloud's ; but in 1852 the record reads : 

Dined at Mr. Cadle's." In 1853 it stands : "Dined at Mr. 
Cadle's — a great day"; and in 1854 it stands: Dined at 
Mr. Cadle's." Could words say more! 

The pastorate of Alden B. Robbins in Muscatine extended 
not to twenty-five years only, but to fifty years. So far as 
Muscatine Congregational life is concerned, the last half 
of this long period was not marked by features so distinc- 
tive as the first half. As we proceed, therefore, that life 
may be permitted to disclose itself as incidental to the 
personality of its central figure — Dr. Robbins himself. 

When Mr. Robbins came to Muscatine he had just been 
married, and his first dwelling — the one next to Cornelius 
Cadle — would seem to have been on what is now Chestnut 
Street near the foot of the High Bridge. Soon, however, 
we hear of his occupying a house on what is now Mulberry 
Avenue, near the present United Brethren Church; and 
later a house on Third Street, near Sycamore, owned by 
George Schooley. In the Mulberry Avenue house, the pipe 
from the heating stove projected out of a front window; 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 365 



and to this house in winter time the pastor hauled water 
for laundry purposes from Mad Creek on a sled. The house 
which Muscatine knew as his for more than forty years — 
that on West Hill — he built himself in 1850. His diary of 
February 1, 1850, records : * ' Hindered all day by a smokey 
flue in Schooley's mean house." Then, on June 17, 1850, 
comes, in logical sequence, the entry: "Moving from 
Schooley's house, opposite Baptist lot, to new and own 
house on hill." 

In mere physique the Congregational pastor was note- 
worthy. His stature was five feet nine inches ; he had clear 
blue eyes, a Roman nose, and abundant wavy, silken hair 
that before he was forty had turned white as snow — the 
most beautiful hair one ever saw. His muscular powers, 
too, were not to be despised. He w?s a strong swimmer 
and as such conquered the swollen Cedar River more than 
once. He loved a good horse, using one when necessary to 
carry him to the scene of wedding or funeral. How much 
he admired physical strength appears from a remark by 
him in 1890 that he recollected ' ' a good deacon of his church 
[Samuel Lucas] who could not be handled physically by any 
man in the County." "We have no such men in the church 
now", he adds regretfully. 

He believed in propagating the race, and disliked Tol- 
stoy because of his theory that "no man has any right to 
have any descendants". It is perhaps unnecessary to say 
that Dr. Robbins had pride and a temper. His temper was 
high when roused, and he was wont to lament it as his be- 
setting sin. 

Intellectually considered this pioneer minister, this son 
of New England, was worthy of his origin. He loved books 
and he loved reading aloud. His voice was of rare quality 
and he read the Scriptures to perfection. Often alone in 
his study would he read aloud to himself some Scriptural 



366 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



passage or master utterance of secular writer. In 1853, on 
November 30th, he notes that he read "one half of a speech 
by the Earl of Chatham aloud"; and one day in 1861 he 
notes: "Eead aloud with great pleasure 'Elegy in a Coun- 
try Churchyard'." In 1851 he purchased Macaulay's His- 
tory of England and in 1868 the three volumes of Motley's 
Rise of the Dutch Republic. Fiction he largely eschewed, 
but Uncle Tom's Cabin he classed with the Iliad and the 
Pilgrim's Progress. Cape Cod Folks as yet was undreamed 
of. He brought to Muscatine the first copy owned in the 
town. 

Lectures by speakers worth hearing he always attended. 
In 1855 he heard T. Starr King on ''Substance and Show"; 
in 1856, Wendell Phillips on "The Lost Arts"; in 1860, 
Tom Marshall on "Henry Clay"; in 1864, Dr. Edward 
Beecher on "Owen Lovejoy"; in 1867, Theodore Tilton on 
"Reconstruction" — "good, sound anti-Slavery truth", he 
pronounced the last lecture; yet he felt regarding Tilton 
personally that he was "helped by greatly resembling 
Henry Ward Beecher, once his pastor." Wendell Phillips 
he heard again, in 1867, on "Street Life on the Continent" ; 
but he was critical of his "poor pronunciation for so fin- 
ished a speaker." Mr. Bobbins also heard in Muscatine in 
these and other years: Dr. Isaac 1. Hayes, the Arctic ex- 
plorer ; Bronson Alcott, the Concord philosopher ; Elizabeth 
Cady Stanton, the suffragist; and Schuyler Colfax, Speaker 
of the national House of Representatives. John F. Dillon 
of Davenport, the jurist, he heard, but considered his style 
"sophomorical". He even lectured a few times himself — 
once on the "Lady of the Lake", and once on "Sir Walter 
Raleigh". His audience at the latter he humorously de- 
scribes as "very select". 

As classmates of Mr. Robbins at Amherst were two men 
destined to fame as pulpit orators — Frederic D. Hunting- 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 367 



ton, afterwards Bishop of Central New York, and Richard 
S. Storrs, afterwards pastor of the Church of the Pilgrims 
in Brooklyn. But down to 1875 the pastor 's pulpit ideal — 
so far as he permitted himself one — was probably Henry 
Ward Beecher. In 1874 came the Beecher-Tilton trial, and 
thereafter the pastor speaks but little of Beecher. Con- 
cerning him his diary utters the few but pregnaat words 
(Beecher's own): "Alas! Alas! Did ever a greater ass 
fall into a deeper pit ! " Let it be added that Dr. Bobbins 's 
own sermons, though always practically helpful, rose at 
times to heights of noble eloquence. One phrase flung out 
by him regarding the Jews rings in my mind after forty 
years: "their Conquerors are dead, but they live on." 

Having been a radical in politics, when politics involved 
the issues of slavery and the Union, Dr. Bobbins clung to 
the Republican party long after that party, as many 
thought, had ceased to be worthy of the confidence of the 
people. When after the Civil War Charles Francis Adams, 
Sr., left the "Grand Old Party" in disgust, the pastor de- 
nounced him from the pulpit as "a degenerate son of the 
Adamses". Nor was this the first of his pulpit denuncia- 
tions of recalcitrant political leaders. In 1852 on the death 
of Daniel Webster, after that giant of New England had 
declared regarding slavery that the North must learn to 
conquer her prejudices, he had preached from the words of 
the eighty-second Psahn: "I have said ye are gods . . . 
but ye shall die like men." The most striking instance, 
perhaps, of Dr. Bobbins 's defence of the Republican party 
from the pulpit was in 1876 just after the presidential elec- 
tion, when it looked as if Samuel J. Tilden might have 
triumphed over Rutherford B. Hayes. A Democrat in the 
White House was unthinkable to him, and on Sunday, No- 
vember 12th, he preached (as his diary records) "on God's 
deliverance of Paul and our nation by a basket ' The text 



368 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 



is a familiar one : * ' Then the disciples took him [Paul] by 
night, and let him down by the wall in a basket," The 
Eepnblican party, Dr. Bobbins reasoned on this occasion, 
would win even though let down from a wall in a basket. 
Justice Bradley of the United States Supreme Court proved 
to be just the basket required to carry the party to safety. 

Alden B. Bobbins was a Puritan and he gloried in the 
fact. He consequently was narrow in a sense, but his nar- 
rowness had its redeeming features. A user of tobacco was 
to him in some sort a sinner, and it hurt his conscience to 
take his children to view the street parade of Dan Eobin- 
son's circus; but when it came to setting forth Puritan 
achievements in church and state he discriminated. The 
Puritans had hanged witches and Quakers. Privately, he 
probably felt that the witches and Quakers — especially the 
Quakers — had deserved hanging, but he meant that it 
should be understood that the Puritans who did the hanging 
were not the real Congregationalists. The latter were the 
Pilgrims and hailed from Plymouth, not from Boston. 

On the question of the bondage of the negro and on that 
of the bondage of the inebriate, Dr. Robbins was broad. 
But, as we have seen, he was not broad on the question of 
the bondage of women. He did not believe in equal suf- 
frage. "Went to hear Mrs. S. on suffrage", he notes in 
1871. ''Smart but sophistical. Makes the ballot to be 
everything when it is in many respects a humbug." And, 
as late as 1895, he said: "Regarding the suggestion that 
women vote, it might not be so great a boon as it seems to be 
now. "Woman's greatest honor is that she gave the Saviour 
to the World without the intervention of man". 

Dr. Robbins was a power in Muscatine — a power with 
all, be their church affiliations what they might. And two 
things made him so — his spirituality and his unquestioned 
sincerity. He was always handling political — and hence 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 369 



burning — questions, but he had the faculty of handling 
them in a spiritual way. They did not drag him down, as 
they do many ministers : he dragged them up. In the fifties 
he was sometimes called ''Cock Robbins" by the pro- 
slaveryites, but he was never made the target of rotten eggs 
or dead cats. They would as soon have thought of thus 
assailing the Apostle Paul himself. Tn 1880, when James A. 
Garfield won the presidency against Winfield Scott Han- 
cock, the pastor delivered what the Democratic newspaper 
of Muscatine called ''a Te Deum over the Republican vic- 
tory". "But", said its editor, "Doctor Robbins "ong ago 
earned the right to the free utterance of his convictions 
from his pulpit, and as his political philosophy is acceptable 
to his Church it is not our business to find fault with it." 

On his distinctively human side, Mr. Robbins was most 
engaging. He had keen humor, and he enjoyed social occa- 
sions; occasions whereon, in the early, days, his people 
remembered him with prairie chickens, quails, mallard 
ducks, and turkeys ; and always with apples — barrels of 
red Jonathans or huge juicy bellflowers, of both of which he 
was very fond. 

Like most New Englanders, he was inclined to exalt 
Thanksgiving at the expense of Christmas. But his Sunday 
School and his children saw to it between them that the 
balance did not go unredressed. And anyway the Thanks- 
giving dinners at Deacon Cadle's, followed by the inevitable 
Thursday evening prayer meetings, served to keep Christ- 
mas — a Catholic and Episcopal festival as he thought — 
in the subordinate position where it belonged. As regards 
the pastor 's humor, it has already sufficiently colored these 
pages through excerpts from his diary; but he was known 
to give it way with entire propriety even in a funeral dis- 
course. He preached the funeral sermon of his long-time 
deacon Suel Foster, and in it alluded to the sartorial idio- 



370 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



syncracy of the man as revealed in the circumstance that, 
no matter what suit he wore, the trousers always stopped 
short six inches above his shoe tops. 

Music is the most human of arts, and Dr. Bobbins greatly 
enjoyed it as rendered in hymns sung by the congregation. 
In the form of elaborate renditions by a choir, he distrusted 
it a little. That is to say, he distrusted the choir, whatever 
he may have thought of the music. Thus in 1868 he records : 
"Spoke at prayer meeting of prayer for choir. The devil 
(at work as usual through a choir) has stirred up trouble 
about something said by me." The pastor had reason to 
be wary of choirs, for it seems that it was through the choir 
that the unpleasantness began with the gentleman from 
Missouri in 1858. That individual was a singer — a tenor 
singer — and as such influential. How influential may be 
gathered from the notation by the pastor on January 25, 
1858 — "the choir have ceased to sing." But during the 
time they did sing they evidently sang well, for of them 
Mrs. Cora Chaplin Weed, who joined the church in 1861, 
speaks thus: "Who will ever forget the glorious choir of 
the old Congregational Church? Mrs. Woodward, soprano ; 
Mrs. James Weed, alto ; Judge Woodward, bass ; and Gr. M. 

[the gentleman from Missouri], tenor. I used to 

close my eyes in my early childhood and imagine, as the 
lovely quartet sang in the high gallery, that it was very like 
the music heard from cloudland by the shepherds on that 
first Christmas morn. Many a tear have I secretly wiped 
away because of the heavenly melodies that floated down 
from the old choir; melodies repeated now, I believe, in 
Paradise. ' ' In Paradise it may be ! Judge Woodward died 
in 1871, and Gr. M. in 1875. Concerning the latter Dr. Bob- 
bins wrote in 1875 on February 10th: "Poor G. AI. — the 
old church member and enemy of mine and the church — 
died at Memphis and was buried here today. ' ' May it not 



CONGREGATIONAL LIFE IN MUSCATINE 371 



have been on account of his angel tenor voice that the sisters 
of the Congregational Church saved the gentleman from 
Missouri from excommunication in 1858? 

Finally, concerning Alden B. Robbins let it be recorded 
— and most fittingly so in these days of world-upheaval — 
that ever and always he was a sturdy patriot. No pacifist 
he ! Not for nothing did his eyes first greet the light in the 
Old Bay State — the State of the Winthrops, of John 
Quincy Adams, of Wendell Phillips, and of Charles Sumner. 
''Can't whip the South!" he demanded in 1863. "Seven 
hundred men whipped five thousand at Donelson; eight 
hundred men and two cannon, under lowan, [Fitz Henry] 
Warren, repulsed six thousand and five cannon! Since 
January first, Texas cavalry at Corinth only saved the 
South!" Nor did his patriotism ever wane. In 1868 he 
apologized in his diary for not having a larger fiag out 
when the negroes cheered his home as they marched past it, 
and he promised himself to make amends the next year. In 
1876 he bought a flag "six feet long", and on January 1, 
1877, he noted: "Put out flag for the Emancipation celebra- 
tion and was cheered by the poor colored band at door." 
As late as 1890, at an old settlers' celebration, he punctuated 
an address he wias making by drawing forth a silk flag and 
unfolding it. 

In 1891 Dr. Robbins, after forty-eight years of faithful 
service for "God and Native Land" in Muscatine, resigned 
the pastorship of the Congregational Church. He was at 
once made pastor emeritus and held the position till his 
death on December 27, 1896. His first wife, Miss Eliza C. 
Hough of Canterbury, Connecticut, had died of cholera in 
Muscatine in July, 1850. His second wife. Miss Mary 
Sewall Arnold, of Monmouth, Maine, whom he had married 
in September, 1851, had died in Muscatine in June, 1894. 



I 



372 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Muscatine — the Muscatine of the early French explorers 
and of Zebulon M. Pike of 1805 — is able to point in its 
Anglo-Saxon period to some striking personalities. Among 
them two stand preeminent — Dr. Alden B. Robbins and 
Father Pierre Laurent — the Puritan and the Priest: one 
from Salem, Massachusetts ; the other from Dijon, France. 
Each was planted firmly upon a rock: the one upon 
Plymouth Rock, and the other upon the Rock of St. Peter. 
Both spent in Muscatine, in charge of their respective 
flocks, their entire working lives — periods of slightly more 
than fifty years. They never drew very near together — 
this Puritan and this Priest — but each in a way respected 
and admired the other. Both possessed superior education ; 
both were by nature markedly social; both did their duty 
unflinchingly as they saw it. Said Father Laurent one day 
to a member of Dr. Robbins 's church who was angling for 
his opinion as to whether Protestants could hope to enter 
the Kingdom of God, "Ma Chere Madame" — the Father 
liked to revert to his native French tongue — "Ma Chere 
Madame — you will all be saved if for no other reason 
because of your invincible ignorance." Would Dr. Rob- 
bins, if questioned, have returned with respect to his Cath- 
olic fellow mortals an answer equally hopeful? 

I was ever a fighter, so — one fight more, 
The best and the last ! 

Ibving B. Richman 

Muscatine Iowa 



THE ECONOMIC BASIS OF THE POPULIST 
MOVEMENT IN IOWA 

The Populist movement, like earlier and later agrarian 
movements, was vitally concerned with three problems — 
credit, transportation, and markets and prices. The agri- 
cultural State of Iowa offers a good field in which to observe 
the attempts to work out these problems of national and 
international importance. 

The economic situation in Iowa during the period of the 
Populist movement presents an interesting combination of 
dissatisfaction and inherent soundness. Conditions in 
lowa^ were less favorable to a pronounced Populism than 
in Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, though Iowa was 
by no means untouched by the movement. Its forerunner, 
the Farmers' Alliance, however, which flourished from 
about 1885 to 1895, ''never swept the state as had the 
Grange."- The various numbers of the Iowa Official Reg- 
ister^ show that in the election returns the appreciable 
votes for the People's party came chiefly from the newer 
sections of the State, the party even securing pluralities in 
Monona County on the western border. But Populism — 
or the agrarian accompaniments of Populism — exerted an 
influence and attracted an attention in the two old parties 
of Iowa greater than was indicated by the numerical 
strength of the third party itself. There was an economic 

1 Haynes 's Third Party Movements Since the Civil War with Special Befer- 
ence to Iowa, p. 304. Mr. Haynes might have added Minnesota, which showed 
a Populist vote of 87,931 in 1894, more than twice the largest vote ever cast 
for an independent Populist ticket in Iowa. 

2 Nourse's Fifty Years of Farmers' Elevators in Iowa (Bulletin of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, Xo. 211, March, 1923), p. 242. 

8 Iowa Official Register, 1893-1896, showing returns for the years 1892-1895. 

373 



374 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



basis for the character, extent, and limitation of the move- 
ment. 

The population of Iowa in 1890 was 1,911,896, as com- 
pared with 1,624,615 in 1880, an increase of 17.68 per cent, 
as compared with the 36.06 per cent increase for the pre- 
vious decade and the 76.91 per cent increase for the period 
from 1860 to 1870. It was less than the percentage of 
increase from 1880 to 1890 in Minnesota, Nebraska, and 
Kansas, which were, respectively, 66.74, 134.06, and 43.27 
per cent. Iowa's urban population was 14.08 per cent of 
the total in 1890, as compared with 9.39 per cent in 1880. 
The important gains in population were in the western and 
northwestern counties. Lyon County, in the northwest 
corner, increased from 1968 to 8680, and Woodbury, border- 
ing Nebraska, increased from 14,996 to 55,632. On the 
other hand, twenty-seven counties lying in or near the 
eastern half of the State showed a decrease in population 
between 1880 and 1890. In about 43.26 per cent of the area 
of the State there was a decrease in rural population for 
the period, while the total increase of this group for 
the State as a whole was 121,709. In the percentage of 
area showing a decrease of rural population, Iowa led all 
of the trans-Mississippi States except Nevada.^ Additional 
evidence that Iowa as a whole was getting away from fron- 
tier conditions is indicated by the low acreage of original 
homestead entries. For the year ending on June 30, 1890, 
this was only 1153 acres for Iowa, while for Kansas and 
Minnesota it was 222,649 and 175,697 acres respectively.'* 
A writer in the Political Science Quarterly^ in 1889 classed 

■* See Eleventh Census of the United States (Population), 1890, for these 
statistics. 

B Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1891, p. 242. 

oMappin's Farm Mortgages and the Small Farmer iu the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. IV (September, 1889), p. 436. The State was still receiving 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 375 



Iowa as a border State between the old and the new West, 
placing eastern Iowa in the old and western Iowa in the 
new. 

In this period of nnrest, partly attributed at the time to 
the readjustment of agricultural conditions to the dis- 
appearance of the frontier/ the dictum that **the old pio- 
neer farmer has found the play played out"^ could be 
applied to Iowa. The time has gone by when farming can 
be done by "pure strength and awkwardness", declared an 
Iowa agricultural paper,^ which at the same time pointed to 
the danger of capitalistic control of a large percentage of 
the farms of the country. 

Of Iowa's total farm acreage in 1890, only 16.6 per cent 
was listed as unimproved.^" The value of the farm lands, 
fences, and buildings of the State in 1890 was listed at 
$857,581,022, more than 50 per cent above the value ten 
years earlier. At the latter date Iowa, with a valuation of 
$136,665,315, was third in the Union in value of farm imple- 
ments and machinery, being surpassed only by New York 
and Pennsylvania.^^ The tendency away from pioneer 
farming was hastened by the construction of railroads in 
all parts of the State. The railroad mileage in 1890 was 

homeseekers from east of the Mississippi, while furnishing some emigration to 
regions farther west. James Wilson noted with regret "the sale of Iowa 
homes by the pioneers who made them".— Zowa Agricultural Beport, 1892, p. 
16; Ch'erokee Weekly Times, April 20, 1893; Iowa State Register (Des Moines), 
April 19, 1893. 

7 Wiman 's The Farmer on Top in The North American Beview, Vol. CLIII 
(July, 1891), pp. 14, 15. 

* Harris 's What the Government Is Doing for the Farmer in The Century 
Magazine (New Series), Vol. XXII, p. 465. This article deals with changes 
taking place in agricultural conditions — changes from land skimming to land 
culture. 

» The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), November 30, 1894. 

lo^fcsfraci of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, p. 95 

11 Alstract of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, pp. 99-101 



376 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



8602, more than 60 per cent increase over that of ISSO.^^^ 
Governor Francis M. Drake, speaking of conditions at this 
time said, * ' There is not a county in the state without rail- 
road facilities. "^^ 

Iowa had become a land of farms and farmers. Accord- 
ing to the Federal census of 1890,^* there were 205,435 farm 
families in Iowa, while the average number of employees in 
manufacturing establishments was slightly under 60,000 
and the number of railway employees was under 28,000.^^ 
Tenant families constituted 29.57 per cent of the farm fami- 
lies, as compared with 34.08 per cent for the United States 
as a whole. It was said, however, "that more farms in 
Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin have been deserted by their 
owners than have been in New Hampshire, Vermont and 
Massachusetts. ' ' 

There had been a great expansion in agriculture in Iowa 
between 1860 and 1880 with emphasis on a few leading 
grains, in spite of warnings and exhortations toward diver- 
sification of crops. ^'^ During this period Iowa's production 
of corn and wheat almost doubled. There was, however, a 
change in the decade following 1880, particularly with ref- 
erence to wheat, for which estimates placed the acreage at 
3,049,288 and the production at 31,154,205 bushels in 1879, 

Abstract of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, p. 172. 

13 Shambaiigh's The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. VII, p. 110. 

Eleventh Census of the United States (Farms and Homes), 1890, pp. 
35-42. 

15 Before 1890 the membership of the Knights of Labor in the State reached 
25,000. — Downey's History of Labor Legislation in Iowa, pp. 3, 4; Abstract of 
the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, p. 141. 

'^^ Eleventh Census of the United States (Farms and Homes), 1890, pp. 33, 
35; loiva Agricultural Report, 1891, p. 10. 

i^Euggles's The Economic Basis of the Greenhaclc Movement in Iowa and 
Wisconsin in the Proceedings of tlie Mississippi Valley Historical Association, 
Vol. VI, p. 143. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 377 



but showed only 585,548 acres and 8,249,786 bushels in 
1889.^^ Estimates for the corn crop showed 6,616,144 acres 
and 275,014,247 bushels in 1879 with 7,585,522 acres and 
313,130,782 bushels in 1889, Iowa being the first State in 
production of this cereal in the latter year.^^ The total 
value of agricultural products for 1890, excluding live stock 
but including dairy products and poultry, was estimated at 
$258,677,315.^" During this period there was a good in- 
crease in the number of horses, milch cows, and cattle, the 
figure for cattle in 1890 surpassing three million — nearly 
twice that of 1880. The hog had followed corn in the west- 
ward movement, and the leading corn State was the leading 
hog State in 1890, with the number of hogs estimated at 
8,266,779.21 

The development in Iowa and the West was accompanied 
by an increase in mortgages. Within a brief period, said a 
writer in 1890, **an unusual amount of capital has been 
devoted — not directly but indirectly, by way of mortgage 
loans — to the development of a vast area of agricultural 
country. Half a million mortgages on real estate were 
placed in Iowa during the ten years ending with 1889 for 
an amount, in round numbers, of $440,000,000.^3 rpj^g ^^^^ 
estate mortgage debt for Iowa in 1890 was estimated to be 
$199,774,171, including $50,317,027 on town lots. This total 

At sir act of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, pp. 118, 119. 
"Iowa, after devoting 400,000 new acres to the production of hay [between 
1879 and 1889] drew upon the wheat fields for 2,363,000 acres to add to the 
meadows, while 2,244,000 other new acres were added to the oat -bearing lands. ' ' 
— The Country Gentleman quoted by The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), 
June 1, 1894. 

18 Abstract of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, pp. 118, 119. 

20 Iowa Agricultural Beport, 1890, p. 80. 

21 Abstract of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890, p. 105. 

22 Gleed's Western Mortgages in The Forum, Vol. IX, p. 105. 

Eleventh Census of the United States (Real Estate Mortgages), 1890, p. 

174. 

VOL. XXI — 24 



378 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



was more than a fifth of the estimated value of the farm 
lands, fences, and buildings. The total incumbrance on 
farms occupied by owners was $101,745,924 — an amount 
exceeded only by New York, with Illinois coming third. Of 
this debt on farms occupied by owners in Iowa, 69.49 per 
cent was for the purchase of real estate. The total of this 
incumbrance was estimated at 33.29 per cent of the value of 
the farms, the average debt per farm being $1319. It was 
estimated that 47 per cent of the taxed land in the State in 
1890 was under mortgage. 

The total annual interest on incumbrances on farms occu- 
pied by owners in 1890 was estimated at $7,491,665, the 
interest charge falling on 37.53 per cent of the farm families 
of the State.2* '*In Iowa", it was reported, ''the rate of 
8 per cent is the most prevalent one, but 7 per cent is of 
large secondary importance, and 6 per cent third in order, 
while 80 per cent is the highest rate, and is paid by one 
family on $2,300. " It was said that in eastern Iowa the 
debt situation was improving and that interest rates were 
growing less : a Davis County firm in 1888 claimed a record 
of a hundred thousand dollars per year without a single 
foreclosure in several years.^® In Jefferson County, which 
lost over two thousand in population between 1880 and 
1890, "there was not a single sale of real estate by the 
sheriff during the year" of 1890.^'^ The Iowa Homestead 
and the Iowa State Register maintained that the reports of 
the mortgage evil were exaggerated. A student of the situ- 

24 For these incumbrance statistics see Eleventh Census of the United States 
(Farms and Homes), 1890, pp. 35, 59, 83, 150, also diagram 9; Emerick's An 
An^ilysis of Agricultural Discontent in the United States in the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. XI, p. 603. 

25 Eleventh Census of the United States (Farms and Homes), 1890, p. 104. 
20 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), December 28, 1888. 

27 Iowa Agricultural Eeport, 1890, p. 7. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OP POPULISM 379 



ation in 1896 believed that in States like Iowa and Missouri 
mortgage foreclosures had not been unusually frequent.^* 
Yet there were evidences of the burden of mortgages in 
Iowa. An observer at Geneva, in the north central part of 
the State, said in 1888 that there were mortgages in his 
county amounting to some half a million dollars, chiefly 
with rates that would compel farmers to sell out or be eaten 
out by the mortgages.^^ It was said that "companies lo- 
cated at St. Paul, Omaha, Des Moines, Kansas City, St. 
Joseph, Topeka, Denver or Dallas, sometimes received as 
high as fifteen-per-cent commission on a five-year loan, 
and for many years the home company never received less 
than ten per cent. The local agent exacted all that he could 
above this amount."^" A substantial increase in the amount 
of real estate mortgages between 1880 and 1889 was partic- 
ularly characteristic of northwestern Iowa. Lyon County, 
in the northwest corner, showed an increase from $84,671 to 
$709,959. The only counties in the State showing less 

28Emerick's An Analysis of Agricultural Discontent in the United States in 
the Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XI, p. 610. In 1894 the Financial World 
(Boston) pointed out that losses of eastern money in western mortgages were 
due to investments in States west of Iowa. — The Iowa Homestead (Des 
Moines), August 10, 1894. 

29 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), January 27, 1888. 

30 Gleed 's Western Mortgages in The Forum, Vol. IX, pp. 95, 96. In connec- 
tion with eastern investments in western loans, it was stated in 1889 that Phila- 
delphia alone negotiated annually more than $15,000,000 of western loans. 
' ' In some way, the capital of the United States has been aggregated .... 
in certain sections, and by "its usufructuary power is drawing to the same sec- 
tions the profits of the labor of other sections. ' ' Tribute from western farmers 
to the money lenders of the East was mentioned as a source of western poverty. 
— Mappin's Farm Mortgages and the Small Farmer in the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. IV, pp. 435-439; Dunn's The Mortgage Evil in the Political 
Science Quarterly, Vol. V, p. 82; Gladden 's The Embattled Farmers in The 
Forum, Vol. X, p. 317. 

31 Eleventh Census of the United States (Real Estate Mortgages), 1890, pp. 
431—436. Woodbury County, though showing a greater amount on lots than on 
acres, showed more than $1,000,000 on acres. 



380 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



than half a million dollars in mortgages for 1880 and more 
than a million for 1889 were Plymouth, Sioux, and Wood- 
bury, all in the northwest. 

The real estate mortgages brought a demand from the 
farmers for the revision of taxation, ''Farmers represent 
but one-fourth of the nation's wealth and they pay three- 
fourth of the taxes", exclaimed the Farmers' Tribune, a 
Weaver organ.^^ The attempt was made to shift some of 
the taxation from mortgaged property to mortgages. The 
Iowa Farmers ' Alliance advocated such a revision, and the 
State secretary of the Alliance served on a committee cre- 
ated by the legislature of 1892 to investigate the system of 
taxation and report to the subsequent legislature.^^ But in 
the next legislature, as in previous ones, the endeavor to 
shift taxation from mortgaged farms to mortgages failed. 
The Homestead attributed the defeat of tax revision to a 
lobby of the railroads, loan and trust companies, and kin- 
dred interests.^* The Populist State platforms condemned 
the legislature for rejecting taxation revision and de- 
nounced the ''method of assessment whereby the debtor is 
made to pay the full tax on mortgaged property".^' 

There were economic grievances too in regard to the rail- 
road question. "There are counties in Iowa and other 
Western States'', wrote Frank B. Tracy in 1893, "strug- 
gling under heavy loads of bond-taxes, levied twenty-five 
years ago, to aid railways, of which not one foot has been 
built. '"^ Governor Larrabee, in his inaugural message of 

32 Farmers' Tribune (Des Moines), April 12, 1893. 

33 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), February 3, 17, 1893; Public Opinion, 
November 7, 1891. 

s* The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines) , March 30, 1894. 

Si Iowa Official Begister, 1892 (Second Edition), p. 172, 1894, p. 107. 

88 Tracy's Bise and Doom of the Populist Party in The Forum, Vol. XVI, 
p. 242. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 381 



1888 and in other utterances, maintained that the railroads 
of Iowa had received $50,000,000 in public donations and 
exemptions ; that the tracts of lands granted them in various 
ways amounted to more than one-eighth of the area of the 
State ; that the State had not ' * derived that benefit from the 
large land grants made to railroads which her people had a 
right to expect"; and that the railroads schemed to use one 
valuation for income and another for taxation.^'^ Increased 
taxation of the railroads was one of the demands of the 
People's party of the State.^^ 

More important, however, than taxation of railroads was 
the problem, or burden, of railroad rates, particularly 
freight rates. This problem, like that of mortgages, was 
intensified by declining prices of agricultural products. As 
one of the leading Grange States, Iowa in 1874 secured a 
railroad act which has been pronounced perhaps the best 
example of an attempt to establish a fixed schedule of maxi- 
mum rates". This was accepted for some years and led to 
improved relations between railroads and the public.^' 
With the decline of the Grange and with skillful propa- 
gandist activity on the part of railroads,^" the freight sec- 
tions of the law of 1874 were repealed in 1878, and an 
advisory — or investigative — and appointive commission 
was created. In ten years the pendulum was to swing back 
toward more rigid control of railroads, including a demand 
for interstate regulation.*^ 

sTLarrabee's The Railroad Question (Eleventh Edition), pp. 328, 329; The 
Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), February 24, 1888; Gue's History of Iowa, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 142, 143. 

sslowa Official Register, 1892 (Second Edition), p. 172. 

38 Buck's The Granger Movement, pp. 166-178. 

*o Aldrich 's The Repeal of the Granger Law in Iowa in The Iowa Jouknal 
OP HiSTOEY AND POLITICS, Vol. Ill, pp. 256-270. 

*i- Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia, Vol. XI (1886), pp. 331, 332; Iowa State 
Register (Des Moines Morning Edition), January 19, 1887; The Iowa Home- 
stead (Des Moines), 6ctober 12, 1894; Laws of Iowa, 1878, Ch. 77. 



382 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



It was hard to convince the average farmer of the fair- 
ness of a policy that compelled him to give one car of corn 
to pay for the transportation of another to Chicago, de- 
clared the Iowa Board of Railroad Commissioners in 1886,*^ 
with the following comment: There is a great deal of 
general complaint because railways do charge from $60 to 
$80 from "Western Iowa, when it is understood that cars 
from points still farther west are taken right by their doors 
to some eastern point for considerably less". Iowa "is 
paying too large a freight bill", said the Iowa State Reg- 
ister.*^ Governor William Larrabee asserted that the net 
income of the railroads in Iowa for 1887 — $13,000,000 — 
was too much of a burden, especially in view of the drouth : 
it was one-third of the corn crop, three million dollars more 
than the whole wheat crop, or one-sixth of the total value of 
the cattle of the State.** Other than agricultural interests 
were feeling aggrieved in 1887, and there was a demand on 
the part of manufacturers and business men that the rail- 
roads **must make a car-load rate to apply to all the manu- 
facturers and jobbers in Iowa, and to grain and stock in 
car lots, or get ready for such a fight as they have never had 
on the prairies between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers 
before."*'' 

The Republican State platform in 1887 contained a long 
plank supporting State regulation of railroads and favoring 
a stronger interstate commerce law. The legislature was 
asked to abolish free passes and to increase the efficiency of 
the railway commission law with a view to the reduction of 

42 Annual Report of the Board of Bailroad Commissio7iers of loxca, 1886, pp. 
52, 53. 

*8 Iowa State Register (Des Moines, Morning Edition), August 24, 1887. 

** Statement before the railroad committee of the State Senate. — The Iowa 
Homestead (Des Moines), February 24, 1888. 

Iowa State Register (Des Moines, Morning Edition), April 24, 1887. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 383 



freight charges and passenger fares. The platform also 
criticized discrimination on the part of the railroads be- 
tween persons and between places. This was considered an 
** anti-monopoly" plank.*® The Democratic party also ad- 
vocated State control of railroads and the election of 1887 

resulted in an even more complete defeat of the railroad 
forces than had been generally anticipated."*"^ With Gov- 
ernor Larrabee and a sympathetic anti-monopoly" legis- 
lature in control in 1888*^ the way was open for reform and 
permanent legislation was adopted. 

The law of 1888 provided for an elective railroad com- 
mission with power to carry on extensive investigations, to 
make for each road in the State "a schedule of reasonable 
maximum rates" for freight and cars, to make freight 
classifications, and to prosecute for extortion for which 
penalties were provided. Commission rates were to be held 
prima facie reasonable and commission findings were to be 
held prima facie evidence before the courts. Freight pools 
were forbidden, and no preference was to be granted to 
shippers, localities, or kinds of traffic, aside from time prior- 
ity to live stock.*^ Proposals for statutory maximum rates, 
however, were defeated ; and the regulation of express com- 
panies and the abolition of free passes were left for consid- 
eration by later sessions. Commission regulation of joint 
rates was provided for in 1890,^** 

*^ Iowa State Register (Des Moines, Morning Edition), August 25, 1887. 

*T Larrabee 's The Railroad Question (Eleventh Edition), p. 339. 

*8 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), January 6, 1888. In this issue it was 
stated that the people were asking the railroads ' ' to take their heavy hand off 
the manufacturing and wholesale interests by giving as reasonable local rates 
as under competition they give to inter-state points. They ask them to give 
local rates that will enable the farmers of one county to feed corn raised in 
another without paying practically the same rate that is paid to Chicago". 
Lower local rates on coal were also demanded. 

« Laws of Iowa, 1888, Ch. 28. 

80 Laws of Iowa, 1890, Ch. 17. 



384 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



In spite of obstructions and injunctions brought about by 
the railroads, the freight rates under the new commission 
system went into effect in February of 1889.^^ Railroad 
officials testified that the result was a reduction of about 
twenty-six per cent on local rates ; yet Governor Larrabee 
said these "rates were not as low as the special rates that 
had at various times been granted to favorite shippers, but 
were a fair average of the various rates in vogue at the 
time."^^ Supporters of the new system pointed to the in- 
creased earnings of the railroads and to the benefits to 
farmers, merchants, manufacturers, and mining interests of 
the State. The platforms of both parties continued to sup- 
port State control of railroads; and the Homestead'^* rec- 
ommended the Iowa system of regulation as a solution for 
the local rate troubles in Kansas and Nebraska. There 
were, nevertheless, criticisms by shipping interests of cer- 
tain applications of the system, and the Farmers' Trihune^'^ 
continued to assert that the Iowa public was contributing 
too much to the support of the railroads of the State. It 
was claimed that the opposition of the railroad interests to 
this law of 1888, linked with antagonism to prohibition, con- 
tributed to the defeat of the Eepublicans by the Democrats 
in 1889 and 1891.^8 The State Board of Railroad Commis- 
sioners,^'' however, gave high praise to the regulatory sys- 
tem after it had been given a trial. 

siLarrabee's The Eailroad Question (Eleventh Edition), pp. 343, 344; The 
Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), May 18, 1888; Annual Report of the Board of 
Bailroad Commissioners of Iowa, 1891, p. 9. 

B2 Annual Report of the Board of Railroad Commissioners of Iowa, 1891, 
p. 9. 

ssLarrabee's The Railroad Question (Eleventh Edition), p. 343. 
B4 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), March 31, 1893. 
55 Farmers' Tribune (Des Moines), November 29, 1893. 

66 Irwin's 7s Iowa a Doubtful State? in The Forum, Vol. XIII, pp. 257-264. 
BT ' > There have been no rate wars .... in Iowa the past two years 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 385 



Those who preached or believed the doctrine that the 
railroads were solely responsible for low prices of agri- 
cultural products and that railroad domination and 
favoritism offered ample explanation for *'the hitherto 
unexplained phenomena of hard times were, however, 
inevitably disappointed and additional reasons had to be 
sought. Middlemen and combinations — or * ' trusts ' ' — de- 
pressed prices of agricultural products and held up prices 
of finished products. Conflict between the farmers and a 
barbed wire syndicate had contributed to the formation of 
a State Farmers' Alliance in 1881.^'' In the late 70 's and 
the 80 's Iowa experienced a growth of line elevator com- 
panies, which formed a strong alliance with the railroads 
and opposed the independent and the farmers ' elevators.^** 
The legislature of 1888 adopted an anti-trust law against 
organizations or combinations for fixing "the price of oil, 
lumber, coal, grain, flour, provisions or any other commod- 

. . • . while rate-eutting has been in vogue in the states around us and the 
troubled "waves have surged up against our very borders .... Iowa has 
been free from their .... influences, and with the curtailing of rebates, 
secret rates, free passes and other special privileges which the few formerly 
enjoyed at the expense of the many, there has followed steady rates and in- 
creased revenues — more than sufBcient to make up for any deficiency caused by 
reduction in local rates." — Annual Beport of the Board of Bailroad Commis- 
sioners of Iowa, 1891, p. 16. 

68 Assumption by W. E. Miller in The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), March 
30, 1888. See also The Forum, Vol. XIII, p. 260. 

ssHaynes's Third Party Movements Since the Civil War with Special Befer- 
ence to Iowa, p. 311; Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. Ill, pp. 103-107. 

«o Nourse's Fifty Years of Farmers' Elevators in Iowa {Bulletin of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, No. 211, March, 1923), pp. 242, 246. Professor Nourse observes that line 
elevator systems were also in league with coal, lumber, and farm implement 
interests, and that these farmer elevator companies in the late 80 's and early 
90 's came into being to combat an organization already possessing the field, a 
task not confronted by the farmers' elevators of the Granger period. The 
farmers' elevators of the later, or, second, period were most prominent in the 
north central and northwestern parts of the State. 



386 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ity".®^ The "beef trust" was denounced by the press and 
accused of depressing the price of cattle, holding up the 
price of beef, and being behind railway rate discrimination. 
It was ' ' the most menacing as well as the most gigantic ' ' of 
"about 400 trusts in existence ".^^ The panic of 1893, ob- 
served the Homestead, emphasized the cost of the middle- 
men, "Hitherto the products of western farmers have been 
compelled to run the gauntlet of a long line of middlemen, 
which began at the nearest railway station, ran through 
Chicago, New York, Liverpool, and ending with the small 
retailers in Europe A demand arose for the regulation 
of warehouses, weighing and grading, regulation to check 
dishonest commission men, and legislation against option 
gambling in agricultural products.^* 

Another explanation given for the hard times was the 
injury to the farmers ' market through the scientific devel- 
opment of substitutes for agricultural products. "The 
advent of bogus butter cut the value of dairy stock right in 
two by the middle", said the State Board of Railroad Com- 
missioners in 1886.^^ Legislation was sought "in behalf of 
pure lard", and a statement in a "down-east" paper that a 
chemist was claiming meat would some time be made arti- 

61 Laws of Iowa, 1888, Ch. 84. 

62 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), May 25, 1888, March 15, 1889; Coun- 
cil Blufs WeeMy Globe, January 31, February 7, 21, 1896; Iowa Agricultural 
Eeport, 1895, pp. 73, 74. 

63 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), September 22, 1893. 

64 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), September 22, 1893, October 18, 1895, 
August 14, 1896. "Unless checked by state and national legislation, the 
millers' association will soon dictate to the farmer the price of his grain and 
to the consumer the price of his bread stuff as absolutely as the whisky trust 
controls the price of their goods." — B. F. Clayton in The Iowa Agricultural 
Beport, 1895, p. 74. 

«B Annual Beport of the Board of Bailroad Commissioners of Iowa, 1886, p. 
53. To protect the market for pure butter, it was proposed in the State legis- 
lature that oleomargarine be colored pink. — The Iowa Homestead (Des 
Moines), March 30, 1894. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 387 



ficially led the Homestead to assert ''that chemistry has 
done comparatively little except to teach how to defraud." 
Sheep-raising, it was claimed, was made unprofitable by the 
increase in the plants and output of ' ' shoddy mills ' '.^^ 

There was some recognition of the competition facing the 
Iowa farmer. "In the markets of the world", said Gov- 
ernor Jackson in his inaugural address in 1894, "cheap 
beef from the vast herds of Mexico, and mutton from the 
plains of Australia can be sold at a profit to its owners at a 
price far less than it costs to produce them on the farms of 
Iowa. In the world's market the wheat fields of Manitoba 
and India .... can monopolize and supply the de- 
mand in competition with the products of the American 
farm." In addition to noting increasing competition of 
grains or animals from India, Eussia, Australia, and Argen- 
tina in the European markets, the Homestead gave empha- 
sis to the competition of western American range cattle. 
"Cattle growers in the Mississippi and the Missouri val- 
leys", said one writer, "cannot afford to grow beef in 
competition with the ranges .... we must . . . . 
produce something better with which mere rangers cannot 
compete. "^'^ With better farming and higher grade ani- 
mals Iowa was facing what was diagnosed as "the tendency 
to overproduction of staples ".^^ 

Of course, the Populists and other dissenters pointed to 
the declining prices of agricultural products. The price of 
corn per bushel in Iowa for the ten years beginning with 
1880 was as follows: twenty-six cents in 1880, forty-four 
cents in 1881, thirty-eight cents in 1882, thirty-two cents in 

66 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), December 7, 1894, January 7, August 
28, 1896. 

"7 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines) , September 28, 1894 ; Shambaugh 's 
Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. VII, p. 11. 

«8 Phrase in the Report of the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, 
1889, p. 201. 



388 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



1883, twenty-three cents in 1884, twenty-four cents in 1885, 
thirty cents in 1886, thirty-five cents in 1887, twenty-four 
cents in 1888, and nineteen cents in 1889.^^ For the next 
five years the price of corn per bushel on the farms in Iowa 
on December first ranged as follows: forty-one cents in 
1890, thirty cents in 1891, thirty-two cents in 1892, twenty- 
seven cents in 1893, and forty-five cents in 1894.'° The 
Iowa Agricultural Report for 1890 stated with reference to 
corn that **Iowa had an enormous overproduction and the 
sensible question was propounded, 'Why not have a cheap 
and suitable stove that corn may be used for fuel?' "'^^ 

The average price of wheat per bushel in Iowa for the 
decade beginning with 1880 was as follows : eighty-two 
cents in 1880, one dollar and six cents in 1881, seventy cents 
in 1882, eighty cents in 1883, fifty-five cents in 1884, sixty- 
seven cents in 1885, sixty cents in 1886, sixty-one cents in 
1887, eighty-five cents in 1888, and sixty-three cents in 
1889.'^ Farm prices of wheat per bushel in Iowa on De- 
cember first for the next five years were as follows : eighty 
cents in 1890, eighty-one cents in 1891, sixty cents in 1892, 
forty-nine cents in 1893, and fifty cents in 1894.'^^ 

While corn and wheat prices in 1890 were relatively 
favorable *'hogs sold at lower prices at Chicago, December 
20th, than at any time since September 1879, and lower than 
they have ever sold in comparison with the price of corn".'* 
More than thirty per cent decline in the market prices of 
cattle was reported for the period between 1885 and 1890.'^ 

09 Beport of the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, 1889, p. 261. 

10 YeariooJc of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1894, p. 545. 

11 Iowa Agricultural Report, 1890, p. 50. 

12 Jieport of the Secretary of Agric^ilture of the United States, 1889, pp. 
262, 263. 

73 Tearloolc of the United States Department of Agriculture, 1894, p. 545. 
1* Iowa Agricultural Report, 1890, p. 41. 

TsAshby's Riddle of the Sphinx (Des Moines, 1890), p. 62, with quotation 
from the report of an investigating committee of the United States Senate. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 389 



Because of low prices of agricultural products and the 
relatively higli wages, many farmers reported employment 
of labor at a loss in the latter half of the eighties ; and it was 
asserted that farmers would have withdrawn their capital 
if they could have profitably done so.'^^ But the farmer, 
though he might cease to be a large employer of labor, was 
"obliged to be an employer of labor whether it paid or 
not."" 

Price quotations were hurled at each other by the advo- 
cates and opponents of the protective tariff policy. If the 
Democratic press blamed the unfavorable trade balance of 
1893 on **McKinleyism", and Governor Horace Boies 
claimed that the reduction of protection would raise the 
price of American agricultural products ; on the other side 
was the pronouncement that the "whole cause of the present 
alarming business condition is the general fear that the 
Democratic congress and administration will repeal the pro- 
tective features of the McKinley tariff".''^ It was charged 
by a speaker in the State Agricultural Society that per- 
mission of free importation of Mexican cattle was due to 
the influence of "the great labor unions of the east".'^^ 

An explanation for the declining prices of agricultural 
products emphasized by some groups was the "gold maniac 
squeeze". This was stressed by J. B. "Weaver and the 
Populists, as well as by other elements. Two "radical free 
silver men" were among the unusually large number of 

Governor Horace Boies quoted by the Sanborn Pioneer, February 12, 1891. 
In this New York speech — a criticism of the tariff — Governor Boies used in- 
formation from the State Bureau of Labor Statistics. This information was 
severely criticized by Eepublican papers, particularly the portion indicating 
com production at a loss. For the data see the Biennial Report of the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics for the State of Iowa, 1890-1891, pp. 14, 15, 97-171. 
'7 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), January 5, 1894. 

1^ Iowa State Register (Des Moines, Morning Edition), July 9, 1893. See 
also the Cherolcee Weekly Times, July 27, 1893. 
78 Iowa Agricultural Report, 1895, p. 75. 



390 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Democratic representatives elected to Congress in 1890.*" 
In the midst of the panic of 1893, the Farmers' Tribune 
and the Dubuque Telegraph, a Democratic paper, published 
tables to show that the horses, mules, milch cows, oxen, and 
sheep on Iowa farms in 1893 were worth $45,265,010 less 
than they would have been worth in 1873, and attributed the 
decline to the **gold maniacs". In these comparisons, it 
was admitted that the Iowa hogs in 1893 were worth 
$16,625,550 more than the same number would have been 
worth in 1873, but it was claimed there was a relative loss 
even on hogs through prevention of a greater rise in 
prices.*^ The Farmers' Tribune refrained from discussion 
of the tariff on the plea that such talk ''would be only play- 
ing into the hands of the gold bugs, who use the tariff to 
divert the people from the need of financial reform".*^ 
The Homestead^^ had observed that increase in the com- 
modity value of debts was working hardships on producers 
and furnishing a point to the bi-metalists. It is needless to 
remark that the financial crisis of 1893 furnished fuel to the 
Populists and anti-gold Democrats of the State for intensi- 
fied criticism of President Cleveland's monetary policy. 

Following the panic of 1893 came what was pronounced 
the ''most severe drouth** that the entire country west of 

80 Cole's A History of the People of Iowa, p. 480. 

»^ Farmers' Tribune (Des Moines), August 2, 1893, with clipping from the 
Dubuque Telegraph. 

Farmers' Tribune (Des Moines), October 24, 1894. 

83 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), January 25, 1889. Making compari- 
sons between changes in prices of farm machinery and those in prices of farm 
products, E. W. Bemis (in the Journal of Political Economy, Vol. I, March, 
1893, p. 208) said: "The prices of what the farmer buys have fallen even 
faster than those of what he sells." But this did not explain away the hard- 
ships of declining prices on debtor farmers. ' ' The people who are head over 
heels in debt want a debt-paying currency," said the Iowa Sentinel (Corydon), 
a Populist paper, on April 13, 1893. 

84 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), October 26, 1894. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 



391 



the Mississippi .... ever experienced for forty years 
Because of this drouth, in parts of western Iowa hogs were 
rushed to market, spring pigs were killed in August, horses 
were killed for hog feed, and some corn was repurchased by 
farmers and hauled back from the elevators at double the 
prices originally received by the farmers.^^ The average 
yield of corn per acre for the State in 1894 was only twelve 
bushels ; and the total yield was estimated to be 80,867,640 
bushels, slightly more than one-third of an average crop, 
with an unusual proportion of unsalable product.^^ In 1895 
the spread of hog cholera was particularly noticeable, at- 
tracting legislative attention and resulting in action de- 
signed to check the disease.^'^ 

But over against the catalog of economic maladjustments 
must be placed a consideration of those conditions and 
developments that tended to offset, minimize, or, at least, 
diffuse the unrest. As indicated above, a high percentage 
of the mortgages were of the constructive and investment 
type, not suggestive of distress or frequent foreclosures. 
Though there was an increasing farm tenancy, with com- 
plaints against non-resident alien ownership of land in the ^> 
State platforms of both major parties,*^ there was also a 
discounting of the idea of land monopoly in lowa.^^ 

There was contemporary testimony that Iowa "can well 
be proud of the progress she has made in State control of 

85 The Iowa Eomestead (Des Moines), August 17, 1894. 

8«Iowo Agricultural Beport, 1894, p. 73. The average price at the nearest 
railroad station for this crop was given as forty-five cents per bushel. 

87 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), November 8, 1895, January 3, Febru- 
ary 14, April 17, 1896. This disease, which had caused trouble in previous 
years, was estimated to have ' ' swept away nearly 40 per cent of our total swine 
herds" in 1896. — Iowa Agricultural Beport, 1896, p. 122. 

»»Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia, Vol. XII (1887), pp. 393, 394. 

89 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), July 12, 1889. 



392 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



railroads. As a result, it was claimed, hay and corn 
from northern Iowa were sold at good prices in the dairy 
counties of eastern and southern Iowa in large quantities 
instead of paying tribute to Chicago as formerly.^^ East- 
ern and middle Iowa once sold corn at 20 cents ; these local- 
ities keep stock and buy feed now [1889] from the grain 
belt that has moved west."^^ For the year ending on 
September 30, 1890, the amount of butter shipped by rail 
from Iowa was 71,255,796 pounds net.^^ Of the corn crop 
in 1892, estimated at 200,221,000 bushels,^* only nineteen per 
cent was "shipped out of county where grown. 

In the number of hogs packed, Iowa ranked third in the 
United States, coming next to Illinois and Missouri, during 
most of the ten years following 1890.^^ Iowa packing houses 
were slaughtering many of the hogs raised in the State, 
and Iowa was furnishing a large percentage of the hogs 
sent to the Chicago market.^'^ In spite of the ravages of 
hog cholera, it meant something to be the leading hog State, 
for the hog was a good freight condenser", a chief source 
of prosperity, and the most continuously profitable animal 

soLarrabee's The Bailroad Question (Eleventh Edition), p. 348. The first 
edition appeared in 1893. 

91 Annual Beport of the Board of Bailroad Commissioners of Iowa, 1891, 
p. 10. 

92 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), January 4, 1889. 

93 Iowa Agricultural Beport, 1898, p. 169. "The dairy portion of the State 
is the most prosperous", said the Iowa Agricultural Beport for 1896, p. 112. 

9* Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1893, p. 288. 

95 Beport of the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, 1892, p. 446. 
Kansas and Nebraska, with smaller yields, shipped twenty-two per cent and 
forty-two per cent respectively out of the county where grown. 

90 Annual Beport of the Chicago Board of Trade, 1899, pp. 52, 53, quoting 
the Cincinnati Prices Current. 

97 It was claimed by the President of the State Agricultural Society, in dis- 
cussing the year 1896, that Iowa was furnishing ' ' 50 per cent of the hogs and 
almost 30 per cent of the cattle sent to the great Chicago market". — Iowa 
Agricultural Beport, 1896, p. 115. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 393 



bred on the farms, and this, too, under the largest variety 
of circumstances. Because of this it was said that "for the 
'plain people' in the agricultural west the hog has been 
king."^^ In 1893 the price of mess pork was greater than 
it had been for ten years ; and hog prices furnished a good 
item for the anti-calamity argument of Grovernor Boies in 
the panic year.^"° To meet the variety of price fluctuations 
for the different products, Iowa had a diversification of live 
stock. **The horse, sheep, and hog have all had their 
innings since cattle. . . . The farmer has taken off his 
hat to each of them in turn".^"^ Unfortunately this varia- 
tion caused many farmers to follow price-chasing and to 
shift emphasis constantly from one form of live stock to 
another.^"^ 

A rosy picture of Iowa and the immediately adjacent 
regions in contrast with the more arid regions farther west 
was published in the Financial World of Boston in 1894; 
no other section afforded jf-^ greater evidence of growth and 
prosperity. On every other hand the traveler sees new 
barns being erected, the houses are well kept, the villages 
are thriving. Another witness^"* in the time of the 
panic, said, "No state in the union is in such good shape as 
the Hawkeye state", but urged every person to employ all 

88 The Iowa Eomesiead (Des Moines), October 4, 1895, September 18, 1896. 

99 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1894, p. 410, quoting figures from 
the New York Produce Exchange. However, the high price was accompanied by 
a large decline in the number of hogs packed in the Mississippi Valley, including 
a heavy decline for Iowa. The CheroTcee WeeTcly Times for April 13, 1893, 
noted that, in spite of the increase in hog prices, the total receipts from sales 
by farmers in the past winter was slightly less than in the previous season. 

100 Council Bluffs WeeUy Glole, October 6, 1893. 

101 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), February 23, 1894. 

102 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), January 20, 1893. 

103 Quoted by The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), August 10, 1894. 

10* Bes Moines News quoted by Council Bluffs Weelcly Globe, August 4, 1893. 

VOL. XXI — 25 



394 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the labor his means warranted and to keep every dollar in 
the bank he could. 

The percentages of commercial failures in Iowa for the 
years 1891, 1892, 1893, and 1894 were 0.50, 0.52, 0.48, and 
0.64, respectively; while corresponding percentages for 
Minnesota were 1.25, 1.06, 1.67, and 1.43 ; for Kansas 1.23, 
0.92, 1.42, and 1.28; for Nebraska 1.92, 1.02, 1.68, and 1.15; 
and for the United States 1.07, 0.88, 1.28, and 1.25.1"^ Only 
four of the three hundred and twenty-five State and savings 
banks of Iowa went into the hands of receivers during the 
quarter ending on June 30, 1893;^*^® and the Comptroller of 
the Currency reported that ' ' the Iowa banks are the safest 
and best managed in the union. ' ' ^^"^ The amount of savings 
deposits in the savings banks in Iowa in 1893-1894 was 
$26,230,214,^°^ nearly ten millions more than the amount for 
the year 1889-1890. Flurries and financial straits were 
noted, particularly in the western part of the State, between 
1893 and 1896.^°^ In Monona County it was reported that a 
mob of fifty farmers rose against a deputy sheriff who was 
trying to serve writs issued for a banker-landowner, 
alleged to have stripped tenants to destitution But 

lOB statistical Abstract of the United States, 1893, pp. 26, 27, 1894, pp. 366, 
367. The amount of liabilities involved in failures in Iowa in 1893 was 
$11,452,932, some millions more than the amounts of other years. Heavy fail- 
ures occurred this year at Sioux City, where eastern money had been borrowed 
extensively and rather extravagant developments had been made. — Iowa State 
Begister (Des Moines, Morning Edition), April 26, 1893. 

106 Council Bluffs Weekly Globe, October 6, 1893. 

107 Des Moines News quoted by Council Bluffs WeeMy Globe, August 4, 1893. 

108 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1894, p. 47. The amount re- 
ported for Iowa was slightly greater than the total reported for Illinois, 
Indiana, and Wisconsin. 

109 Council Bluffs Weekly Globe, June 16, July 7, August 4, 1893, January 3, 
1896; Iowa State Begister (Des Moines, Morning Edition), April 26, May 10, 
1893. 

110 Council Bluffs Weekly Globe, January 3, 1896. 



ECONOMIC BASIS OF POPULISM 395 



Jesse Macy, in an article in The Review of Reviews for 
July, 1894,^^^ explained why the Populist movement in Iowa 
was not formidable and declared that the financial distress 
had not borne heavily on this section of the country. 

It appears, therefore, that Iowa was in better condition 
to escape unrest than the regions to her west. Incidentally 
she had no city proletariat comparable to that of Illinois on 
the east, although there was **a tramp nuisance" during 
the panic period. Yet a Des Moines newspaper, while gen- 
erally preaching bullish sentiment on Iowa, was ready to 
call attention to the big gains in the total value of American 
manufactures in contrast with the insignificant gains for 
agricultural products."^ Iowa farm conditions were used 
by Governor Boies to illustrate his claim that "the nation's 
wealth is being constantly increased .... largely de- 
rived from its agricultural resources and .... those 
engaged in that industry are transacting business at a loss", 
that farming must be put on a different basis or the "nation 
must prepare for a storm, the consequences of which . . 
. . no man can measure ".^^' Economic grievances of 
Iowa farmers, however, were not a Populist monopoly. It 
was feared that the farmers' movement would swell the 
ranks of the third party instead of trusting for results * * at 
the hands of one of the old parties ".^^^ Iowa had been the 
* ' Gibraltar of Eepublicanism ' ', with farmers making up the * 
rank and file of that party,^^^ and through that party 

111 The Beview of Beviews, Vol. X, p. 43. 

112 /owa State Begister (Des Moines, Morning Edition), April 9, 1893. 

113 Quoted from an anti-tariff speech hj the Sanborn Pioneer, February* l^, 
1891. 

11* jSanfcom Pioneer, May 14, 1891; Adair County Democrat (Greenfield), 
November 9, 1893. 

115 The Iowa Homestead (Des Moines), February 24, 1888; Irwin's Is Iowa A 
Doubtful State? in The Forum, Vol. XIII, pp. 257-264. 



396 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

farmers had seen their grievances bear fruit in 1874 and 
1888. The Democratic party was strong in the river towns 
and counties, receiving much support from the German ele- 
ment which was dissatisfied with the Republican prohibition 
attitude. There was a poor chance for the Populist party 
to grow in Iowa. It could only threaten to exercise a bal- 
ance of power in politics and attract attention to farmers' 
grievances. The permanent effect of the Populist move- 
ment in Iowa is to be found in the intensification of the 
agrarian leanings or achievements of the major parties. 

Herman Clakence Nixon" 

The Iowa State College of 
Ageioultuke and Mechanic Abts 
Ames Iowa 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRANS-MISSISSIPPI 
POLITICAL GEOGEAPHY 

I 

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 

The history of the political geography of the region west 
of the Mississippi River as a part of the United States does 
not commence until the year 1803. A map of the United 
States before the purchase of Louisiana would show only 
seventeen States and two Territories ^ — all east of the great 
river; to-day there are twenty-six States east of the Missis- 
sippi and twenty-two west of that river, and the area to the 
west is almost three-fourths of the total area of the United 
States.^ 

In 1803 probably few persons imagined that more than a 
small part of the Trans-Mississippi area would be organized 
into Territories and States, but during the next century 
changes occurred with such rapidity that map makers were 
kept busy adding new Territories, States, and acquisitions 
of territory. The portion of the United States west of the 
Louisiana Purchase was acquired within half a century. 
This included Texas by annexation ; the Oregon country by 
right of early exploration, treaty, and settlement; the vast 
amorphous territory obtained as a result of the Mexican 
War ; and the Gadsden Purchase. By the year 1912 all of 
the present forty-eight States were in the Union. 

Before this vast western area was acquired by the United 
States, it was possessed by Prance and Spain. Spain by 
right of discovery and by the Papal Bull, of Demarcation 

1 Statistical Ahstract of the United States, 1919, No. 42, pp. 1, 2. 

2 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1919, No. 42, pp. 1, 2. The total 
area of the United States is 3,026,789 square miles while the area of the 22 
States west of the Mississippi Eiver is 2,145,313 square miles. 

397 



398 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



claimed all south of the Arkansas River between the Sabine 
River and the Rocky Mountains, and all west of the Rocky 
Mountains along the entire coast.^ In 1682 La Salle claimed 
for his king all the country drained by the Mississippi 
River and its tributaries, and named this territory Louisi- 
ana.* Thus Louisiana extended from the AUeghenies to the 
Rocky Mountains and the entire length of the Mississippi. 

At the close of the French and Indian wars, France had 
lost that part of Louisiana east of the Mississippi, and the 
name Louisiana henceforth refers only to the territory be- 
tween the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. In 
1762 France ceded this territory to Spain to compensate her 
ally for the loss of the Florida peninsula. By the secret 
treaty of San Ildefonso, on October 1, 1800, Napoleon in- 
duced Spain to transfer Louisiana back to France and he 
promised not to sell the territory thus acquired to any na- 
tion but Spain. The province of Louisiana was to have * * the 
same extension that it now has in the possession of Spain, 
and that it had when France owned it ' '.^ Finding Louisi- 
ana useless to him after the failure in San Domingo and 
wishing to build up the United States as a rival to England, 
Napoleon sold the entire province to the United States for 
sixty million francs in cash and the assumption by the latter 
of the claims of Americans against France amounting to 
twenty million francs.® 

The boundaries were somewhat indefinite.'^ President 

« Johnson 's A Century of Expansion, p. 3. 

*Parkman's La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, pp. 286-289; 
Bond's Historical Sketch of "Louisiana" and the Louisiana Purchase, p. 4. 

6 KobertBon 's Louisiana Under the Bule of Spain, France, and the United 
States, 1785-1807, Vol. II, p. 171. A part of the treaty is quoted in a letter 
from the French commissioner to the Spanish commissioner. 

• Adams's History of the United States of America, Vol. II, p. 42. 

f Shambaugh 's Documentary Material Eelating to the History of Iowa, VoL 
I, pp. 3-7. 



TEANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 399 



Jefferson felt that the ' ^ unquestioned bounds" of Louisiana 
were ''the Iberville and Mississippi, on the east, the Mexi- 
cana [Sabine] or the Highlands east of it, on the west; then 
from the head of the Mexicana gaining the highlands which 
include the waters of the Mississippi, and following those 
highlands round the head springs of the western waters of 
the Mississippi to its source where we join the English or 
perhaps the Lake of the Woods". At the same time he 
asserted: "We have some pretensions to extend the western 
territory of Louisiana to the Rio Norte, or Bravo ; and still 
stronger the eastern boundary to the Rio Perdido between 
the rivers Mobile and Pensacola."^ 

Hence by this treaty of purchase the United States came 
into possession of the largest and most valuable extent of 
territory that was ever obtained by any nation purely 
through purchase. Robert Livingston said: "The treaty 
. . . . will change vast solitudes into a flourishing coun- 
try. To-day the United States take their place among the 
Powers of the first rank. . . , The instrument we have 
signed will .... prepare centuries of happiness for 
innumerable generations of the human race."^ Frederick 
J. Turner expresses his idea of the value of the purchase in 
these words: "The acquisition of these regions laid the 
physical foundation for our national greatness, furnished 
the base from which to extend our power to the Pacific 
Ocean, and gave us a dominating strategic position in refer- 
ence to Spanish America."^" 

^Jefferson's Writings (Ford's Edition), Vol. VIII, p. 263; American State 
Papers, Foreign Belations, Vol. II, p. 576 ; Marshall 's A History of the Western 
Boundary of the Louisiana Purchase in the University of California Publica- 
tions in History, Vol. II, p. 10. 

9 House Executive Documents, 57th Congress, 2nd Session, Doe. No. 431, 
p. 291. 

10 Turner 's The Diplomatic Contest for the Mississippi Valley in The At- 
lantic Monthly, Vol. XCIII, p. 676. 



400 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Spain of course was determined to restrict Louisiana to 
the narrowest bounds possible.^^ Since Spain and the 
United States had opposing views as to the boundaries be- 
tween their possessions, there were many proposals and 
counter proposals during the negotiation of the treaty of 
1819.12 finally concluded on February 22, 1819, the di- 
viding line followed the western bank of the Sabine River 
to the thirty-second degree of latitude, thence by a line due 
north to the Red River, westward along the Red River to 
the hundredth meridian, then by a line due north to the 
Arkansas River, then along the southern bank of the Arkan- 
sas to latitude forty-two degrees north, and along that 
parallel of latitude to the Pacific Ocean.^^ In 1828 Mexico, 
which had then won its independence from Spain, recog- 
nized by treaty the validity of the boundaries fixed in 
1819.1* 

Thus in 1803 the United States came into possession of 
the territory called Louisiana. After the treaty with Spain 
Louisiana included all the territory between the Rocky 
Mountains and the line of 1819 as far east as the Missis- 
sippi River, and south of the British possessions as far as 
the Gulf of Mexico. Spain claimed the land south and west 
of Louisiana. 

II 

THE FIRST FOUR STATES WEST OF THE 
MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

The treaty concluded with France on April 30, 1803, pro- 
vided that the inhabitants of the ceded territory were to 

11 Donaldson's The Public Domain, pp. 108, ]09. 

12 Marshall's A History of the Western Boundary of the Louisiana Purcliase 
in the University of California PiMioations in History, Vol. II, Chs. I-III. 

13 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, pp. 254, 256. 

14 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, p. 374. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 401 



"be incorporated in the Union of the United States, and 
admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of 
the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, 
advantages and immunities of citizens of the United 
States ".^^ On October 31, 1803, the President was author- 
ized by an act of Congress to take possession of the terri- 
tory,^^ and on March 26, 1804, Congress organized 
Louisiana into two Territories. The Territory of Orleans 
constituted all that portion of the country ceded by France 
to the United States south of the thirty-third degree of 
north latitude.^^ The remainder of the province of Louisi- 
ana was called the District of Louisiana and its government 
was placed in the hands of the officers of Indiana Terri- 
tory.^^ 

On September 29, 1804, two days before the act of March, 
1804, was to take effect, a petition was drawn up in St. 
Louis remonstrating against the annexation of upper 
Louisiana to Indiana Territory.^^ The signers claimed that 
if the Louisiana Purchase had not been divided it would 
have had sufficient population to be admitted as a State, 
and that if Congress could divide Louisiana once, it could 
be sub-divided indefinitely whenever the population of any 
sub-division became sufficient to form a State. The dele- 
gates objected to being under the government of another 
Territory and to the fact that the seat of government was 
at Vincennes, many miles away over impassable roads. 
Then, too, the laws of Indiana Territory were different — 
slavery existed in Louisiana and was prohibited in the 

15 Gayarre's History of Louisiana, Vol. Ill, p. 641. 
18 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 245. 
IT United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 283. 

18 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 287. 

19 American State Papers, Miscellaneous, Vol. I, pp. 400-404. This petition 
was presented to Congress on January 4, 1805. 



402 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Northwest Territory. Two months after the petition was 
presented to Congress — on March 3, 1805 — the District of 
Louisiana was given officials of its own.^" 

Spanish diplomacy aimed at retaining the territory be- 
tween the Mississippi and the Perdido rivers. On the 
other hand the United States refused to accept such a boun- 
dary and on February 24, 1804, Congress passed an act 
which provided for laying and collecting duties in this terri- 
tory east of the Mississippi River, usually known as "West 
Florida.22 In September, 1810, the people of West Florida 
brought about the next step toward the annexation of that 
district to the United States. Their representatives in a 
convention drew up a declaration of independence, since 
there was no longer ''any hope of protection from the 
mother country ".^^ 

A month later the president of the West Florida conven- 
tion addressed a communication to the Secretary of State 
praying for the annexation of West Florida to the United 
States.^* The people wished to have their district admitted 
immediately ''into the Union as an independent State, or as 
a Territory of the United States, with permission to estab- 
lish" their "own form of government, or to be united with 
one of the neighboring Territories, or as a part of one of 
them, in such manner as to form a State." If they were to 
be annexed to some other political division they preferred 
the "Island of Orleans". In consequence of these events 
President James Madison issued a proclamation on October 

20 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 331. 

SI Bond's Historical Slcetch of "Louisiana" and the Louisiana, Purcluise, pp. 
10, 11. 

22 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 252. 

Annals of Congress, 11th Congress, 3rd Session, p. 1254; Gayarre's History 
of Louisiana, Vol. IV, pp. 231-233. 

2* Annals of Congress, 11th Congress, 3rd Session, p. 1252; Gayarre's History 
of Louisiana, Vol. IV, pp. 233-236. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 403 



27, 1810, "that possession should be taken of said Territory, 
in the name and behalf of the United States. "^^ On the 
same day the Secretary of State sent instructions to 
"William C. Claiborne, Governor of the Territory of Orleans, 
that the West Florida district was to be considered as a 
part of the Territory of Orleans.^^ 

In January, 1811, a bill enabling the Territory of Orleans 
to form a constitution preparatory to admission into the 
Union was considered in Congress,^'^ and on February 20th 
it was approved by the President. A convention assembled 
in New Orleans completed a constitution on January 28, 
1812,^^ and in March the House of Representatives at 
"Washington discussed a bill for the admission of Louisiana 
into the Union as a State, and for the annexation of part of 
"West Florida to the new State. The Senate disagreed and 
the bill passed without the annexation clause.^® 

By this act, approved by the President on April 8, 1812, 
Louisiana was given the following boundaries: "beginning 
at the mouth of the river Sabine; thence, by a line to be 
drawn along the middle of the said river, including all 
islands to the thirty-second degree north latitude; thence, 
due north, to the northernmost part of the thirty-third 
degree of north latitude ; thence, along the said parallel of 
latitude, to the river Mississippi; thence, down the said 
river, to the river Iberville; and from thence, along the 
middle of the said river, and lakes Maurepas and Ponchar- 

25 Gayaire 's History of Louisiana, Vol. IV, pp. 235-238 ; Annals of Congress, 
11th Congress, 3rd Session, pp. 1257, 1258. 

2« Annals of Congress, 11th Congress, 3rd Session, p. 1256. 

Annals of Congress, 11th Congress, 3rd Session, pp. 518-542. 

28Gayarre'a History of Louisiana, Vol. IV, pp. 268-275; Annals of Congress, 
11th Congress, 3rd Session, pp. 1326-1328. 

29 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 701 ; Annals of Congress, 12th 
Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 1225, 1226. 



404 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



train, to the Gulf of Mexico; thence, bounded by the said 
gulf, to the place of beginning, including all islands within 
three leagues of the coast". 

It was, however, a matter of only a few days before the 
present boundaries were secured. By an act approved by 
the President on April 14, 1812, the limits of Louisiana 
were extended to include the area bounded by the Pearl 
River on the east and by the thirty-first degree of north 
latitude on the north.^® Thus Louisiana obtained her pres- 
ent boundaries, and had the honor of being the first State 
erected out of the great expanse of land west of the Missis- 
sippi River. On June 4, 1812, the name Missouri was given 
to the District of Louisiana.^^ 

By 1817 petitions began to be circulated by the inhab- 
itants of Missouri asking for statehood. One of these ad- 
vanced the arguments that the boundaries of Missouri 
should be the latitudes forty degrees and thirty-six degrees 
thirty minutes on the north and south, the Mississippi 
River on the east, and the Osage boundary on the west.^^ 
Two-thirds of this memorial was taken up with the subject 
of boundaries and the reasons for the selected boundaries 
were given as follows : 

The southern limit will be an extension of the line that divides 
"Virginia and North Carolina, Tennessee and Kentucky. The 
northern will correspond nearly with the north limit of the terri- 
tory of Illinois and with the Indiana boundary line, near the mouth 
of the River Des Moines. A front of three and a half degrees upon 
the Mississippi will be left to the South to form a territory of 
Arkansas, with the River Arkansas traversing its centre. A front 
of three & a half degrees more, upon a medium depth of 200 miles, 

so United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, pp. 702, 708, 709. 

51 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. II, p. 743. 

52 Shoemalier 's Missouri's Struggle for Statehood, Appendix I, pp. 321-323. 
For the Osage boundary see Avierican State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 
763. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 405 



with the Missouri River in the centre, will form the State of 
Missouri. 

They will make the Missouri river the centre, and not the boun- 
dary of the state. 

The memorialists, fearing that Congress might select the 
Missouri River as the natural boundary for the State, 
deprecated ''the idea of making the civil divisions of the 
states to correspond with the natural divisions of the coun- 
try. Such divisions will promote that tendency to separate, 
which it is the policy of the Union to counteract. "^^ 

The year 1818 brought forth another memorial which 
asked for a far greater extent of territory than the former 
request and embraced an even larger domain than the 
present area. It included all the territory within the pres- 
ent State of Missouri except the northwestern corner, a 
large portion of the northeastern part of the State of 
Arkansas, and parts of Oklahoma and Kansas. These lim- 
its, it was said, were desired for the following reasons : 

The districts of country that are fertile and susceptible of settle- 
ment are small, and are detached and separated from each other at 
great distances by immense plains and barren tracts, which must 
for ages remain waste and uninhabited. These distant frontier 
settlements, thus insulated, must ever be weak and powerless in 
themselves, and can only become important and respectable by 
being united ; and one of the great objects your memorialists have 
in view is the formation of an effectual barrier for the future 
against Indian incursions, by pushing forward and fostering a 
strong settlement on the little river Platte to the west, and on the 
Des Moines to the north.^* 

The request for the country on the west was based on a 
desire for a large State and for that fertile land which 
would soon be settled by the westward pushing pioneers. 

33 Shoemaker 's Missouri's Struggle for Statehood, Appendix I, p. 322. 
3* American State Papers, Miscellaneous, Vol. II, p. 557. 



406 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Besides, the boundary selected would have given a straight 
line for the western limit.^^ 

Before Missouri acquired statehood, however, the Terri- 
tory of Arkansas was created, including all that part of the 
Territory of Missouri which lay south of a line beginning 
on the Mississippi River at thirty-six degrees north lati- 
tude, running west to the river St. Francis, thence up the 
same to the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes 
north latitude, and thence west to the western territorial 
boundary line.^^ Even after the northern boundary of 
Arkansas was thus established, there was still considerable 
discussion about the southern boundary of Missouri. This 
is indicated by a petition presented to Congress in 1819 
which requested that the proposed State of Missouri be 
given the Missouri River for its northern limit and for a 
southern line the parallel of thirty-six degrees and thirty 
minutes north latitude to its intersection with the White 
River, and down that river to the mouth of the Big Black 
River, thence east to the Mississippi River.^'^ 

At this time the famous discussion with respect to slavery 
in Missouri was taking place in Congress, resulting in the 
well-known Missouri Compromise. The boundaries as fixed 
in the act of March 6, 1820, included the northern Arkansas 
line for Missouri's southern boundary to a point where the 
parallel of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes is "inter- 
sected by a meridian line passing through the middle of the 
mouth of the Kansas river, where the same empties into the 

35 The reason for the irregular southern boundary is not known, but Floyd C. 
Shoemaker advances the theory that it was the work of influential landownera 
and politicians of southeastern Missouri who wanted an issue for arousing 
sectional rivalry to secure advantages for themselves. A petition from the 
Arkansas country indicates that it did not favor such a dividing line. — Shoe- 
maker 's Misscmri's Struggle for Statehood, pp. 45-55. 

86 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, pp. 493, 494. 

ST Annals of Congress, 16th Congress, Ist Session, p. 43. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 407 



Missouri river, thence, from the point aforesaid north, 
along the said meridian line, to the intersection of the 
parallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the 
river Des Moines, making the said line to correspond with 
the Indian boundary line; thence east, from the point of 
intersection last aforesaid, along the said parallel of lati- 
tude, to the middle of the channel of the main fork of the 
said river Des Moines ; thence down and along the middle 
of the main channel of the said river Des Moines, to the 
branch of the same, where it empties into the Mississippi 
river", and down the Mississippi to the place of begin- 
ning.^^ 

On March 2, 1821, the President approved the act which 
admitted Missouri into the Union, with the above mentioned 
boundaries. In 1836 the western limit was extended to the 
Missouri Eiver,^^ thereby fixing the boundary as it is at 
present. 

With the admission of Missouri into the Union, the north- 
ern boundary of the Territory of Arkansas was definitely 
fixed, the southern boundary corresponding to the northern 
boundary of the State of Louisiana. There were, however, 
several changes in the western and southwestern boun- 
daries before the Territory of Arkansas received the pres- 
ent area of the State. 

The western boundary as fixed by statute in 1819 was the 
"western territorial boundary" — the western boundary 
line of Missouri Territory.^** This western limit was the 
same as that of the old District of Louisiana*^ which of 
course was the western boundary of the Louisiana Pur- 

38 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 545. 

39 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 34. 
*o United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 493. 
<i United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 743. 
<2 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 283. 



408 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



chase. Thus the western boundary of the Territory of 
Arkansas was the western boundary of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase as defined in 1819,*^ eight days before the act making 
Arkansas a Territory. This statutory boundary included 
in the Territory of Arkansas ahnost the whole of the pres- 
ent State of Oklahoma. 

On the other hand the civil jurisdiction of the Territorial 
governors and legislators was confined to that part of the 
Territory to which the Indian rights of occupation had 
been extinguished.^* On November 10, 1808, a treaty was 
concluded with the Osages, whereby they ceded all their 
territory north of the Arkansas River and between the 
Mississippi River and a line running south from Fort Clark 
on the Missouri to the Arkansas River.*'^ This was extend- 
ed a little farther west in 1818.*^ Tracts in western Arkan- 
sas were ceded by the government to the Cherokees and 
Choctaws by treaties,*'^ which further limited the civil juris- 
diction of Arkansas Territorial officials. Settlers found 
west of the Choctaw line were asked to leave, and in conse- 
quence there were emphatic protests against the action of 
the government in ceding the territory to the Indians. In 
1823 Congress provided for a modification of the treaty 
made with the Choctaws in 1820 by drawing the line be- 
tween them and the western boundary of the Territory of 
Arkansas due south from the southwestern corner of the 
State of Missouri to the Red River. This was the first indi- 
cation that the Territory of Arkansas was to be perma- 

*s United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, pp. 254, 256. 

•** For a discussion of the Indian boundary lines in Arkansas see Reynolds's 
The Western Boundary of Arkansas in the Puhlications of tlie Arkansas His- 
torical Association, Vol. II, pp. 211-236. 

*o Americwi State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, pp. 763, 1808. 

*<i Americwi State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 167. 

American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, pp. 187, 224. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 409 



nently reduced in size. Nothing resulted from the act 
through failure of the letter of instructions to reach the 
commissioners who were to negotiate the treaty.*^ 

The people of Arkansas, becoming aroused, sent a memo- 
rial to Congress petitioning that the line be fixed so far west 
as to include all of Miller and Crawford counties and their 
inhabitants.^^ Perhaps in response to this petition, a bill 
was passed in 1824 which fixed the line so as to include 
these counties. The revised boundaries began **at a point 
forty miles west of the south-west corner of the state of 
Missouri", and ran "south to the right bank of the Red 
River, and thence down the river, and with the Mexican 
boundary, to the line of the state of Louisiana".^" 

The Choctaws protested that this act was a violation of 
their treaty rights, and on January 20, 1825, John C. Cal- 
houn, Secretary of State, concluded a new treaty with them 
whereby they ceded to the United States all their lands 
"east of a line beginning on the Arkansas, one hundred 
paces east of Fort Smith, and running thence, due south, to 
Red River ".^^ Henry W. Conway, delegate from Arkan- 
sas, protested, but Secretary Calhoun replied that if the 
terms were not accepted the old Choctaw line of 1820 would 
stand and the government would be compelled to remove 
all white settlers found west of that line.^^ 

By a treaty made in 1828 the Cherokees ceded to the 
United States all claims to lands in Arkansas as now 
bounded, and the Choctaws were reassured by another 
declaration of their boundary as agreed upon in the treaty 

*8 Eeynolds 's The Western Boundary of ArTcansas in the Publications of the 
Arkansas Historical Association, Vol. II, pp. 220, 221. 
*9 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 556. 
=0 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 40. 

51 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 234; American State Papers, 
Indian Affairs, Vol. II, pp. 547, 548. 

^^American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, pp. 557, 558. 

VOL. XXI — 26 



410 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of 1825. The western boundary thus defined was a line 
commencing on the Bed River at a point where the eastern 
Choctaw line — as described above — struck the Red River, 
and then due north with the said line to the Arkansas River, 
thence by a line to the southwest corner of Missouri.^^ 

The Indian treaties of 1825 and 1828 cut off a strip 
about forty miles wide, and set aside the act of Congress of 
1824. Senator Thomas H. Benton objected to this change 
because it reduced Arkansas to a weak State, while the 
Mexican and Indian border conditions required a strong 
frontier Territory. He said it was also unconstitutional, 
because an Indian treaty was not one of international inter- 
ests, and was, therefore, not superior to a statute, and 
furthermore the fixing and altering of Territorial boun- 
daries was not a proper subject for a treaty.^^ This line, 
however, remained the permanent western boundary for 
Arkansas, except for a small strip of land which Arkansas 
received by a law passed on February 10, 1905, two years 
before the admission of the State of Oklahoma. This addi- 
tion lies west of Fort Smith between the mouths of Poteau 
and Mill creeks. 

Another phase of the western boundary question was the 
line at the southwest corner between Arkansas and Mexico, 
later Texas. The boundary line between the possessions of 
Spain and the United States as defined in the treaty of 1819 
had never been surveyed. After a series of negotiations 
with Mexico and Texas, a treaty was concluded in 1838 
which provided for the surveying of the line from the mouth 

63 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 311. 

5*Eeaffirmed 1830 and 1855. — Reynolds's The Western Boundary of ArTcan- 
sas in the Publications of the Arkansas Historical Association, Vol. II, pp. 222, 
224, 225, 227; United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VII, p. 333, Vol. XI, p. 
611. 

so Benton's Thirty Tears' View, Vol. I, p. 107. 

00 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXXIII, pp. 714, 715. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 411 



of the Sabine to the Red Eiver, according to the treaty of 
1828 with Mexico.'^'' The survey, completed in 1841, was in 
favor of Texas.^^ 

In 1836, the Territory of Arkansas was admitted into the 
Union as the third State west of the Mississippi River. 
According to the act of admission, Arkansas was bounded 
on the north by the parallel of thirty-six degrees north lati- 
tude to the Saint Francis River, thence up the middle of the 
main channel of said river to the parallel of thirty-six de- 
grees and thirty minutes, thence west to the southwest 
corner of the State of Missouri; on the west by the lines 
described in the first article of the treaty between the 
United States and the Cherokee nation of Indians on May 
26, 1828,^® to the Red River; on the south by the Mexican 
boundary line^" and the northern boundary of Louisiana; 
and on the east by the Mississippi River.^^ 

A fourth State was not formed for about a decade, but a 
map at the close of that period shows several organized 
Territories, in addition to the four States. With the crea- 
tion of each, a corresponding boundary rearrangement had 
taken place. When the State of Missouri was cut out of 
what was termed Missouri Territory, the United States 
made no arrangement for the territory that remained to 
the north. This condition prevailed until 1834 when part of 
the region west of the Mississippi River was attached to 
and made part of the Territory of Michigan for the purpose 
of temporary government.^^ This addition to Michigan 

5T United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, p. 511. 

58 Eeynolds 's The Western Boundary of Arkansas in the Publications of the 
Arkansas Historical Association, Vol. II, pp. 235, 236. 

58 TJnited States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 51. 

80 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 51, Vol. VIII, pp. 254, 256. 
«i United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 51. 
«2 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 701. 



412 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Territory was bounded on the east by the Mississippi Eiver ; 
on the south by the State of Missouri and a line drawn west 
from the northwest corner of that State to the Missouri 
River on the southwest and west by the Missouri River 
and the White Earth River ; and on the north by the north- 
ern boundary of the United States.^* Michigan Territory 
thus included the whole area of the present States of Mich- 
igan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, and parts of North and 
South Dakota. 

Since Michigan Territory with these boundaries covered 
a very large area, Congress created another Territory in 
1836, which it called Wisconsin Territory. It was bounded 
by a line drawn through the middle of Lake Michigan, 
Green Bay, the Menomonie River, Lake of the Desert, Mon- 
treal River, thence by a direct line across Lake Superior to 
the boundary of the United States, then by the former 
boundaries of the Territory of Michigan as described above 
to the northern boundary of Illinois, and along said boun- 
dary to Lake Michigan.^^ Wisconsin Territory thus in- 
cluded all the area of the old Michigan Territory except the 
area in the present State of Michigan. 

On June 12, 1838, the Territory of Wisconsin was in turn 
divided and the separate Territorial government of Iowa 
was established. While Michigan Territory had jurisdic- 
tion west of the Mississippi River, that part of the Terri- 
tory west of the river was divided into two counties, 
Dubuque County and Demoine County. These two counties 
were joined for judicial purposes to Iowa County, east ot 
the Mississippi, and they were referred to as the lowa®^ 

fis Missouri did not receive her present western boundary until 1837. — United 
States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 34. 

64 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IV, p. 701. 
85 United States Statutes at Large, VoL V, pp. 10, 11. 

soSabin's The Making of Iowa, pp. 20, 21; Shambaugh's History of the 
Constitutions of Iowa, p. 96. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 413 



District. At the time Michigan Territory was divided this 
area became Wisconsin Territory and when a separate 
organization was asked for by the people of western Wis- 
consin,*'^ Congress established Iowa Territory giving it the 
name suggested by the former Iowa District. This new 
Territory lay entirely west of the Mississippi Kiver and a 
line extending from the headwaters of that river to the 
United States boundary line. To the west its boundary 
was the White Earth and Missouri rivers.®* 

The new Territory inherited a dispute with Missouri 
over their common boundary. A few days after the cre- 
ation of Iowa Territory, Congress authorized the President 
of the United States to appoint a commissioner to ascertain 
the southern boundary of lowa.*^ In January of the next 
year the commissioner presented his report setting forth 
the various possible lines and the historical events of the 
dispute which were briefly as follows. 

A treaty with the Osage Indians in 1808 established an 
Indian boundary line to the north of the Missouri Eiver.'^ 
This line was run and marked in 1816 by J. C. Sullivan, a 
surveyor. It began on the Missouri River opposite the 
mouth of the Kansas Eiver, thence one hundred miles north, 
and according to the field notes due east about one hundred 
and fifty miles to the Des Moines Biver. But due to an 
error in making corrections for the variation of the needle, 
the general course of the line was subsequently found to 
run north of east to about two and a half degrees at the 
east end. 

Shambaugh 's History of the Constitutions of Iowa, pp. 87-90. 
68 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 235. 
89 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 248. 

TO Parish's Bohert Lucas, pp. 236-238; Iowa Risiorical Record, Vol. II, pp. 
193-206. 

71 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 763. 



414 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The enabling act for Missouri adopted on March 6, 1820, 
required that the boundary line correspond with the In- 
dian boundary line'V^ and the State of Missouri exercised 
its jurisdiction to the Sullivan line, which was the only 
Indian boundary line that had been run. Michigan, Wis- 
consin, and Iowa Territories in turn exercised jurisdiction 
as far south as this same line. Later Missouri claimed 
some territory north of this, claiming that the provision in 
the enabling act meant that the boundary line should be the 
parallel of latitude passing through the rapids of the Eiver 
Des Moines, instead of the Des Moines rapids in the Missis- 
sippi. The commissioner, therefore, presented four lines, 
each one of which corresponded to some description in the 
act of 1820: (1) the old Indian boundary, or Sullivan's 
line extended west to the Missouri River; (2) the parallel 
of latitude passing through the northwest corner of the 
Indian boundary; (3) the parallel of latitude passing 
through the Des Moines rapids in the Mississippi River; 
(4) the parallel of latitude passing through the rapids in 
the Des Moines River at the Great Bend. 

In commenting upon these boundaries, Albert M. Lea, the 
commissioner, decided that the first was the equitable and 
proper boundary, but not the legal one according to the law 
of 1820; that the second was neither equitable nor legal; 
and that the third and fourth both fulfilled the conditions of 
the law.'^^ The Governor of Missouri claimed the fourth as 
the legal boundary, while Iowa insisted on the third line, 
and the militia was called out on both sides. Finally Con- 
gress authorized Missouri and Iowa to commence a suit in 
the Supreme Court to settle the question.'^* 

72 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 545. 

T3 Senate Executive Documents, 26th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. I, No. 4; 
Parish's Bobert Lucas, pp. 227-238. 

74 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 52. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 415 



The Supreme Court held that the proper boundary was 
the old Indian line as run by Sullivan in 1816, because the 
United States had made treaties referring to the line, had 
recognized it in 1820 as the northern boundary of Missouri, 
and Missouri herself had recognized this line for many 
years. The Court found no rapids in the Des Moines River 
such as those referred to, and therefore Missouri's claim to 
this northern line could not be upheld. On the other hand 
since it was uncertain whether the rapids in the Mississippi 
were the ones meant, Iowa 's claim to a line as far south as 
that could not be upheld. For the portion of territory 
added in 1837 lying west of Sullivan's line, a line prolonged 
due west from Sullivan's northwest corner on a parallel of 
latitude to the middle of the Missouri River was fixed as the 
true northern boundary,'^ Almost a half century later — 
1896 — the matter was again referred to the Supreme 
Court, because many of the posts marking the boundary 
had been destroyed.'^^ The same boundary as defined in the 
former decree was confirmed by the court.'' 

In 1840 and 1842 the question of statehood was voted 
down in Iowa, but in 1844 the citizens there signified that 
they wished a convention for the purpose of drawing up a 
constitution. This constitution of 1844 fixed the eastern, 
western, and southern boundaries practically as they now 
are, but the northern boundary was to be a line connecting 
the mouth of the Big Sioux (Calumet) River, with the sharp 
bend in the Minnesota (St. Peter's) River.'^ 

Scott's Judicial Settlement of Controversies between States of the Amer- 
ican Union: Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States, Vol. II, 
pp. 874-938; Iowa Historical Record, Vol. II, pp. 266-271. 

76 Larzelere's The Iowa-Missouri Disputed Boundary in The Mississippi Val- 
ley Historical Review, Vol. Ill, p. 84. 

77 Scott's Judicial Settlement of Controversies between States of the Amer- 
ican Union : Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States, Vol. II, 
pp. 1173-1176, 1246-1263. 

78Sabin'3 The Making of Iowa, pp. 26, 27; Shambaugh's History of the 
Constitutions of Iowa, pp. 235, 241. 



416 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



In March, 1845, however, Congress not only rejected the 
proposed limits, but offered a new western boundary that 
would have made Iowa about two-thirds as wide from east 
to west as it is now, but would have extended it over forty 
miles farther north into Minnesota.'^^ A warm discussion 
ensued. Some of the settlers were in favor of accepting 
the new boundaries, claiming that the western portion was 
so uninhabitable that it would prove a burden, and that if 
the proposals of Congress were not accepted, Iowa would 
be given nothing. The opponents of the congressional 
boundaries, however, demonstrated to the voters that the 
nation was ever spreading westward, and so convinced 
them of the importance of holding the western area that the 
amended constitution was defeated in 1845. 

In May, 1846, another Territorial convention, after due 
deliberation, selected the boundary limits that Iowa now 
has — bounded on the south by the northern boundary of 
Missouri, on the west by the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers, 
on the north by the parallel of forty-three degrees and 
thirty minutes, and on the east by the Mississippi River. 
Congress approved these limits,^" and Iowa was admitted 
as a State in December, 1846.®^ No arrangement was made 
for the government of the remaining portion of Iowa Terri- 
tory until the act of 1849 which created the Territory of 
Minnesota. 

Ill 

THE EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 
1845-1848 

Before the Louisiana Purchase had been fully organized 
into States and Territories, other regions west of the Mis- 

79 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V, p. 742. 

80 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 52. 

81 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 117. 



TKANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 417 



sissippi Eiver were added to the United States. The Texas 
country was the first of these extensive additions. From 
the seventeenth century until the United States Supreme 
Court made its decision concerning Greer County, Okla- 
homa, in 1896, the limits of Texas have been unsettled. 

This region was the home of the Tejas Indians and in 
1690 a mission was planted there by the Spaniards.^^ In 
1727 the weak colony was formed into a province with un- 
certain boundaries under the name of Texas.®^ At the time 
of the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, President Jefferson 
made some pretensions to include Texas in the territory,^* 
but the line of 1819, fixed after negotiations with Spain, left 
it under Spanish control.^^ 

In 1821 when Mexico gained her independence from 
Spain, she succeeded to the possession of Texas, and in 
1828 a treaty was made with Mexico recognizing the boun- 
daries of 1819.®^ Previous to this treaty several unsuccess- 
ful attempts were made to purchase Texas,*'^ and under 
Jackson's administration renewed efforts to accomplish 
this were also fruitless.^^ 

The Mexican government inaugurated a more liberal pol- 
icy toward immigration than had the Spanish officials ; and, 
as a result, large numbers of Anglo-Americans came into 
Texas and became the dominant element. Unable to endure 

82 Garrison 's Westward Extension, p. 98. 

83 Garrison 's Texas, p. 7. 

»* Jefferson's Writings (Ford's Edition), Vol. VIII, p. 262. 

85 For the Louisiana-Texas boundary see Cox 's The Louisiana-Texas Frontier 
in The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. XVII, pp. 1-42, 140-187. 

88 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, pp. 372-375. 

87 Manning's Early Diplomatic Eelations between the United States and 
Mexico, pp. 306-348; Manning's Texas and the Boundary Issue, 18S3-1829, in 
The Southwestern historical Quarterly, Vol. XVII, pp. 217-261. 

88 Manning's Early Diplomatic Relations between the United States and 
Mexico, pp. 334^344. 



418 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Mexican methods of government, they revolted from Mex- 
ican control in 1836 and while Santa Anna was a prisoner, 
the newly organized Texan government exacted from the 
Mexicans the agreement that the Eio Grande River should 
be the western boundary of Texas.^^ Although Mexico re- 
pudiated this treaty of 1836, the Texan Congress in De- 
cember defined the western boundary as extending from the 
mouth of the Eio Grande to its source.^" 

Soon afterwards the Texans sought annexation to the 
United States, but the effort failed because of the opposi- 
tion from the anti-slavery element in this country. Since 
Texas was so great a prize, however, and might also become 
an instrument of European powers, the Texan republic did 
not long remain independent. In 1843 it again made over- 
tures for annexation to this country and although the 
Senate failed to ratify the treaty of 1844, the declaration of 
the voters in the presidential election of 1844 for the annex- 
ation of Texas led to a joint resolution of the two houses 
of Congress, passed on March 1, 1845, which authorized 
annexation. 

According to the resolution all disputes over boundaries 
that might arise with other governments in forming the 
State of Texas were to be subject to adjustment by the 
United States government. Additional States not to ex- 
ceed four in number might be formed from the territory of 
Texas by its consent.^^ Thus the vast area of the State of 
Texas was added to our possessions west of the Mississippi, 
with its northern and eastern boundaries determined by the 
line of 1819, but with its western boundary in dispute with 
Mexico. On December 29, 1845, Texas was admitted into 

89 For a text of the treaty see Niles' Begister, Vol. LXIX, p. 98. 
»« Garrison's Texas, p. 243. 

01 Garrison's Westward Extension, pp. 114, 119, 120, 121, 145, 146. 
82 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. V. p. 797. 



TEANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 419 



the Union as the fifth State west of the Mississippi Eiver.^^ 
The next year definite boundaries were given to the pos- 
sessions of the United States in the Oregon country. Sum- 
marized briefly the grounds for our claim to Oregon were as 
follows: (1) the treaty of 1819 whereby the Spanish title 
was ceded to us; (2) the discovery and exploration of the 
Columbia Eiver; (3) the Lewis and Clark expedition; (4) 
the permanent settlement by Americans at Astoria; and 
(5) the Louisiana Purchase which gave us whatever title 
France might have to Oregon.^* Russia and England, how- 
ever, as well as the United States laid claim to this region. 

In 1818 a treaty had been ratified by the governments of 
the United States and Great Britain providing for the line 
of forty-nine degrees north latitude as the northern limit 
of the Louisiana Purchase and that * * any country that may 
be claimed by either party on the northwest coast of Amer- 
ica, westward of the Stony [Rocky] Mountains" should be 
free and open to the subjects of both nations for a period of 
ten years.^' This gave Americans and Englishmen equal 
rights to trade and settle in any part of the Oregon country, 
but neither could have absolute control over any part of it, 
until the questions of ownership and boundaries were set- 
tled. In 1827 the convention of 1818 was renewed for an in- 
definite period, giving either party the liberty, after October 
20, 1828, of abrogating the agreement on giving twelve 
months ' notice.^^ In 1824 Russia had agreed that her boun- 
dary should not extend south of fifty-four degrees and 
forty minutes.^'^ 

83 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 108. 
9* Johnson's A Century of Expansion, pp. 185, 186. 
95 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, p. 249. 

86 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, p. 360; Schafer's A History 
of the Pacific Northwest, pp. 92, 93. 

»7 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. VIII, p. 304. 



420 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



It was soon evident, however, that a definite boundary 
line separating the claims of the United States and Great 
Britain must be determined upon. Petitions from the 
Oregon colony asked Congress to extend the protection of 
the United States over it,^® and in ] 843 a meeting at Cham- 
poeg adopted a code of laws for a temporary government 
which was to exist until the United States extended its 
jurisdiction over the colonists.^^ In 1845, the legislature 
elected under this extralegal government sent a memorial 
to Congress citing their grievances and praying for a Terri- 
torial government and for adequate military and naval 
protection.^"" 

The * Preoccupation" of Oregon, however, was another 
political issue of the campaign in 1844 and, under the ad- 
ministration of President James K. Polk whose party had 
demanded it, the question was definitely decided by a treaty 
concluded with Great Britain on June 15, 1846. This treaty 
provided for the continuation westward of the forty-ninth 
parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which 
separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and 
thence southerly through the middle of this channel and of 
Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean.^"^ 

The next great step in the expansion of the United States 
was preceded by a war. Immediately after the annexation 
of Texas, Mexico severed diplomatic relations with the 
United States. In September, 1845, President Polk sent 
John Slidell on his futile mission to Mexico to purchase a 
portion of California and that part of what is now New 

OS The Congressional Globe, 29th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 12, 53; Schafer's 
A Sistory of the Pacific Northwest, pp. 158-162. 

99 Schafer's A History of the Pacific Northwest, pp. 161, 162; Bancroft's 
History of Oregon, Vol. I, pp. 303, 304; Bancroft's History of the Northwest 
Coast, Vol. II, pp. 133, 698. 

100 The Congressional Globe, 29th Congress, 1st Session, p. 24. 

101 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 869. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 421 



Mexico claimed by Texas, and to endeavor to get Mexico to 
accept the Rio Grande for the Texas boundary instead of 
the Nueces River.^"- In January, 1846, came the well- 
known order from Washington that General Zachary Tay- 
lor advance to the Rio Grande — the disputed district. 
This was followed on May 13, 1846, by the declaration of 
war with Mexico.^**' 

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo concluded with Mexico 
on February 2, 1848, provided that the boundary line should 
follow the Rio Grande to the southern boundary of New 
Mexico, thence westward and northward along that line to 
the first branch of the Gila River, along that river to the 
Rio Colorado, and thence along the division line between 
Upper and Lower California to the Pacific Ocean.^*** The 
Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which will be noted later, com- 
pleted the stages of expansion west of the Mississippi 
River. 

IV 

THE ORGANIZATION OF OREGON, MINNESOTA, AND 
THE MEXICAN CESSION OF 1848-1850 

All the vast area added to the United States between 
1845 and 1848, with the exception of Texas, was unorgan- 
ized and there was no governmental arrangement for it 
except the temporary governments in California and 
Oregon. Provision for the government of this territory 
was delayed by the dispute over the slavery question. 

After the Whitman massacre in Oregon the need for the 
protection of the settlers there was so clearly evident that 

Garrison's Westward Extension, Ch. XIV; Eives's The United States and 
Mexico, 18S1-1848, Vol. II, pp. 53-80. 

103 The Congressional Globe, 29th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 795, 817; United 
States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 9. 

104 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, pp. 922, 926. 



422 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



a bill to organize Oregon Territory passed Congress on 
August 14, 1848, in spite of the bitter opposition of tbe pro- 
slavery element. The Territory of Oregon, according to 
the statute, included all that part of the territory of the 
United States west of the summit of the Eocky Mountains 
and north of the forty-second degree of north latitude.^"' 
A glance at the map for the year 1848 will show that only 
a comparatively small portion of the territory west of the 
Mississippi was organized : there was Oregon Territory in 
the northwest, the State of Texas in the south, and the four 
States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa border- 
ing on the Mississippi River. 

When Iowa Territory became a State in 1846 there was 
no provision for the remaining area north of the State of 
Iowa until 1849. Before the Territory of Wisconsin be- 
came a State in 1848, it was proposed by a convention that 
all of the remaining part of the Northwest Territory should 
be included in the new State. Some suggested the Eum 
River as the dividing line, while the St. Croix settlers advo- 
cated the Chippewa River, thus giving the new State of 
Wisconsin and the remaining portion of Iowa Territory 
equal areas. There were objections to the Rum River as 
the boundary line, however, because the Territory which 
was to be organized west of Wisconsin would not have a 
single point on the Mississippi River below the limit of 
steamboat navigation.^"^ 

On May 29, 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a State, but 
the land between the St. Croix and the Mississippi rivers^"'' 

100 Bancroft's History of Oregon, Vol. I, Ch. XXIII; Schafer's A History of 
the Pacifie Northwest, p. 186; United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 
323. 

100 Winchell's Minnesota's Eastern, Southern and Western Boundaries in the 
Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, Vol. X, Pt. II, pp. 678-687. 

107 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, pp. 56, 233; Folwell's A His- 
tory of Minnesota, Vol. I, p. 236. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 423 



was left unorganized politically. In March of the next 
year, the requests of settlers for the organization of a new 
Territory were granted by the creation of the Territory of 
Minnesota. The new Territory included the above men- 
tioned delta in the eastern part and extended west to the 
Missouri and White Earth rivers, south to the State of 
Iowa, and north to the international boundary line.^"* 

The famous compromise measures of January, 1850, pro- 
vided for the organization of the amorphous area obtained 
from Mexico in 1848. Before the passage of these acts 
California, because of the chaotic conditions caused by the 
great influx of population in 1849, had taken steps to form 
a State government. Laws were needed to regulate the 
mining problems and for the suppression of the alarming 
increase of crime. In September, 1849, a convention met to 
form a State out of the unorganized territory.^"* After 
considerable discussion the eastern boundary was fixed on 
the meridian of one hundred and twenty degrees from the 
Oregon line to the parallel of thirty-nine degrees north 
latitude, running thence in a straight line southeasterly to 
the intersection of the Colorado Eiver with the parallel of 
thirty-five degrees, and thence down the middle of the 
river's channel to the boundary established between the 
United States and Mexico. Some of the delegates wanted a 
boundary farther east, but there were objections to this on 
the grounds that so large a free State might be unacceptable 
to the slavery members of Congress. After the constitution 
was ratified by the people, a delegation was sent to Wash- 
ington to urge that the State of California be immediately 
admitted.^^" Henry Clay effected his compromise and Cali- 

108 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 403. 

109 Bancroft 's History of California, Vol. VI, Chs. XII, XIII. 

110 Guinn's How California Escaped State Division in the PuMications of the 
Historical Society of Southern California, Vol. VI, p. 226; Bancroft's History 
of California, Vol. VI, pp. 291, 296, 305, 342. 



424 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



fornia was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850.^^^ 
The statute did not specify any boundaries. 

Texas was much reduced in size by one of the compro- 
mise measures. The law provided that the boundary on 
the north should commence at the point at which the me- 
ridian of one hundred degrees west from Greenwich inter- 
sected the parallel of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes 
north latitude and should run from this point due west to 
the meridian of one hundred and three degrees west from 
Greenwich, thence due south to the thirty-second degree of 
north latitude, along this parallel of thirty-two degrees 
north latitude to the Rio Bravo del Norte,^^^ and thence 
with the channel of this river to the Gulf of Mexico. Texas 
ceded to the United States all claims to the territory exte- 
rior to these limits. This included the panhandle to the 
north and the region between the Rio Grande and the 
meridian of one hundred and three degrees. In compen- 
sation for the district between the Rio Grande and the 
meridian of one hundred and three degrees the United 
States assumed the debt of Texas. 

New Mexico had also become impatient while waiting 
for action by Congress. Contrary to the advice of the 
President, Senator Thomas H. Benton counselled the inhab- 
itants there to meet in a convention and provide for a 
simple form of government. A convention was therefore 
held on October 10, 1848, and a petition was sent to Con- 
gress asking for Territorial civil government and protest- 
ing against dismemberment in favor of Texas. A later 
convention, in 1850, framed a constitution for the State of 

111 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 452. 

112 The Rio Grande River. 

118 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 446, Vol. XI, p. 310. Re- 
cently the citizens of west Texas threatened to organize a State. — Columbus 
Evening Dispatch, April 2, 1921. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 425 



'New Mexico and fixed the meridians of one hundred de- 
grees and one hundred and eleven degrees as the eastern 
and western boundaries. By order of the Military Gov- 
ernor this constitution was submitted to the people but 
after it had been adopted the Governor insisted that the 
State government had no legal existence until New Mexico 
should be admitted into the Union by the Congress of the 
United States.^^* 

By an act of Congress, New Mexico was divided at the 
parallel of thirty-seven degrees north latitude. The north- 
ern half was designated the Territory of Utah and the 
southern part the Territory of New Mexico. The latter 
was bounded on the south by the Mexican boundary to the 
Eio Grande, thence it followed the Kio Grande to the paral- 
lel of thirty-two degrees north latitude and east on that 
parallel to the meridian of one hundred and three degrees ; 
on the east by that meridian north to the parallel of thirty- 
eight degrees north latitude ; on the north by that parallel 
to the summit of the Sierra Madre, thence south to the 
parallel of thirty-seven degrees north latitude and along 
that line to the boundary line of California, by which New 
Mexico was bounded on the west.^^^ 

Like the other portions of the Mexican cession, the area 
which later received the title of the Territory of Utah had 
a provisional government first. The Mormons under 
Brigham Young wanted an independent State government 
rather than a Territorial government under the Federal 
authorities. Early in 1849 a convention of the inhabitants 
living east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains was held at 

11* T?ie Congressional Globe, 31st Congress, 1st Session, Pt. II, p. 1808; 
Bancroft's History of Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 447, 448; Prince's A Con- 
cise History of New Mexico, p. 186; Bancroft's History of Texas, Vol. II, pp. 
400, 401; Twitchell's The Leading Facts of New Mexican History, Vol. II, pp. 
267, 268, 271, 272. 

115 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, pp. 447, 453, Vol. XI, p. 793. 
VOL. XXI — 27 



426 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Salt Lake City, The outcome was a provisional government 
organized under the name of the State of Deseret. An 
immense tract of land was claimed for this State. Start- 
ing at the intersection of the thirty-third degree of north 
latitude with the one hundred and eighth degree of longi- 
tude the boundary line was to run down to the Mexican 
border, then west along the border of Lower California to 
the Pacific Ocean, up the coast to one hundred and eighteen 
degrees and thirty minutes west longitude, north to the 
dividing ridge of the Sierra Nevadas, and along their sum- 
mit to the divide between the Columbia River and the Salt 
Lake Basin, and thence south along the dividing range of 
mountains that separate the waters flowing into the Gulf of 
Mexico from the waters flowing into the Gulf of California 
to the place of beginning.^^® The general assembly sent a 
memorial to Congress in July setting forth the failure of 
that body to provide any form of government for them, and 
asking for the admission of the State of Deseret into the 
Union.i" 

The same year the Californians framed a government 
for themselves, and an effort was made to secure the tempo- 
rary amalgamation of California and Deseret, because the 
people of the latter had not excluded slavery by their con- 
stitution. Besides, Utah had an insufficient population for 
a State and its people were perhaps afraid that California 
would be admitted first with boundaries that would cut 
them off from the coast. This combined State was to in- 
clude all the territory obtained from Mexico exclusive of 
Texas. In 1851 it was to be dissolved and the inhabitants 
were to be allowed to determine to which State they pre- 

ii« Bancroft 's History of Utah, pp. 440, 441. 

iiT Bancroft 's History of Utah, pp. 440, 444 ; Linn 's The Story of the Mor- 
mons, pp. 429, 430; Cannon and Knapp's Briffham Young and His Mormon 
Empire, Ch. XXI; The Congressional Globe, 31st Congress, 1st Session, Pt. I, 
pp. 86, 94, 211. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 427 



f erred to belong. A memorial in favor of this plan was 
presented to California but the government there con- 
demned the proposition because the two communities were 
too far apart.^^^ 

On September 9, 1850, the act for the organization of the 
Territory of Utah was signed. The boundaries of the 
State of Deseret had been reduced so that Utah was bound- 
ed on the west by the State of California, on the north by 
the Territory of Oregon, on the east by the summit of the 
Eocky Mountains, and on the south by the parallel of 
thirty-seven degrees north latitude.^^^ 

V 

BOUNDARY CHANGES IN THE FIFTIES 

In the Territory of Oregon events were taking place 
which led to the division of the Territory and the formation 
of the Territory of Washington. The settlers in the north- 
ern counties felt themselves poorly represented in the 
Oregon legislature, which they claimed had little interest in 
the welfare of Puget Sound. The first definite movement 
made in the direction of a new Territory was on the Fourth 
of July, 1851, when the Americans near Puget Sound met at 
Olympia to celebrate. J. B. Chapman, the orator of the 
occasion, referred in his speech to the "future state of 
Columbia". This was followed by a convention at Cowlitz 
Landing on the twenty-ninth of August of representatives 
from all the election precincts north of the Columbia Eiver 
for the purpose of appealing to Congress for a division of 
the Territory. Congress, however, took little notice of the 
memorial.^^" 

118 Bancroft 's History of Utah, pp. 446, 447; Bancroft's History of Cali- 
fornia, Vol. VI, pp. 325, 326. 

ii» United States Statutes at Large, Vol. IX, p. 453. 

120 Bancroft's History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, pp. 31-51; 
Meany's History of the State of Washington, pp. 155, 156; Schafer's A His- 



428 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



As a means to the desired end, "The Columbian", a 
weekly newspaper, was established at Olympia in Septem- 
ber, 1852. In October a convention at Monticello framed 
another petition to Congress asking for a separate Terri- 
tory to be called Columbia, to be bounded on the south and 
east by the Columbia River. The delegates argued that the 
area of Oregon was too large to be embraced within the 
limits of one State; that those portions of the undivided 
Territory lying north and south of the Columbia River 
must, from their geographical positions, become rivals in 
commerce; that the southern portion, having the greatest 
number of votes, controlled the legislature, and therefore 
the disposition of the congressional appropriations; that 
the seat of government was too far distant from them ; and 
that northern Oregon possessed great natural resources, 
and an already large population, which would be greatly 
increased as a separate Territory. Since the northern and 
southern portions had diverse commercial interests and 
were at such a great distance from each other, the Oregon 
legislature was in favor of the organization of a separate 
Territory. Some contended, however, that Oregon should 
include Puget Sound and all the country west of the Cas- 
cade Mountains, while the country east of that range should 
form a new Territory.^^^ 

The bill for the organization of the Territory of Co- 
lumbia was under consideration in February, 1853.^^^ Ac- 
cording to a memorial the new Territory was to embrace all 
that part of Oregon Territory lying north of the Columbia 
River and west of its great northern branch, but during the 

tory of the Pacific Northwest, pp. 211, 212; The Congressional Globe, 32nd 
Congress, 1st Session, p. 597. 

121 Bancroft 's History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, pp. 51-53, 59, 
60; Meany's History of the State of Washington, p. 156. 

122 Meany's History of the State of Washington, p. 157. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 429 



consideration the southern boundary was changed to run 
along the Columbia Eiver to its intersection with the paral- 
lel of forty-six degrees north latitude, near Fort Walla 
"Walla, and thence with the said parallel to the summit of 
the Eocky Mountains. The change in the boundaries in- 
creased the area. R. H. Stanton of Kentucky said that as 
we already had a Territory [District] of Columbia, and no 
State bearing the name of the "Father of his Country", he 
would like to see the name of the new Territory changed to 
Washington. This change was agreed to and the Territory 
of Washington was created on March 2, 1853.^^^ 

About this time Senator Stephen A. Douglas was trying 
to secure the passage of his Kansas-Nebraska Bill which 
would repeal the Missouri Compromise. The unorganized 
territory west of Missouri and Iowa had become more im- 
portant after the rapid settlement of the Oregon country 
and the organization of this Indian territory was necessary 
to make an open road from the northern States to the 
Pacific. 

Beginning with one in 1844 by Senator Douglas, many 
bills were introduced to organize a Territory of Ne- 
braska.^^^ In December, 1853, Senator Dodge introduced 
such a bill but Douglas, who was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Territories, amended it to provide for two Terri- 
tories instead of one and included the popular sovereignty 
feature. The southern boundary was also changed from 
thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes to thirty-seven de- 
grees north latitude. This change was made in order that 
the Cherokee nation would not be divided.^^^ With these 

123 The Congressional Globe, 32nd Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 541, 542; United 
States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, pp. 172-179. 

12* For a summary of these bills see Gittinger's The Separation of Nehraslca 
and Kansas from the Indian Territory in The Mississippi Valley Historical 
Eeview, Vol. Ill, pp. 442-461. 

125 The Congressional Globe, 33rd Congress, 1st Session, pp. 221, 222. 



430 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



provisions the bill, was signed by tbe President on May 30, 
1854. 

The statute provided boundaries which gave the Terri- 
tory of Nebraska an enormous area. It was bounded on the 
south by the parallel of forty degrees north latitude, on the 
west by the summit of the Eocky Mountains, on the north 
by the parallel of forty-nine degrees, and on the east by the 
Territory of Minnesota.^^^ This Territory included the 
area of the present Montana and parts of Wyoming, North 
and South Dakota, Nebraska, and Colorado. 

The Territory of Kansas was considerably smaller, and 
included only the present State of Kansas and a part of 
Colorado. It was bounded by the parallel of thirty-seven 
degrees north latitude, the north and eastern boundary of 
New Mexico, the summit of the Eocky Mountains, the paral- 
lel of forty degrees, and the western boundary of Mis- 
souri. 

The territory included in the Gadsden Purchase was 
incorporated in the Territory of New Mexico.^^^ This 
changed the southern limit of New Mexico to a boundary 
which followed the Eio G-rande from the former southern 
boundary to the parallel of thirty-one degrees and forty- 
seven minutes north latitude, thence due west one hundred 
miles, south to the parallel of thirty-one degrees and twenty 
minutes north latitude, along the said parallel of thirty- 
one degrees and twenty minutes to the one hundred and 
eleventh meridian of longitude west of Greenwich, thence 
in a straight line to a point in the Colorado Eiver twenty 
English miles below the junction of the Gila and Colorado 
rivers, thence up the middle of the Colorado Eiver until it 

126 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, p. 277. 

127 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, pp. 283, 284. 

128 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, p. 575. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 431 



intersected the boundary line fixed by Mexico and the 
United States between Upper and Lower California.^^^ 

No further boundary changes took place until the reduc- 
tion of the Territory of Minnesota in 1858 at the time of its 
admission as a State. In December, 1856, the Territorial 
delegate from Minnesota introduced a bill to authorize the 
people to form a constitution and a State government. The 
western boundary suggested in the bill was the Red River 
of the North and the Big Sioux River. In January, 1857, 
the chairman of the Committee on Territories reported a 
substitute line through Traverse and Big Stone lakes due 
south to the Iowa line, thereby reducing Minnesota to its 
present boundary. There was a little pleasantry about the 
formation of a sixth State, created in part out of the old 
Northwest Territory, while the Ordinance of 1787 had pro- 
vided for only five.^^** 

The enabling act of Minnesota passed on February 26, 
1857, providing that the new State should be bounded on 
the south by Iowa, on the east by Wisconsin and Michigan, 
on the north by the international boundary line, and on the 
west by the Red River of the North, the Boix des Sioux 
River, Lake Traverse, and Big Stone Lake, and a line due 
south to the northern boundary of lowa.^^^ A few years 
later Senator Henry M. Rice proposed the extension of the 
jurisdiction of Minnesota to embrace the proposed Terri- 
tory of Dakota and the portion of Nebraska lying north of 
latitude forty-three degrees. His proposal met with no 
support and no action was taken.^^^ 

129 TJniUd States Statutes at Large, Vol. X, p. 1032, Vol. XI, p. 793. 

i30Folweirs Minnesota: The North Star State, pp. 133-158; Winchell's 
Minnesota's Eastern, Southern and Western Boundaries in the Collections of 
the Minnesota Historical Society, Vol. X, Pt. II, pp. 685, 686. 

131 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XI, pp. 166, 285. 

132 Senate Miscellaneous Documents, S6th Congress, 2nd Session, No. 11. 



432 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



In the fifties there were also several attempts to divide 
California. In 1859 a bill setting off six southern counties 
for a separate Territorial government passed both houses 
of the State legislature and was approved by the Governor, 
The people concerned voted in favor of it, and the results 
were sent to Washington. Since Congress was involved in 
the secession question, however, the matter was not consid- 
ered. In 1881 an effort was made to resurrect it. Los 
Angeles wanted to be the capital and to monopolize the 
offices, but the other counties could not see how they would 
be benefited and the division failed. As late as 1888 such a 
bill was introduced in Congress, but nothing came of it: 
the necessity for division no longer existed for the south 
with its increased population and wealth was able to hold 
its own against northern California. 

The eighth State admitted to the Union out of the Trans- 
Mississippi region was Oregon in 1859. After the failure 
of several bills in Congress for this purpose, the legislature 
of Oregon Territory provided for a constitutional conven- 
tion. The people ratified the State constitution framed by 
the delegates and the State government went into operation 
in July, 1858, although Oregon was not formally admitted 
to the Union until February 14, 1859.134 rphe State of 
Oregon embraced an area considerably smaller than that of 
the Territory. The eastern boundary followed the Sho- 
shone or Snake River to the mouth of the Owyhee River, 
thence due south to the parallel of forty-two degrees north 
latitude. The remaining portion of Oregon Territory was 
considered as a part of Washington Territory until 1863 
when Idaho Territory was organized. 

133 Guinn's How California Escaped State Division in the Pullications of the 
Historical Society of Southern California, Vol. VI, pp. 229, 230, 231. 

i3*Sehafer's A History of the Pacific Northwest, p. 218. 

135 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XI, p. 383. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 433 



VI 

BOUNDARY CHANGES IN THE SIXTIES 

The decade of the sixties brought many changes in the 
western part of the United States. Kansas was admitted as 
a State in 1861 and the three new Territories of Nevada, 
Colorado, and Dakota appeared the same year. Two more 
Territories — Arizona and Idaho — were organized in 
1863. These were followed in 1864 by the creation of the 
Territory of Montana and the admission of Nevada as a 
State. Nebraska became a State in 1867 and the Territory 
of Wyoming appeared in 1868. With the formation of 
these Territories and States went many boundary changes 
with their corresponding disputes, but for the most part 
the new States retained the boundaries they had as Terri- 
tories. 

The struggle for Kansas between the free State and 
slave State factions began in the fifties and because of the 
slavery question Kansas did not acquire statehood until 
1861. Before this efforts had been made by the Territory 
of Nebraska to give up yjart of its Territory to the Terri- 
tory of Kansas. In 1856, the Territorial legislature of 
Nebraska memorialized Congress to annex to Kansas 
Territory all that portion of Nebraska south of the Platte 
Eiver, because the latter was a natural boundary line — 
difficult to ford, ferry, or bridge. Moreover it was thought 
that such a move would effectually prevent the establish- 
ment of slavery in either of the Territories. The bill was 
postponed, and in 1859 Congress was again memorialized 
to incorporate the country south of the Platte River into 
the proposed State of Kansas. The territory, however, 
was refused by the Kansas constitutional convention of 
1859 because this part of Nebraska was Democratic, and if 
it were annexed it would make Kansas a Democratic State. 



434 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Then Lawrence and Topeka both aspired to be the capital, 
and they feared that the addition of this territory would 
throw the center of population north of the Kansas River.^^* 

Consequently the boundaries of the State of Kansas re- 
mained as they were except for the western boundary : this 
was changed so that the Territory of Colorado might be 
formed. By the act of January 29, 1861, Kansas was 
bounded by the western boundary of the State of Missouri 
on the east, by the parallel of thirty-seven degrees on the 
south, by the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude west from 
Washington on the west, and on the north by the parallel of 
forty degrees north latitude.^^'' 

It was about this time that the Jefferson Territory 
project developed. In November, 1858, a few miners then 
living in Denver attended a meeting to erect a new govern- 
ment for the Pike's Peak country. A delegate was elected 
and sent to Congress to ask for the setting apart of the 
Territory of Jefferson. A bill for this purpose was intro- 
duced in the House of Representatives by A. J. Stephens,^^^ 
but slavery consideration forbade Territorial legislation 
and the Pike's Peak country was left without a legal gov- 
ernment. 

Feeling the imperative necessity for an immediate gov- 
ernment, representatives of neighboring mining camps met 
in Denver, in April, 1859. They believed that the large 
population demanded more than a Territorial government 
and as a result a constitutional convention assembled in 

136 Martin's Kansas-N eiraslca Boundary Line in the Collections of the Ne- 
irasl-a State Historical Society, Vol. XVI, pp. 115-131. This article also indi- 
cates the desire of Kansas City, Missouri, to be annexed to the State of Kansas 
in 1879. 

137 United States Statrites at Large, Vol. XII, pp. 126, 127. 

138 The Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 841, 871; Pax- 
son's The Territory of Colorado in The American Historical Eeview, Vol. XII, 
pp. 56, 57. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 435 



Denver to frame a constitution for a new State to be called 
Jefferson. The boundaries of the prospective State em- 
braced the area limited by the one hundred and second and 
the one hundred and tenth meridians, and the thirty- seventh 
and the forty-third parallels. This area included the pres- 
ent State of Colorado and large portions of Utah, Nebraska, 
and Wyoming. 

Since the height of the gold boom was over, one faction 
advocated immediate statehood, while the other preferred 
Territorial government with the Federal treasury to meet 
the bills. A rather odd compromise was made by preparing 
the way for either development. A State constitution was 
drawn up, but a memorial to Congress was also framed 
asking for a Territorial government. The two propositions 
were then submitted to a popular vote on September 5, 1859, 
and the memorial was chosen instead of the constitution. 

Pending the action of Congress, the advocates of imme- 
diate government held a mass meeting in Denver on Sep- 
tember 24, 1859, which resulted in a convention held in 
October. In this convention the boundaries of April 15th 
were retained for the new Territory of Jefferson. Soon 
afterwards a Territorial legislature and executive staff 
were elected. This provisional government encountered 
many difficulties, partly due to the refusal of the people to 
pay taxes to an extralegal government, and partly due to 
the conflicting claims of the four Territories — Utah, New 
Mexico, Kansas, and Nebraska — in the territory claimed 
for Jefferson.^^^ 

On February 20, 1860, Congress received from President 
Buchanan a message transmitting the petition from the 
Pike's Peak country.^^** Although bills for the erection of 

laaPaxson's The Territory of Colorado in The American Historical Beview, 
Vol. XII, pp. 56-64. 

i*o Richardson 's Messages and Papers of the Presidents, Vol. V, pp. 580, 
581; The Congressional Glode, 36th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 841, 871. 



436 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

a new Territory were considered/*^ nothing definite was 
done until after Kansas was admitted. By this time the 
pro-slavery opposition had largely disappeared. The new 
Territory, created by a law passed on February 28, 1861, 
was given the name Colorado. Idaho was at one time sub- 
stituted for Colorado but the name of Colorado was finally 
decided upon on February 4th.^*^ 

The act of February 28, 1861, creating the Territory of 
Colorado materially cut down the limits of the provisional 
government. Two degrees of latitude were taken from the 
north of the Territory and one degree of longitude from the 
west of it. The new Territory was bounded by the parallel 
of thirty-seven degrees north latitude on the south, by the 
meridian of thirty-two degrees west from Washington on 
the west, by the parallel of forty-one degrees on the north, 
and by the twenty-fifth meridian west from Washington on 
the east.^*^ By the creation of the Territory of Colorado, 
the surrounding Territories were reduced in size. The 
Territory of New Mexico lost her northeastern panhandle ; 
the Territory of Utah lost a considerable portion of her 
eastern territory; and Nebraska Territory gave up a strip 
in the southwest. 

In March of the same year the Territory of Utah was 
further reduced by the organization of the Territory of 
Nevada. Beginning with 1851 there had been several at- 
tempts to erect a separate Territorial government in west- 
ern Utah. In November, 1851, the few settlers of that 
region sent a petition to Congress asking for a Territorial 
government. Two years later the citizens of Carson Valley 

141 The Congressional Glohe, 36th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 2047, 2066, 36th 
Congress 2nd Session, pp. 639-644. 

1*2 The Congressional Glohe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 639-644, 728, 
729, 703, 764; Bancroft's Eisiory of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 412, 
413. 

143 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 172. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 437 



petitioned the legislature of California that their territory 
be annexed to that State for judicial purposes until Con- 
gress should otherwise provide. In 1856, a similar petition 
was made, and the California legislature asked Congress to 
make the one hundred and eighteenth meridian the eastern 
boundary of California but the request was not granted.^** 

A little later the occupants of Carson Valley petitioned 
Congress for a Territorial government for the region 
bounded by the Goose Creek Mountains on the east, the 
Colorado River on the south, Oregon on the north, and the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains on the west. Another memorial 
framed in August stated that no law existed in western 
Utah except the theocratic rule exercised by the Mormon 
Church which was without reference to statutory regula- 
tion. These memorials were received favorably in Con- 
gress, but when another Governor was appointed for Utah 
Territory in place of Brigham Young the demand for the 
creation of another Territory was not so imperative.^*^ 

In 1859 another effort for a separate governmental or- 
ganization resulted in the framing of a constitution which 
was adopted by the people. The boundaries provided by 
this constitution commenced at a point on the Sierra Ne- 
vada Mountains where the parallel of forty-two degrees 
touches their summit, then followed the crest of the moun- 
tains south to the parallel of thirty -five degrees, thence east 
on that line to the Colorado River, thence up that stream 
to the mouth of the Rio Virgin, ascending the latter to its 
junction with the Muddy River and thence due north to the 
Oregon line.^^^ 

Two years later, on March 2, 1861, a bill passed creating 

i<* Bancroft's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 69, 72-78; 
The Congressional Globe, 34th Congress, 1st Session, Pt. I, p. 1089. 

1*5 Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 82-84. 

1*8 Bancroft's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, p. 150. 



438 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the Territory of Nevada, but the boundaries of the organic 
act included a smaller area than those suggested in 1859. 
As provided by this act, the Territory of Nevada was 
bounded on the east by the meridian of thirty-nine degrees 
west from Washington, on the south by the northern boun- 
dary of the Territory of New Mexico; on the west by the 
dividing ridge separating the waters of Carson Valley from 
those that flow into the Pacific Ocean, thence on said di- 
viding ridge northwardly to the parallel of forty-one 
degrees north latitude, thence due north to the southern 
boundary line of the State of Oregon, and on the north by 
the parallel of forty-two degrees north latitude.^*'^ Several 
changes, which will be noted later, were to take place in the 
boundaries of Nevada before it reached its present extent. 

The boundary between the State of California and Utah 
Territory had always been in dispute, since it had never 
been definitely surveyed. In 1856, the Mormon residents 
claimed Carson Valley as a part of Utah, while other set- 
tlers contended that they were residents of California. The 
California legislature sent several requests to Washington 
urging the appointment of a boundary commission but 
nothing was done until the year 1860, when Congress passed 
an act authorizing the appointment of such a commission.^^^ 

The development of the Comstock mines gave additional 
importance to the subject. The California Governor in his 
message to the legislature in January, 1861, recommended 
that Congress be memorialized to extend the boundary of 
California to the one hundred and eighteenth degree of 
longitude. The legislature of California provided for the 
election of a commissioner to cooperate with the United 
States commissioner in determining the eastern limit of the 

147 United States Siat^ites at Large, Vol. XII, pp. 209, 210. 

1*8 Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 151-153; 
United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 22. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 439 



State. Just previous to this the Territory of Nevada was 
organized with its indefinite boundary.^*^ Since nothing 
had been accomplished toward determining the boundary, 
the Territorial government of Nevada sent two commis- 
sioners to California to request the assembly there to trans- 
fer to Nevada all that portion of their State lying east of 
the summits of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Nothing 
came of the visit, however, beyond a conference.^^** 

With the increase of population it was important that the 
boundary between California and Nevada Territory be set- 
tled so that it might be decided which government had 
jurisdiction over the area in question. The Governor of 
California appointed a commissioner to confer with the 
authorities in Nevada upon the means of arriving at a solu- 
tion of the dispute, but the commissioner was instructed 
not to consent to the summit boundary. This conference 
resulted in an agreement that a commissioner be appointed 
from California and another from Nevada to establish a 
permanent boundary. A line running through the eastern 
end of Honey Lake was to be regarded as the temporary 
boundary, together with a line running south from Lake 
Tahoe to ''below Esmeralda" as previously determined by 
Nevada surveyors. In 1863 the joint commission proceeded 
to establish a permanent boundary line beginning at Lake 
Tahoe, running north to the Oregon boundary, and south- 
east to the New Mexican line. The work of the commission 
was accepted by both the California and Nevada legisla- 
tures and this put an end to their conflicting claims."^ 

On July 14, 1862, Congress had attempted to satisfy the 

149 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 209 ; Bancroft 's History of 
Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, p. 153. 

150 Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, p. 154. 

151 Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 154-157. In 
the seventies there was some agitation because of doubt as to the correctness of 
the boundary survey. 



440 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Territory of Nevada by adding a degree of longitude on the 
east to that Territory. By this act the eastern limit was 
extended to the meridian of thirty-eight degrees west from 
"Washington.^^2 

On the same day — March 2, 1861 — that the Territory 
of Nevada was created, Congress passed an act for the 
organization of the Territory of Dakota. A bill for this 
purpose had been introduced in 1859 at the time of the 
Jefferson Territory project/^^ but like many other Terri- 
torial suggestions it was dropped because of the slavery 
debate. 

The new Territory established by the act of March 2, 
1861, included all that portion of Nebraska Territory north 
of a boundary which started at the point of intersection 
between the Big Sioux and Missouri rivers, thence up the 
Missouri River to the mouth of the Niobrara River, thence 
following that river to the mouth of the Keya Paha River, 
up that river to the parallel of forty-three degrees north 
latitude, and due west to the boundary of the Territory of 
Washington. These portions of Utah and Washington 
Territories between the parallels of forty-one and forty- 
three degrees of north latitude and east of the meridian of 
thirty-three degrees west from Washington were incorpo- 
rated into the Territory of Nebraska.^^'* 

In 1863 the Territory of Arizona appeared on the map in 
the southwestern part of the United States. A convention 
held in 1856 at Tucson had sent a memorial to Congress 
urging the organization of a separate Territory in the west- 
ern part of the Territory of New Mexico, but the Committee 
on Territories reported against a Territorial organization 
because of the limited population. President Buchanan in 

152 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 575. 

153 The Congressional Glohe, 35th Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 69, 877. 

154 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, pp. 239, 244. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 44I 



his message of 1857 recommended a Territorial govern- 
ment and Senator "William M. Gwin introduced a bill to 
organize such a government for the Gadsden Purchase 
under the name of Arizona. The Territorial legislature of 
New Mexico also passed resolutions in favor of the project, 
but it recommended a north and south boundary line on the 
meridian of one hundred and nine degrees. 

Because of the political organization of Arizona by the 
Confederates and because of the discovery of gold in large 
quantities in that section, Congress passed a law on Febru- 
ary 24, 1863, organizing the Territory of Arizona west of 
the meridian of one hundred and nine degrees longitude, in 
spite of the fact that the population was limited and was 
composed of many Mexicans and half-breeds. The line 
selected was the extension of the western boundary of Colo- 
rado Territory.^^^ 

"With the discovery of rich gold fields near the Clearwater 
and Saknon rivers, the eastern part of Washington Terri- 
tory had developed rapidly and demanded a separate 
government. The Territorial legislature of Washington 
opposed this plan; but Congress, to which petitions ap- 
pealed directly, regarded the matter more favorably and on 
March 3, 1863, an act organizing the Territory of Idaho 
was approved.^^''^ The new Territory was created out of 
portions of the Territories of Washington, Dakota, and 
Nebraska and included the area in the present States of 
Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, except the southwestern 
corner of the latter. It was bounded on the west by the 

155 Bancroft's History of Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 504, 505; Richard- 
son 's Messages and Payers of the Presidents, Vol. V, p. 456 ; The Congressional 
Glohe, 35th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 13, 62, 1531, 3042. 

^if> United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 664; Parish's History of 
Arizona, p. 1321. 

157 Bancroft's History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, pp. 234-263, 
393. 

VOL. XXI — 28 



442 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



eastern boundary of Oregon, then by the Snake River to 
the mouth of Clear "Water River, thence due north to the 
parallel of forty-nine degrees north latitude; on the north 
by the forty-ninth parallel ; on the east by the meridian of 
twenty-seven degrees west of Washington ; and on the south 
by the northern boundary of the Territory of Colorado to 
the meridian of thirty-three degrees west of Washington, 
thence north to the parallel of forty-two degrees and thence 
west to the eastern boundary of the State of Oregon.^^* 

In October, 1864, the Territory of Nevada became a State 
and her eastern boundary was extended to the meridian of 
thirty-eight degrees west from Washington. In her consti- 
tution Nevada intimated her desire for an additional degree 
of longitude on her eastern border and this was granted by 
Congress in 1866 together with a portion of Arizona Terri- 
tory north of the Colorado River.^^^ There were objections 
made to the latter territory, because it was considered 
worthless, but the legislature formally accepted the exten- 
sion in January, 1867. Not yet satisfied, the new State in 
1871 made a request that the southern part of Idaho be 
added to it and again memorialized the California assembly 
for a portion of eastern California. Neither of these ef- 
forts met with approval.^^" 

In May, 1864, the Territory of Montana was organized 
out of the northeastern part of the Territory of Idaho and 
the portion of the Territory of Idaho included in most of 
present Wyoming was temporarily reattached to the Terri- 
tory of Dakota. According to the act of May 26, 1864, 
Montana Territory was limited on the south by the parallel 
of forty-five degrees north latitude to the meridian of 
thirty-four degrees west of Washington, thence due south 

IBS United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, pp. 808, 809. 

1C9 Urnted States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIII, pp. 30, 749, Vol. XIV, p. 43. 

180 Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 155, 156. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 443 



along said meridian to its intersection with the parallel of 
forty-four degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, and 
due west along the said parallel to the crest of the Eocky 
Mountains; on the west by the crests of the Eocky and 
Bitter Eoot mountains and thence north along the meridian 
of thirty-nine degrees west of Washington ; on the north by 
the boundary line of Canada; and on the east by the me- 
ridian of twenty-seven degrees west of Washington.^^^ 

Much dissatisfaction was felt by the inhabitants of this 
region concerning the manner in which it had been parti- 
tioned off into Territories. The people of the Idaho pan- 
handle felt their isolation and want of a community of 
interest with the southern counties of Idaho Territory. 
This feeling was emphasized when the capital was removed 
from Lewiston to Boise City soon after the creation of 
Montana Territory. The people in the north desired the 
reannexation of the northern part of Idaho Territory to 
Washington Territory; the latter was equally desirous of 
recovering its lost territory. The Idaho legislature of 1865- 
1866 sent a memorial to Congress asking that the portion 
of the Territory lying south of the Salmon Eiver Mountains 
might dissolve connection with the panhandle and receive 
instead as much of Utah as lay north of the parallel of 
forty-one degrees and thirty minutes, while the western 
portion of Montana, the northern part of Idaho, and the 
eastern part of Washington should constitute the Territory 
of Columbia. A convention assembled in 1866 at Helena, 
however, prepared a memorial to Congress requesting that 
this measure be not adopted and, upon reflection, southern 
Idaho also decided against division.^^^ 

i«i United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIII, p. 85, Vol. XVIII, p. 464; 
Bancroft 's History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, pp. 642, 643. 

i«2 Bancroft 's Eistory of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, pp. 464, 475, 
649. 



444 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Idaho also protested against another proposition to an- 
nex part of southern Idaho to Nevada, made by the legis- 
lature of Nevada about 1869, and it was rejected by 
Congress. About a year later a few of the citizens of 
northern Utah petitioned to have that portion of Utah north 
of the parallel of forty-one degrees — a continuation of the 
northern boundary of Colorado — annexed to Idaho be- 
cause they were out of sympathy with the Mormons. When 
the boundary line between Idaho and Utah was surveyed in 
1871 it was found that several large settlements which had 

previously paid taxes in Utah were over the line in 
Idaho.i«3 

At the same time there was another example of this gen- 
eral feeling of dissatisfaction with the boundaries in the 
northwest. Many of the citizens of Oregon felt that the 
Snake River should be the northern as well as the eastern 
boundary of their State. The Territory of Washington, 
however, was positive that it would never give up this dis- 
trict which included the Walla Walla Valley.^^* 

In 1873 the proposition to reunite northern Idaho to 
Washington was revived and many different suggestions 
for new boundaries were proposed. A constitution, framed 
by a convention in 1878 in Washington Territory, provided 
for a State which would have included all of Idaho north of 
the parallel of forty-five degrees north latitude. Washing- 
ton Territory, however, did not acquire statehood until 
1889 and then her boundaries remained unchanged. 

None of these suggestions for the redivision of the north- 
west have ever been carried out, but the movement for the 

i«s Bancroft's History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, pp. 476, 477. 

The Congressional Globe, 41st Congress, 3rd Session, p. 966; Bancroft's 
History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, p. 476. 

i«» Meany 's History of the State of Washington, pp. 266, 267. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 445 



secession of northern Idalio lias continued down to the 
present.^®^ 

When the Territory of Idaho was created in 1863, the 
houndaries of the Nebraska Territory were reduced almost 
to those that the State of Nebraska has to-day. In Febru- 
ary, 1867, Nebraska was admitted with the limits that it had 
had since 1863. The boundaries, as stated in the enabling 
act of 1864, limited Nebraska on the south by the fortieth 
degree of north latitude to the twenty-fifth degree of longi- 
tude west from Washington, then north to the forty-first 
degree of north latitude and due west on that parallel ; on 
the west by the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west 
from Washington ; on the north by the forty-third degree of 
north latitude to the Keya Paha Eiver, thence down that 
river to its junction with the Niobrara River, and following 
the latter to its junction with the Missouri Eiver; and on 
the east by the Missouri River.^^'^ A slight change in the 
northern boundary line, which will be noted later, was made 
in 1882 giving the State of Nebraska the boundaries that it 
now possesses. 

In 1864 most of present Wyoming had been reattached to 
the Territory of Dakota,'^^^ but it was given no local govern- 
ment. With the spread of population into that section, a 
need for government and law to take the place of the 
vigilance committees was felt. After receiving a memorial 
from Dakota asking for the organization of a new Territory 
in southwestern Dakota and a petition signed by the agent 

166 In 1907 there was a movement to create a State of Lincoln which would 
have embraced portions of Washington, Idaho, and Oregon. — Meany's History 
of the State of Washington, p. 267. On February 16, 1921, a resolution was 
introduced in the senate of the Idaho legislature, virtually asking permission 
for ten counties of Idaho to secede from the State. — Colorado Evening Dis- 
patch, February 16, 1921. 

167 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIII, p. 47, Vol. XIV, p. 391. 

168 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIII, p. 92. 



446 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



for the people of Wyoming, Congress organized the Terri- 
tory of Wyoming in 1868.^^^ 

The new Territory was bounded by the twenty-seventh 
meridian of longitude west from Washington on the east, by 
the thirty-fourth meridian of longitude west from Wash- 
ington on the west, and by the parallel of forty-one degrees 
north latitude on the south.^''*' This western boundary took 
in the northeast corner of the Territory of Utah and a por- 
tion of southwestern Idaho. 

VII 

BOUNDARY CHANGES, 1870-1912 

At the close of the decade ending in 1870 there were 
eleven States and ten Territories west of the Mississippi 
River and before the close of the nineteenth century eight 
of the ten Territories attained statehood, and in addition 
the Territory of Oklahoma appeared on the map. 

The first of these Territories to acquire statehood was 
Colorado. On March 21, 1864, Congress had passed an 
enabling act for the Territory of Colorado. The boundaries 
fixed by this act limited Colorado on the south by the thirty- 
seventh degree of north latitude ; on the west by the thirty- 
second degree of longitude west from Washington ; on the 
north by the forty-first degree of north latitude ; and on the 
east by the twenty-fifth degree of longitude west from 
Washington.^'^^ The people in the Territory voted against 
accepting statehood under this act, partly because of an 
empty treasury. Several times in the next decade Congress 
considered bills to admit Colorado. Some of them passed 
Congress but were vetoed by the President on the ground 

180 Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 739, 740; 
Coutant's The History of Wyoming, Vol. I, pp. 621, 624. 

170 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XV, p. 178. 

171 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XIII, pp. 32-35. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 447 



that the population was not large enough to justify state- 
hood."^ Fraally in 1875 Congress passed an enabling act 
which resulted in the admission of Colorado on August 1, 
1876, by proclamation of President U. S. Grant.^'^^ The 
boundaries remained as they were.^'^* 

The next boundary change did not take place until 1882 
when Nebraska was extended to include all that part of the 
Territory of Dakota lying south of the forty-third parallel 
of north latitude, east of the Keya Paha Eiver, and west of 
the main channel of the Missouri River.^''^ In 1879 a bill 
for this purpose was introduced in the Senate by Alvin 
Saunders, Senator from Nebraska, who said that the object 
of the bill was to straighten the line between Dakota and 
Nebraska. The line was not well defined because the Nio- 
brara River changed its channel frequently. The bill passed 
the Senate but it had not been reported back from the com- 
mittee in the House to which it was referred when the 
Forty-sixth Congress adjourned. In the first session of 
the Forty-seventh Congress, the bill passed both houses and 
was approved on March 28, 1882.^'^^ 

The year 1889 brought the admission of four more Terri- 
tories into the Union as States. On February of that year 

172 Bancroft's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, pp. 430, 431, 432; 
Eichardson's Messages and Payers of the Presidents, Vol. VI, pp. 413, 483- 
489. 

1T3 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XVIII, Pt. 3, pp. 474-476, Vol. 
XIX, p. 665. 

17* There was a dispute between New Mexico and Colorado about 1868 be- 
cause their common boundary line was not clearly defined, but the boundary 
remained unchanged. — Bancroft 's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 
pp. 498-500. 

iTB United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXII, pp. 35, 36. 

i76Watkins's NehrasJca Territorial Acqidsition in Collections of the Ne- 
trasTca State Historical Society, Vol. XVII, pp. 53-87; The Congressional Eec- 
ord, 47th Congress, Ist Session, Pt. I, pp. 745, 746, 861, Pt. II, p. 2007; 
United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXII, pp. 35, 36. 



448 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Congress passed an enabling act for the Territories of 
Montana, Washington, and Dakota. This act provided for 
the division of the Territory of Dakota on the line of the 
seventh standard parallel produced due west to the western 
boundary. On November 2nd of the same year the two 
Dakotas were admitted into the Union. On November 8th 
and 11th respectively Montana and Washington were also 
proclaimed States. ^'''^ 

The area included in the present State of Oklahoma did 
not receive its political beginning until 1890. This region 
was known as the Indian country or Indian Territory, the 
latter name denoting especially the section of the Indian 
country that had been set aside for the eastern Indians.^''* 
In the act of June 30, 1834, relating to the management of 
Indian atfairs, all the territory of the United States west of 
the Mississippi that was not included within the limits of a 
State or organized Territory was declared to be Indian 
country.^'^^ With the admission of successive States out of 
the Louisiana Purchase area the limits of the Indian coun- 
try were gradually reduced until, as a result of the organ- 
ization of the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas, the 
Indian Territory was confined to the area south of the 
thirty-seventh parallel. 

In the same year — 1854 — Eobert W. Johnson, Senator 
from Arkansas, introduced a bill for the organization of 
the country west of Arkansas. The bill provided for the 
organization of three Territories, Chahlahkee, Muscogee, 
and Chahta. As soon as the consent of the Indians could be 
secured, the three Territories were to be united into one 

1" JJnited States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXV, p. 676, Vol. XXVI, pp. 1548- 
1553. 

ITS Gittinger's The Formation of the State of Oklahoma, p. 70, in the I7nt- 
versity of California Puhlioations in History, Vol. VI. 

iTo United States Statutes at Large, Vol. TV, p. 735. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 449 



which was to be admitted into the Union as the State of 
Neosho.^*" 

One of the Territories included the country enclosed by 
the meridians of one hundred degrees and one hundred and 
three degrees, and the parallels of thirty-six degrees and 
thirty minutes, and thirty-seven degrees. This part of the 
present Oklahoma lay beyond the Louisiana Purchase and 
became a part of the United States at the time of the annex- 
ation of Texas and the war with Mexico. In 1850 the north- 
ern boundary of the slave State of Texas was moved back 
to the line of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes because 
of the Missouri Compromise. At the same time the one 
hundred and third meridian was made the eastern boundary 
of New Mexico. Johnson's bill which was reported favor- 
ably by the Senate Committee on Territories was the first 
attempt to attach this unorganized strip afterwards known 
as "No Man 's Land ' ' to the Indian Territory.^^^ 

In 1865 Senator James Harlan of Iowa introduced a bill 
to consolidate the Indian tribes and establish civil govern- 
ment in a Territory which had the boundaries of the present 
State of Oklahoma, The bill passed the Senate but before 
it could receive consideration in the House that session of 
Congress ended.^^^ Numerous bills for the establishment 
of a Territory continued to be introduced, but the Indians 
opposed Territorial organization because they believed that 
it would be a scheme to deprive them of their lands. On the 

180 Gittinger's The Formation of the State of OJclahoma, pp. 46-48, in the 
University of California Publications in History, Vol. VI; The Congressional 
Globe, 33rd Congress, 1st Session, p. 449. The spelling of Chahlahkee is also 
given Chelokee and Chahtakee. 

181 The Congressional Globe, 33rd Congress, 1st Session, p. 1986. Gittinger's 
The Formation of the State of OTclahoma, pp. 48, 49, in the University of Cali- 
fornia Publications in History, Vol. VI. 

182 Gittinger's The Formation of the State of OTclahoma, pp. 71, 72, in the 
University of California Publications in History, Vol. VI; The Congressional 
Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 915, 1021-1024, 1303-1306, 1420. 



450 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



other hand popular interest demanded the opening of the 
Indian Territory to occupation by the whites: persistent 
efforts were made by settlers to invade the unassigned 
lands.^^^ Legal white settlement, however, was not author- 
ized until 1887 when the Dawes Act was passed, providing 
that after the lands had been alloted in severalty to the 
Indians the undivided surplus might be bought by the 
United States and sold to the settlers.^^* 

There were numerous petitions for the organization of 
Oklahoma about this time. On February 8, 1888, a conven- 
tion was held at Kansas City which claimed to represent the 
people of all the States bordering on the Indian Territory. 
The memorial prepared there asserted that the Indian Ter- 
ritory lay *'in the center of Southwestern civilization, an 
obstacle to trade development and an injury to every State 
which borders upon it."^^^ 

Finally, after many delays, the Territory of Oklahoma 
was created in 1890. It included, however, only the western 
part of Indian Territory and **No Man's Land". The 
portion of Indian Territory included in Oklahoma Terri- 
tory was bounded as follows : 

Commencing at a point where the ninety-eighth me- 
ridian crosses the Eed River, thence by said meridian to the 
point where it crosses the Canadian River, thence along 
said river to the west line of the Seminole country, thence 
along said line to the north fork of the Canadian River, 
thence down said river to the west line of the Creek country, 
thence along said line to the northwest corner of the Creek 
country, thence along the north line of the Creek country, to 

183 Gittinger's The Formation of the State of Oklahoma, pp. 79-114, in the 
University of California Publications in History, Vol. VI. 

184 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXIV, pp. 388-391. 

186 Gittinger's The Formation of the State of OUnhoma, p. 146, in the Uni- 
versity of California Publications in History, Vol. VI; The Congressional Rec- 
ord, 59th Congress, 1st Session, p. 1382. 



TEANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 451 



the ninety-sixth meridian, thence northward by said me- 
ridian to the southern boundary line of Kansas, thence west 
along said line to the Arkansas River, thence down said 
river to the north line of the land occupied by the Ponca 
tribe of Indians from which point the line runs so as to 
include all the lands occupied by the Ponca, Tonkawa, Otoe, 
and Missouria, and the Pawnee tribes of Indians until it 
strikes the south line of the Cherokee outlet which it follows 
westward to the east line of the State of Texas, thence by 
the boundary line of the State of Texas to the point of be- 
ginning".^^® 

Any other lands within the Indian Territory were to be- 
come a part of the Territory of Oklahoma whenever the 
Indian tribe owning such lands gave its consent. The 
government immediately started negotiations with the In- 
dians for the opening of more lands for settlement.^^' 

On July 3, 1890, Idaho was admitted as a State with the 
boundaries which it had had from the time of the creation 
of the Wyoming Territory in 1868. It was limited on the 
northeast by the Bitter Root Mountains and the continental 
divide ; on the east by the meridian of thirty-four degrees 
of longitude west from Washington; on the south by the 
parallel of forty-two degrees north latitude ; on the west by 
the meridian drawn through and to the mouth of the Owyhee 
River, thence down the Snake River to the Clearwater 
River, and thence by the meridian passing through the 
Clearwater River; and on the north by the British pos- 
sessions.^^^ 

On the same date that Idaho ratified its constitution 
Wyoming did likewise and on July 10, 1890, Wyoming was 

186 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXVI, pp. 81, 82. 

187 Gittinger 's The Formation of the State of OTclahoma, pp. 160-167, in the 
University of California Publications in History, Vol. VI. 

188 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXVI, p. 215. 



452 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



admitted as a State with the boundaries which were given 
to it when it was organized as a Territory.^^^ 

In 1896 Utah was also admitted into the Union without a 
change in her boundaries. There has been no boundary 
modification for Utah since 1868 when the northeastern 
corner was included in the Territory of Wyoming. The 
enabling act was passed on July 16, 1894, but the actual 
admission by proclamation did not take place until January 
4, 1896.190 

No other States were organized before the twentieth cen- 
tury. There were, however, several controversies concern- 
ing uncertain boundaries that were brought before the 
United States Supreme Court. For example, in 1892, be- 
cause of marked changes in the channel of the Missouri 
River, Nebraska and Iowa claimed jurisdiction over the 
same tract of land. The Supreme Court determined a 
boundary which was accepted by both States. 

The same year there was a controversy between the 
United States and the State of Texas as to the ownership 
of what is now Greer County, Oklahoma, which lay between 
the North and South Fork of the Red River. It was not 
certain which branch was designated by the treaty of 1819, 
nor which meridian should be accepted — the true one hun- 
dredth meridian or the one hundredth meridian located on 
the Melish map referred to in the treaty. In 1896 the 
Supreme Court decided that Greer County was not properly 
included within Texas but was subject to the jurisdiction of 
the United States. When Oklahoma Territory was estab- 
lished in 1890, it had been provided that Greer County 

189 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXVI, p. 222. 

190 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXVIII, p. 107, Vol. XXIX, p. 876. 

191 Scott's Judicial Settlement of Controversies between States of the Amer- 
ican Union: Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States, Vol. II, 
pp. 1094-1101, 1118-1120. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 453 



should not be included until the title to the same had been 
adjudicated and determined to be in the United States.^^^ 
As a result of this decision in 1896 Texas lost a valuable 
county to Oklahoma. 

In 1905 the United States Supreme Court settled another 
controversy due to the shifting of the bed of the Missouri 
River. This decision applied to Missouri and Nebraska.^®^ 
A similar case concerning the Columbia River between 
Washington and Oregon was brought up in 1908 but the 
Supreme Court, after giving its opinion concerning the 
correct boundary, decided that such a controversy should 
be adjusted by a boundary commission. In the same year 
the Supreme Court gave a decision in regard to the shift- 
ing portion of the Missouri River between Missouri and 
Kansas.^^^ These cases decided in the United States Su- 
preme Court show how easily boundary controversies may 
arise from time to time. 

Soon after the establishment of Oklahoma Territory, 
there began the introduction of bills for the admission of 
that Territory to statehood. Some of the bills provided for 
the admission of Oklahoma alone, while others provided for 
joint statehood for Oklahoma and Indian Territory. Most 
of the people of the two Territories probably favored joint 
statehood, for one State government was considered less 
expensive than two and separately the Territories were 
very small in comparison with the nearby western States. 

192 Scott's Judicial Settlement of Controversies between States of the Amer- 
ican Union: Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States, Vol. II, 
pp. 1101-1118, 1176-1234; Gittinger's The Formation of the State of Okla- 
homa, p. 167, in the University of California Publications in History, Vol. VI. 

193 Scott 's Judicial Settlement of Controversies between States of the Amer- 
ican Union : Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States, Vol. II, 
pp. 1403-1413. 

19* Scott's Judicial Settlement of Controversies between States of the Amer- 
ican Union: Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the United States, Vol. II, 
pp. 1600-1619. 



454 IOWA JOUKNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



On the other hand their union would bring together two 
unlike sections. The Indians felt that their political 
strength would be greater in a separate State than in a 
joint State. The executives of four of the tribes called a 
constitutional convention in 1905 and a constitution was 
adopted for a proposed State of Sequoyah. The constitu- 
tion was ratified at the polls but before the plan could 
receive a hearing, Congress had practically agreed upon 
the union of Oklahoma and Indian Territory.^®^ 

Seven bills for the admission of the two Territories as 
one State were introduced in the first session of the Fifty- 
ninth Congress. Finally an enabling act was passed and 
approved by the President on June 16, 1906. It not only 
provided for the admission of Oklahoma and the Indian 
Territory as one State, but it also provided for the admis- 
sion of the Territories of Arizona and New Mexico as the 
State of Arizona. The union of the two latter Territories, 
however, was to take place only after the consent of their 
electors was obtained at separate general elections. On 
November 16, 1907, Oklahoma was admitted by the procla- 
mation of President Eoosevelt.^^^ 

In the election held on November 6, 1906, to determine the 
attitude of the people of New Mexico and Arizona toward 
joint statehood. New Mexico voted for union and statehood; 
while Arizona voted against the proposition, because the 
two Territories were racially different and were separated 
by mountains and deserts. Then, too, since the population 
of Arizona was less than that of New Mexico there was per- 
haps fear lest future policies would be dictated by New 

195 Gittinger's The Formation of the State of Ollahoma, pp. 196-210, in the 
U7iiversity of California Publications in History, Vol. VI. 

108 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXXIV, Pt. I, pp. 267, 278, Vol. 
XXXV, Pt. II, pp. 2160, 2161. 



TRANS-MISSISSIPPI POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY 455 



Mexico. When the Senate learned of the overwhehning 
opposition it deferred action.^^'^ 

In 1910 a bill providing for the organization of separate 
State governments in New Mexico and Arizona passed 
Congress and was signed by President Taft on June 20th.^^^ 
A joint resolution to admit the two Territories into the 
Union passed Congress on August 21, 1911, and in 1912 
presidential proclamations declared their admission as 
States.^^^ Their boundaries remained unchanged. 

With the admission of New Mexico and Arizona all of the 
country west of the Mississippi River had been organized 
into States. The territory had been acquired gradually 
and successive Territories and States had been created 
spreading at first from the Mississippi Eiver westward, 
then along the Pacific Ocean, finally filling in the great 
interior. In a little over a century after the first acquisi- 
tion, a vast area of unorganized territory had been organ- 
ized into twenty-two States. There have been many boun- 
dary changes in these States and possibly more of them 
will take place in the future. 

Ruth L. Higgins 

CtoLTjMBus Ohio 

197 Farlow's Arizona's Admission to Statehood in Annual Publications of the 
Historical Society of Southern California, Vol. IX, pp. 137, 142. 

188 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXXVI, Pt. I, pp. 557-579. 

199 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXXVII, Pt. I, p. 39, Pt. II, pp. 
1723, 1728. 



456 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



APPENDIX 

Summary of the Territories and States West of the 
Mississippi 



States Organized as a Admitted as a 

Territory State 



XXX XZjVy J-lCli 


February 


24, 


1863 


February 


14, 


1912 


Arkansas 


March 


2, 


1819 


June 


15, 


1836 


flfllif nrnia 








September 


9) 


1850 


Clolorafio 


February 


28, 


1861 


August 


1, 


1876 


Idaho 


March 


3, 


1863 


July 


3, 


1890 


Iowa. 


June 


12, 


1838 


December 


28, 


1846 




Mav 


30, 


1854 


January 


29, 


1861 


Louisiana 


March 


26, 


1804 


April 


8, 


1812 


Minnesota 


March 


3, 


1849 


May 


11, 


1858 


Missouri 


June 


4, 


1812 


August 


10, 


1821 


Montana 


May 


26, 


1864 


November 


8, 


1889 


Nebraska 


May 


30, 


1854 


February 


9, 


1867 


Nevada 


March 


2, 


1861 


October 


31, 


1864 


New Mexico 


September 


9, 


1850 


January 


6, 


1912 


North Dakota 


March 


2, 


1861 


November 


2, 


1889 


Oklahoma 


May 


2, 


1890 


November 


16, 


1907 


Oregon 


August 


14, 


1848 


February 


14, 


1859 


South Dakota 


March 


2, 


1861 


November 


2, 


1889 


Texas 








December 


29, 


1845 


Utah 


September 


9, 


1850 


January 


4, 


1896 


Washington 


March 


2, 


1853 


November 


11, 


1889 


Wyoming 


July 


25, 


1868 


July 


10, 


1890 



200 The dates given for the admission of the States are those of the final 
action by the Federal government. In some cases this is the approval of the 
act of Congress; in others it is the proclamation by the President. 



A DOCUMENT EELATING TO DUTCH IMMIGRA- 
TION TO IOWA IN 1846 



Of the important documents for the study of Dutch im- 
migration to Iowa, few can be more interesting than the 
rules which were adopted at Utrecht on December 25, 1846, 
by those Hollanders who had determined to seek new homes 
in the United States, though students of this movement have 
made . little, if any, use of this document. Indeed, it is very 
doubtful whether any of the later writers on the subject 
have ever seen it. K. Van Stigt mentions the formation of 
an association in general terms,^ but appears to have de- 
rived practically all of his information from Scholte's 
organ The Reformation.^ John NoUen enumerates sub- 
stantially the same facts : on December 25, 1846, there was a 
meeting at Utrecht at which all particulars concerning the 
journey were decided; a sort of constitution was drawn up ; 
the time for departure was set for the close of March or the 
first part of April ; and, finally, an executive committee was 
named.^ J. A. Wormser, biographer of Scholte, does not 
mention the rules in any way.* Nor does Jacob Van der 
Zee make use of them in his excellent work The Hollanders 
in Iowa in which they would assuredly have been dealt with 
had they been known.^ 

That these rules should so long have remained unknown 
is indeed quite remarkable. Undoubtedly a large number 

iVan Stigt 's GescJiiedenis van Pella, Iowa, en Omgeving, Pt. I, pp. 74, 75, 
85, 86. 

2 De Beformatie (A periodical of the Christian Reformed Church), Third 
Series, Pts. 2 and 3, published by H. P. Scholte in 1846 and 1847 at Amsterdam. 
sNoUen's De Afscheiding : Een GedenJcschrift, p. 45. 

* Wormser 's ' ' Door Kwaad Gerucht en Goed Gerucht. ' ' Het Leven van 
HendriJc Peter Scholte in Een Schat in Aarden Vaten, First Series, Pt. 2. 
5 Van der Zee's The Hollanders of Iowa, pp. 45, 46. 

VOL. XXI— 29 457 



458 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of copies were printed and distributed among the emi- 
grating Hollanders, and many must have been brought to 
Iowa, for the association continued to play a part in the 
early history of Pella. The existence of the printed rules, 
however, was not known to the writer even after half a 
dozen years spent in collecting the documents dealing with 
emigration from Holland to the United States and other 
countries.^ Even the documentary material which may 
to-day be consulted in the old Scholte home at Pella does 
not include a copy. To my delight, therefore, I found one 
quite accidentally when, in the rather idle hope of finding 
something that might be of importance, I was looking over 
an unpromising mass of miscellaneous books and pam- 
phlets exposed for sale on the market square, the Neude, of 
Utrecht. The pamphlet is not mentioned in the catalogue 
of the vast collection of the Eoyal Library at The Hague. 
It is in octavo and has fourteen pages. It has no cover and 
appears never to have had one. No place or date are given 
on the title page which merely has the words "Nether- 
landish Association for Emigration to the United States of 
North America".'^ A copy of the translation of this unique 
document is printed below. 

Henry Stephen Lucas 

State University op Washington 
Seattle Washington 

6 The rules of the association formed at Arnhem were never put into operation 
and were not printed until 1910. — Brummelkamp 's Levensbeschrijving van 
Wijlen Professor A. Brummelkainp , Hoogleeraar aan de Theologische School te 
Kampen, pp. 205-209. An English translation was recently printed in Lucas's 
The Beginnings of Dutch Immigration to Western Michigan, 1846, in Michigan 
History Magazine, Vol. VI. The Zeelanders formed a similar association and 
published the rules. — Beglcment der Zeeuwsche Vereeniging ter Verhuizing 
naar de Vereenigde Staten van Noord-Amerika (Met een Woor aan den Lezer). 
Te Goes bij de Wed. C. W. de .Jonge, 1847. 

7 ' ' Nederlandsche Vereeniging ter Verhuizing naar de Vereenigde Staten van 
Noord-Amerika. ' ' 



DUTCH IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 459 



NETHERLANDISH ASSOCIATION FOR EMIGRATION TO 
THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA 

ARTICLE 1 

A Netherlandish Association for emigration to the United States 
of North America is formed. From the membership of this Associ- 
ation a Board of Control is chosen. 

ARTICLE 2 

The control of the Association is entrusted to a President, sup- 
ported by a Secretary, a Vice-President and four Advisors. In 
case of a tie the President shall have a deciding vote. 

ARTICLE 3 

Each person who wishes to emigrate shall announce his intention 
to the Board and indicate the amount of land desired by each indi- 
vidual or group of individuals collectively, or the amount of money 
vrhich they may have set aside for that purpose. Also the number 
who are to be transported at the expense of each participant. In 
like manner must those who wish to accompany the Association at 
their own expense without intending to purchase land announce 
their intention. 

ARTICLE 4 

In no case shall the Board of Control accept anyone as a partici- 
pant of whose moral conduct or public life any suspicions of im- 
proper conduct can be rightfully entertained. Nor may any mem- 
bers of the Romish persuasion be admitted to membership in the 
Association. 

ARTICLE 5 

The Board of Control shall enter into negotiations with shippers 
in order that the most pleasant and advantageous passage and 
further journey through North America may be prepared. 

ARTICLE 6 

As all members of the Association cannot be transported on one 
ship, the Board shall see to it that the members of the Board shall 
be distributed among the various ships and a supervisor for the 
decks of each ship shall be named from among the passengers. In 
like manner shall the Board make substitutions in case of sickness. 



460 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ARTICLE 7 

Before departure the Board of Control shall, in consultation with 
the captain, make arrangements for provisions and for daily duties 
on the journey in connection with keeping the decks clean. The 
passengers ought to submit to these rules. Each member of the 
Association binds himself to render all possible services according 
to his abilities at the indication of the Board. 

ARTICLE 8 

In the month of January shall be paid into the hands of the 
Board of Control the whole of the expenses covering the journey to 
and in the United States except the provisions which are left to the 
care of the participants. The expenses of the journey are for the 
time being estimated at eighty guilders per head, the full grown 
and children taken together ; for the full grown not accompanied 
by children under twelve, at a hundred guilders. 

ARTICLE 9 

There will most likely be opportunity of a more comfortable 
passage overseas in case one hundred shall indicate their desire for 
such passage. In that case the expenses of the passage and provi- 
sions will amount to a hundred twenty guilders for the full grown 
and children in proportion. Besides this there is also opportunity 
for place in the cabins. This is also true of the journey through 
America. 

ARTICLE 10 

The total amount of the purchase price of the land must be de- 
posited with the Board of Control before departure and by the 
middle of March at the latest. The price of the land is provision- 
ally estimated at two dollars (five guilders) per acre (practically 
equivalent to a half Rijnland morgen). 

ARTICLE 11 

After the journey and the purchase and the division of the land 
have been accomplished, the Board of Control shall render account 
and be responsible for its supervision in this matter. In case there 
is a cash balance, it shall be allocated to each according to his share; 
in the case of a deficit each shall pay his due portion. 

ARTICLE 12 

In case the Board of Control deems it advisable one or two mem- 



DUTCH IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 461 



bers may be appointed either from the Board or from the member- 
ship of the Association to take passage at Havre as soon as the 
passage of the Association has been arranged, in order to be in the 
port of landing some time in advance to provide for inland trans- 
portation. 

ARTICLE 13 

The party which shall be appointed to choose and buy the whole 
area of land shall, as soon as possible upon arrival in the United 
States, journey to the region which has been proposed in order to 
choose the lands and purchase them so that the immigrants can as 
they arrive receive assignment for their homes. 

AETICLE 14 

The area of the land purchased shall immediately be divided into 
large divisions of four or more sections, in accordance as the partici- 
pants of the Association shall have declared their desire to live 
together. As far as possible in the middle of these divisions (which 
may be regarded as separate subdivisions), a quarter of a section 
shall be set apart, which shall be taken from the adjoining sections. 
On this ground which shall constitute the village proper there shall 
be erected at the common expense, a. a schoolhouse and houses for 
the teachers in order that after the arrival the children may soon 
be kept busy, and 6. a house for the doctor in order that he may at 
once follow his calling. 

ARTICLE 15 

The Board of Control shall have the right to sell parts of this 
ground to individual parties who do not wish to buy land for farm- 
ing, but who wish to follow a calling or carry on some business or 
trade or who for any other reason may desire to live in the midst of 
the village. The total amount of money from the sale of such lands 
shall be used to meet the common expenses. 

ARTICLE 16 

Cabins can be built upon this ground to serve as homes for the 
members of the Association until they shall build houses upon 
their own lands. For the use of these a moderate rent shall be 
paid. The cabins shall remain the property of the community and 
final disposal shall later be made of them. 



462 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ARTICLE 17 

The Board of Control provides for a suitable school and teachers 
for the needs of the Association and also for the necessary school 
supplies. It shall also regulate either before or after arrival the 
rules and the terms upon which the children can be received. The 
school shall be supported by the Association in so far as the ex- 
penses shall not be met by the tuition money. Each party shall 
contribute for this purpose in proportion to his share in the general 
expenses. For the rest each party shall be wholly free in respect to 
the education of his children. 

ARTICLE 18 

The Board of Control shall regulate whatever may be deemed 
necessary for the Association in respect to medical service. 

ARTICLE 19 

The Board of Control shall determine immediately after the 
division of the lands the main roads to the limits of the village and 
shall see to it that each party shall have access from his lands to 
the main roads. Parties owning lands along any of the roads are 
obliged to surrender mutually one half of the ground necessary 
for the road. This shall also be the rule in connection with the 
digging of canals or ditches for the common needs. In the con- 
struction of roads or canals no one shall unduly burden his neigh- 
bors. 

ARTICLE 20 

The Board of Control as such shall not concern itseK in any 
case with regulations concerning religious services or other ecclesi- 
astical matters. No expenses incurred in this matter can be pre- 
sented to the Association for payment. This matter is left entirely 
to those who associate themselves with an ecclesiastical organization. 

ARTICLE 21 

The members of the Board of Control shall as such receive no 
compensation. When, however, they shall have incurred expenses 
through travel or special duties for the needs of the Association, 
they shall be reimbursed. The Board shall be allowed to compen- 
sate a Secretary. After settlement shall have been made, decision 
may be reached to give the President an annual grant because of 
his more persistent activities for the needs of the Association. 



DUTCH IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 463 



ARTICLE 22 

The Board of Control shall call at least one meeting of those 
interested before the departure. Report shall then be submitted 
regarding the condition of the Association, the personnel and the 
quantity of land which can be bought. It shall also render a report 
concerning information received in the meantime. Furthermore, 
the Board of Control shall after fuller investigation of the laws of 
the United States present a plan of government for the Association 
after its settlement in North America in order that they may as 
soon as they are established choose a regular local government. 

ARTICLE 23 

If anything is to be done or prepared in the general interest be- 
fore the departure the Board of Control will likewise call together 
those that are interested and inform them of the matter under pro- 
posal. The Board shall on that occasion make the necessary reso- 
lutions and when two thirds of the members approve the proposi- 
tion, it shall be binding upon all. 

ARTICLE 24 

If any member of the Association shall have any proposal which 
he deems advantageous to the Association he shall inform the 
President to that effect in writing who will present the matter be- 
fore the Board. If the Board approves the proposal by a majority 
of votes, the same shall be further discussed in the manner de- 
scribed in the previous article. In case the Board declines such a 
proposal it will notify the member to that effect and give the 
reasons therefor. 

ARTICLE 25 

Those who accompany the Association entirely at the expense of 
others shall have no deciding vote. Furthermore, to have a de- 
ciding vote it is required that the member be married or a widower, 
or have attained the age of twenty years. 

ARTICLE 26 

The members of the Association bind themselves not to sell, rent 
or surrender, their real properties in the community to any one 
outside the Association without giving previous notice to the Board. 
This Board shall then have the right of priority and shall have a 
period of forty-eight hours to take action. The purchaser of such 



464 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



land shall incur the same obligations as the original holder. The 
Board shall have the right to remove this obligation after an in- 
vestigation of the people who wish to come in from the outside. 

AETICJLE 27 

The Board of Control shall have the power to propose to the 
Association to borrow money at interest in order to execute works 
of general interest and advantage. Whenever such a proposal 
shall have been accepted in a meeting of the members of the Associ- 
ation in the ordinary manner, the same shall have binding force. 

ARTICLE 28 

The Board of Control shall have the liberty to accept contribu- 
tions for the needs of the Association from those who are interested 
in the success of the emigration, and an account of such sums shall 
be kept and report rendered. The Board will also see to it that 
proper account shall be kept of all receipts and expenditures so 
that in the final account and responsibility it can be proved to the 
satisfaction of each that the business has been conducted according 
to the rules agreed upon. 

AETICLE 29 

The Board shall make sure that a book be kept in which a record 
of births and marriages of the members of the Association shall be 
entered. For this purpose each person shall for himself or for his 
family send the necessary notices to the President of the Board as 
soon as possible. This regulation is deemed necessary in order to 
avoid complications in the future. 

ARTICLE 30 

Each member shall pay for himself and for his family as admis- 
sion fee one guilder per caput for the purpose of paying incidental 
expenses. The same shall be demanded from all those who will join 
the Association later. Proof of membership in the Association, 
signed by the President, shall then be given. 

ARTICLE 31 

In case anyone shall change his intentions after ships have been 
chartered for the passage to North America he shall be entitled to 
receive whatever he shall have deposited for the purchase of land. 
Likewise he shall receive such part of the money deposited for the 
passage as shall not be needed for the voyage. This shall, however, 



DUTCH IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 465 



only be repaid when the places thus made vacant are filled by new 
members of the Association. In this case ten percent of the pas- 
sage money received shall be deducted for the needs of the Asso- 
ciation. 

AETICLE 32 

In case anyone should find himself in circumstances under which, 
according to the judgment of the Board, it is impossible for him to 
accompany the Association, he shall in case he has need of it, not be 
bound by the terms of the foregoing article. 

ABTICLE 33 

In case proofs of immoral or irregular public conduct of any 
member of the Association become known before departure such 
member shall have the money which he may have deposited returned 
to him and his connection with the Association ended. 

AETICLE 34 

The President of the Association shall have executive power and 
all documents in which the Association is a party shall be signed by 
him and the Secretary. The latter 's signature shall be evidence of 
the fact that the document issued is described in the minutes book 
of the Association. In this book the business of the meetings shall 
also be entered, and shall be signed by the President and the Secre- 
tary after the minutes are approved by the Board. 

ARTICLE 35 

These rules shall be printed and a copy presented to each sub- 
scriber and it shall be signed, as proof of genuineness, by the Presi- 
dent and the Secretary. Furthermore, each of the subscribers shall 
with his own hand sign this agreement for himself and his family 
as proof that he will be guided by the rules of the Association, and 
insofar as he may be able, further the interests of the Association. 

THUS DETERMINED IN A MEETING OF THE MEMBERS 
HELD AT UTRECHT, 25 DECEMBER, 1846. 

H. P. ScHOLTE, President. 

I. OvERKAMP, Secretary.8 

8 These names are autograph signatures. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 

The War Purse of Indiana. By Walter Greenough. Indianap- 
olis: Indiana Historical Commission. 1922. Pp. 278. Plates. 
This volume, containing an account of the five Liberty Loans and 
the war savings and thrift campaigns in Indiana, fs the second of 
the series known as Indiana World War Records and is Volume 
VIII of the Indiana Historical Collections. It contains chapters on 
the various Liberty Loans, the war savings campaign, and one on 
Indiana women in the loan campaigns. There is also an appendix 
giving data concerning the financial activities in Indiana during 
the World War, and reproductions of a number of the posters 
used in the campaigns. The story is well told, with an interesting 
combination of statistics and human interest stories. 

The History of the 33rd Division. By Frederic Louis Huide- 
koper. Edited by Theodore C. Pease. Springfield: Illinois State 
Historical Library. 1921. Vol. I, 493 pp. ; Vol. II, 725 pp. ; Vol. 
Ill, 594 pp. ; Vol. IV, maps. These four volumes are a part of the 
series entitled Illinois in the World War, and relate to the Illinois 
National Guard contingent which was organized as the Thirty- 
third Division. 

Volume one contains the history of the division from the time of 
its mobilization at Camp Logan, Houston, Texas, in the fall of 1917, 
until its demobilization at Camp Grant, Rockford, Illinois, in June, 
1919. Copious notes, containing a large amount of data, and an 
index complete this volume which is the history proper. 

The second and third volumes contain the appendices — forty- 
two in number. Some of these are compilations of statistics, dates, 
and other data; while some are copies of official correspondence, 
orders, and reports. There is no index for these volumes. The 
fourth volume is a portfolio containing maps relating to the mili- 
tary operations of the division. 

Tillages of the Algonquian, Siouan, and Caddoan Tribes West of 
the Mississippi. By David I. Bushnell, Jr. Washington : Govern- 

466 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



467 



ment Printing Office. 1922. Pp. 211. Plates. This volume, which 
constitutes bulletin number seventy-seven of the Bureau of Amer- 
ican Ethnology, contains an account of the homes and domestic life 
of some of the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi River. Since it 
is profusely illustrated and contains many descriptions left by 
explorers and others who visited these villages while they were 
occupied by the Indians, this study presents an interesting and 
vivid picture of the Indian tribes living just west of the Mississippi 
River. 

The volume contains information about the Sac and Fox, the 
Sioux, the Winnebago, and the Iowa Indians, who were associated 
with the territory now included in the State of Iowa. The volume 
is provided with a bibliography and an index. 



Rainbow Bright, by Lawrence 0. Stewart, is the story of the 
Forty-second Division told from the viewpoint of the doughboy. 

The Ancient Quipu or Peruvian Knot Record, a monograph by 
L. Leland Locke, has recently been published by the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

The March number of the Bulletin of the New York Public Li- 
brary contains the second installment of To Nebraska in '57 — A 
Diary of Erastus F. Beadle. 

Federal Subsidies to the States: A Study in American Admin- 
istration, by Austin F. Macdonald, has recently been published by 
the author. 

Kathryn L. Behrens is the author of a monograph on Paper 
Money in Maryland, 1727-1789, which has recently been published 
as one of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and 
Political Science. 

Boston in the Last Days of the Town, a paper by Walter Kendall 
Watkins, is published in the Proceedings of the Bostonian Society 
for 1923. 

Military Conscription, Especially in the United States, by P. M. 



468 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Cutler, is a paper of general historical interest in the May issue of 
The Historical Outlook. 

The October, 1921, number of the Bulletin of the Virginia State 
Library is an Index to Obituary Notices in the Bichmond Enquirer 
from May 9, 1804, through 1828, and the Bichmond Whig from 
January, 1824, through 1838. 

William Plumber's Memorandum of Proceedings in the United 
States Senate, 1803-1807, edited by Everett Somerville Brown, is 
one of the recent books on legislative history. This is in the form 
of a diary and contains a great deal of material on the organization 
of the Senate. 

Under the heading Legislative Notes and Beviews in the May 
number of The American Political Science Beview, Walter F. Dodd 
has compiled an account of Governors' messages and their recom- 
mendations. 

Sir William Johnson, by Charles A. Ingraham, The Story of 
Arlington National Cemetery, by Carson C. Hathaway, The Begin- 
nings of Education, by Henry A. Tirrell, and Misunderstood 
Mythology, by Jacob P. Dunn, are four of the contributions in the 
April issue of Americana. 

These United States, edited by Ernest Gruening, is a collection 
of the twenty-seven articles on the various States which appeared 
in The Nation. The essay on Iowa, entitled "A Mortgaged El- 
dorado", was written by Johan J, Smertenko. 

Increase of Population in the United States, 1910-1920, by Wil- 
liam S. Rossiter, has recently been issued as the first volume of the 
series of Census Monographs. This study of changes and charac- 
teristics of the population of the United States and the various 
States is both useful and interesting. 

Among the contributions to The Journal of American History 
for July-September, 1922, are the following: The Indian Inhab- 
itants of the Niagara Frontier, by Frederick Houghton; Henry 
Clay and Liberia, by Lucretia Clay Simpson; From Bhode Island 
to Ohio in 1815, by John Cotton ; and The Fight Against the Bank 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



469 



of the United States, a chapter in the study entitled A History of 
Banks and Banking and of Banks and Banking in the City of New 
York, by W. Harrison Bayles and Frank AUaben. 

Source Volume I of the Publications of the Virginia War History 
Commission is Virginians of Distinguished Service in the World 
War, edited by Arthur Kyle Davis. It is dedicated to Woodrow 
Wilson "the Virginian of most distinguished service". The volume 
contains the names of 763 Virginians who were decorated during 
the World War by the United States or foreign countries. 

An American Boundary Dispute: Decision of the Supreme Court 
of the United States with Respect to the Texas-Oklahoma Boun- 
dary, by Isaiah Bowman, and The Forty-fifth Parallel: A Detail of 
the Unguarded Boundary, by Lawrence Shaw Mayo, are two arti- 
cles of interest to American history students in the April number 
of The Geographical Review. 

The University of the State of New York has published The 
Papers of Sir William Johnson in three volumes. These cover the 
period from 1738 to 1808 and contain much material relating to 
the Indians and to economic conditions at the time. The compila- 
tion was made under the direction of James Sullivan, Director of 
the Division of Archives and History of New York. 

The American Anthropologist for October-December, 1922, con- 
tains an article by William C. Mills on Exploration of the Mound 
City Group, Ross County, Ohio, A Prochlorite Bannerstone Work- 
shop, by John Leonard Baer, Feather Mantles of California, by 
Charles C. Willoughby, and The Family Hunting Territory and 
Lendpe Political Organization, by William Christie MacLeod. In 
the issue for January-March, 1923, one of the articles is American 
Culture and the Northwest Coast, by A. L. Kroeber. 

WESTERN AMEEICANA 

The Navahos and Their Blankets, by Harry G. Franse, is one of 
the papers in the June number of Autumn Leaves. 

Waukesha County: Northern Townships, by Charles E. Brown, 
is the study published in The Wisconsin Archeologist for January. 



470 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

History of Experiments in Economic Equality, by Merrill A. 
Etzenhouser, and The Nauvoo Exodus are two papers of historical 
interest in the April number of the Journal of History. 

Open Price Associations, a monograph by Milton Nels Nelson, 
has recently appeared in the June, 1922, issue of the University of 
Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences. 

John B. Floyd and James Buchanan, by P. G. Auchampaugh, 
and Famous Battles as a Confederate Private Saw Them, sketches 
by Samuel EUas Mays, are two of the papers in Tyler's Quarterly 
Historical and Genealogical Magazine for April. There are also 
Letters from the Governors' Letter Books. 

The Southwestern Political and Social Science Quarterly for 
June contains an article by Charles Grove Haines on Histories of 
the Supreme Court of the United States Written From the Fed- 
eralist Point of View and one by E. T. Miller on State Income and 
Taxation. 

The Winnebago Tribe is a monograph by Paul Radin published 
in the Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology. This is a very complete and interesting description of 
an Indian tribe connected with the early history of Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and Minnesota. 

The Organization and Activities of the Committee on Scientific 
Research of the State Council of Defense of California, a report 
prepared by T. H. Goodspeed, has been published as a number of 
the Bulletin of the National Research Council, a periodical pub- 
lished by the National Research Council of the National Academy 
of Sciences at Washington, D. C. 

The Book of Lake Geneva, by Paul B. Jenkins, is an interesting 
story of a famous Wisconsin resort. It includes material on the 
geological formations, the Yei"kes Observatory, and descriptions of 
the surrounding region, and in addition has an account of the occu- 
pation of the lake shores by the Indians, the coming of the white 
settlers, and the later events in Walworth County, Wisconsin. 

Waiting on the Maya Ghosts, by Alma Reed, is a brief article in 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



471 



El Palacio for April 16, 1923. The following number has an article 
by the same author entitled On the Track of the Maya's Secret and 
Ledgers of a Santa Fe Trader, by Lansing Bloom. The Well of the 
Maya's Human Sacrifice and Assimilation hy Archaeological First 
Aid, both by Alma Reed, appear in the issue for June 1. In the 
number dated July 2, 1923, Walter Hough contributes Pit Dwell- 
ings and Square Kivas of the Tipper San Francisco Biver. 

A History of Missouri and Missourians is a text book on State 
history, prepared by Floyd C. Shoemaker, for Missouri high schools. 
It is presented in six parts : Missouri and Missourians ; Missouri a 
Foreign Possession, 1541-1804; Missouri an American Territory, 
1804-1820 ; A Century of Missouri Politics, 1821-1921 ; A Century 
of Military Missouri ; and A Century of Missouri 's Victories of 
Peace. Each chapter is followed by suggestive questions and in 
the Appendix is a list of reference books on Missouri. 

The Pioneer Physician, by James Grassick, The North Dakota 
Bar of the Pioneer Days, by F. W. Ames, Early Politics and Poli- 
ticians of North Dakota, by George B. Winship, Tales of the Early 
Settlers, by J. H. Shepperd, Early Banking in North Dakota, by 
Samuel Torgerson, The Pioneer Farmer, by John W. Scott, and 
Early Religious Activities, by Charles H. Phillips, are the articles 
in The Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota for 
April. 

The Wisconsin Magazine, the first issue of which appeared in 
March, 1923, has for its primary purpose, the dissemination of 
publicity concerning the State of Wisconsin. The magazine is 
published monthly and is entirely popular in style. Among the 
articles included, however, are some relating to historical events ia 
Wisconsin. Bogus Cave, by Mary A. James, A Noisemaker With 
a History, by O. D. Brandenburg, Nelson Dewey, First Governor of 
Wisconsin, 1848-1852, Old-Time Taverns in Barahoo Region, by 
H. E. Cole, Captain Marryat in Wisconsin, by Milo C. Richter, 
Wisconsin Indian Earthworks, by Charles E. Brown, and Historic 
Glimpse of the Green Bay-Chicago Road, by F. A. Cannon, are 
examples of this type of articles found in the March issue. The 



472 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



May number contains the following short historical sketches: Tke 
Romance of Great Lakes Navigation, by R. G. Plumb ; Leonard J. 
Farwell, Second Governor of Wisconsin, 1852-1854; Wisconsin's 
White Rihhon Shrine, by May L. Bauchle; A Story Told with 
Earth, by Marian Strong; and Hamlin Garland, by George Ger- 
ling. In the issue for June are the following: How Coldwater 
Canyon Was Named, by Stanley E. Lathrop ; The Romance of 
Great Lakes Navigation, by R. G. Plumb ; Wisconsin's Capital City, 
by Margaret Smith ; Paul Bunyan, Only True American Myth, by 
Bert E. Hopkins; The Lynching Bee Tree, by H. E. Cole. 

lOWANA 

C. J. Wohlenberg, vice president of the Ida County Historical 
Society, has begun work on the compilation of a history of the 
early settlements in Ida County. 

Physicians Who Located in Iowa in the Period Between 1850 
and 1860, by D. S. Fairchild, is continued in the April number of 
The Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society. 

The History of Fort Dodge, by J. H. Schaffner, is continued in 
the April, May, and June numbers of The Community Builder, 
published by the Ft. Dodge Chamber of Commerce. 

Angeline Smith is the compiler of a bibliography entitled Iowa: 
Some Suggested Topics for Study, recently published by the Ex- 
tension Division of the State University of Iowa as Bulletin No. 89. 

A Young Soldier's Career, by Elbridge D. Hadley, Hostile Raid 
into Davis County, Iowa, a report by Colonel S. A. Moore in 1865, 
and Colonel N. W. Mills of the Second Iowa Infantry, by F. M. 
Mills, are the three articles in the Annals of Iowa for July, 1922. 
An article entitled Overland Journey to California hy Platte River 
Route and South Pass in 1850, by Fancher Stimson, Pioneering at 
Bonaparte and Near Pella, by Mrs. Sarah Welch Nossaman, and an 
account of the addresses delivered at the presentation of the por- 
trait of Samuel Calvin to the Historical Department are the three 
contributions in the number for October, 1922. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



473 



SOME RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IOWA AUTHORS 

Allen, Mary Louise, 

Bring Your Flower Garden Indoors (Fruit, Garden and Home, 
July, 1923). 

The Dawn of the Dahlia (People's Popular Monthly, June, 
1923). 

Blackman, H. L., 

Engineering Is Aid to Salesmanship (The Iowa Engineer, May, 
1923). 

Brindley, John E., 

Engineers Need Business Training (The Iowa Engineer, June, 
1923). 

Brown, Bernice, 

Johnny Oeraldy (Collier's Weekly, May 5, 1923). 
No Message (The Ladies' Home Journal, June, 1923). 

Brown, Charles R., 

Faith and Health. New York : Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1923. 

Catt, Carrie Chapman, (Joint author) 

Woman Suffrage and Politics. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 1923. 

Crawford, Bartholow V., 

The Dance of the Kings (Philological Quarterly, April, 1923). 

Crosby, H. E., (Joint author) 

Construction Starts on New Library (The Iowa Engineer, 
April, 1923). 

Donovan, Josephine Barry, 

Grasshopper Times (The Palimpsest, June, 1923). 

The Winter of Eighty-One (The Palimpsest, April, 1923). 

Dyer, J. E., 

Huge Texas Dam Built Hydraulically (The Iowa Engineer, 
March, 1923). 

Edwards, Alice Mavor, 

The Old Holland School (The Midland, March, 1923). 

VOL. XXI — 30 



474 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Ensign, Forest C, 

Fifty Years of Education (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 1923). 

Farran, Don W., 

To Where the Sea-Gulls Fly (Railroad Telegrapher, May, 
1923). 

Farrell, Mabel, (Peggy Poe) 

The Put-It-Off Folks or Why Pappy Bahhit Has Such a Short 

Tail (Children's Hour, May, 1923). 
The Village of After-While (People's Popular Monthly, June, 

1923). 

Flindt, v., 

Quick Work in Extending a Water-Works Intake (The Amer- 
ican City, June, 1923). 

Frudden, C. E., 

Need Engineers in Tractor Industry (The Iowa Engineer, 
April, 1923). 
GaUaher, Ruth Augusta, 

The Iowa (The PaHmpsest, April, 1923). 

Gardner, Nellie E., 

A Futurist Shakespeare (Vanity Fair, April, 1923). 

Gilmore, Grace L., 

Missourians Ahroad — Daniel Cowen Jackling (The Missouri 
Historical Review, April, 1923). 

Gordon, Ronald, 

The Bat-a-Tat Tat of the Drum (Normal Instructor and Pri- 
mary Plans, May, 1923). 
Green, Thomas, 

The Builders (Quarterly Bulletin Iowa Masonic Library, April, 

1923). 
Henderson, A. M., 

Why We Should Tell the World That "Horace Greeley Meant 

Iowa" (The Northwestern Banier, June, 1923). 

Hinrichs, Anna, 

Scraping Acquaintances (The Iowa Alumnus, May, 1923). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



475 



Hopper, Isabella, 

Broadcasting the Public Library (Iowa Library Quarterly, 
April- June, 1923). 

Hough, Emerson, 

North of 36. New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1923. 

Houk, Ivan E., 

Cooperation With Biver Averts Floods (Popular Mechanics, 
May, 1923). 

Teams and Scoops Used in Sewer Excavations (Successful 
Methods, February, 1923). 

When a Locomotive Boiler Explodes (Illustrated World, Feb- 
ruary, 1923). 

Hughes, Helen Sard, 

The Menace of the Alumni (The New Republic, February 7. 
1923). 

Hughes, Rupert, 

Within These Walls. New York: Harper Bros. 1923. 

Hutchinson, Woods, 

Our Lordly Liver (The Saturday Evening Post, May 5, 1923). 

Keyes, Charles RoUin, 

Evolution of Through-Flowing Rivers in Arid Regions (The 

Pan-American Geologist, June, 1923). 
Gustavus Detleff Hinrichs: Mineralogist, Meteorologist, and 
Physical Chemist (The Pan-American Geologist, June, 1923). 

King, P. M., 

Varied Steps Mark Oil Production (The Iowa Engineer, May, 
1923). 

Lane, WiU A., 

Watching the Ups and Downs of the American Business 
Barometer (The Northwestern Banker, April, 1923). 

McGovney, D. 0., 

Race Discrimination in Naturalization, Part IV (Iowa Law 
Bulletin, May, 1923). 



476 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



McNally, Sherman J., 

"Boh" Burdette — Humorist (The Palimpsest, June, 1923). 

Mahan, Bruce E., 

The First Iowa Field Day (The Palimpsest, May, 1923). 

Manatt, Rowland R., 

Low-Head Dam Practical for Power (The Iowa Engineer, 
April, 1923). 

Maynard, Mrs. C. M., 

Pickles You Will Like (Fruit, Garden and Home, July, 1923). 

Mayser, R. D., 

Hedenger Wins Back Land hy Drainage (The Iowa Engineer, 
April, 1923). 

Moore, Parke, 

Some Bass, A Few Pike, and the Professor (National Sports- 
man, May, 1923). 

Morey, Bertha Graves, 

Making Artificial Flowers (Popular Mechanics, May, 1923). 

Newton, Joseph Fort, 

The Inevitable Christ. New York : Macmillan Co. 1923. 

'Grady, Rose, (Mrs. W. B. Kerr) 

A Culinary Courtship (People's Popular Monthly, June, 
1923). ' 

Parker, George F., 

Grover Cleveland's First Administration as President (The 
Saturday Evening Post, April 7, 1923). 

How Cleveland and Whitney Made the New Navy (The Satur- 
day Evening Post, May 19, 1923). 

Phillips, Blair A., 

Taxpayers Will Suffer If Municipal Securities Are Made Tax- 
able (The Northwestern Banker, April, 1923), 

Quaife, Milo Milton, 

John Long's Voyages and Travels in the Years 1768-1788. 
Chicago : R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 1922. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



477 



Quick, Herbert, 

The HawJceye. Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1923. 

Reynolds, Pauline M., 

The Spirit of Club Worh. Ames : Iowa State College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts. 1923. 

Bobbins, Charles L., 

Our Mechanizing Education (Educational Eeview, March, 
1923). 

Rockwood, Alan C, 

A History of the Military Department of the State University 
of Iowa (The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, April, 
1923). 

Rohrbaugh, Lewis Guy, 

Religious Philosophy. New York : George H. Doran Co. 1923. 

Rosenbaum, Benjamin, 

The Etcher (The Measure, June, 1923). 

Russell, Frances Theresa, 

On Being Human (The Iowa Alumnus, May, 1923). 

Schlesinger, Arthur M., 

Content of General College Course in U. S. History (Historical 
Outlook, March, 1923). 

Seashore, Carl E., 

An Introduction to Psychology. New York: Macmillan Co. 
1923. 

Finding and Fostering Gifted Children (The Outlook, Febru- 
ary 7, 1923). 

Shaw, Albert, 

George E. Roberts: Interpreter of Economics (The American 
Review of Reviews, April, 1923). 

Small, A. J., 

Bibliographical and Historical Check List of Proceedings of 
Bar and Allied Associations. Des Moines: American Asso- 
ciation of Law Libraries. 1923. 



478 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Smith, Angeline, 

Iowa: Some Suggested Topics for Study. Iowa City: The 
State University of Iowa. 1923. 

Swisher, Jacob A., 

The Capital on Wheels (The Palimpsest, May, 1923). 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 

Hunters of the Great North. New York: Harcourt, Brace & 
Co. 1923. 

Stewart, George W., 

Certain Allurements in Physics (Science, January 5, 1923). 

Stewart, Lawrence 0., 

Rainbow Bright. Philadelphia : Dorrance & Co. 1923. 

Stoddart, H. W., 

New Deep-Well Pump Has Axial Flow (The Iowa Engineer, 
June, 1923). 

Stoner, Dayton, 

Insects Taken at Hot Springs, Botorua, N. Zealand (Ento- 
mological News, March, 1923). 
The Mynah, A Story in Adaptation (The Auk, April, 1923). 

Tapping, T. Hawley, 

College Publicity (The Iowa Alumnus, May, 1923). 

Thorpe, Francis Newton, 

Essentials of American Government. New York: G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 1923. 

Wallace, Henry C, 

How Congress Plans to Bring Credit Belief to the American 
Farmer (The Northwestern Banker, April, 1923). 

Walles, RoUand S., 

Auto-Tourist Camps (National Municipal Review, April, 
1923). 

Ward, Charles Frederick, 

Le Liure de la Deahlerie of Eloy d'Amerval. Iowa City: The 
State University of Iowa. 1923. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



479 



"Waterman, Earle L., 

The Disposal of Municipal Refuse in Iowa (The American 
City Magazine, May, 1923). 

WiUiams, Edward Huntington, 

Opiate Addiction, Its Handling and Treatment. New York: 
Macmillan Co. 1922. 

Wilson, Ben Hur, 

Tesson's Apple Orchard (The Palimpsest, April, 1923). 

Wylie, Josephine, 

Perfect Jelly (Fruit, Garden and Home, July, 1923). 

Wylie, Paul B., (Joint author) 

Construction Starts on New Library (The Iowa Engineer, 
April, 1923). 

Wylie, Robert B., 

Lakeside Laboratory Notes (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 1923). 

Tetter, Frank B., 

What Everyone Should Know About the Federal Reserve Sys- 
tem (The Northwestern Banker, June, 1923). 

Young, C. E., 

A Forecast of Summer (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 1923). 

SOME RECENT HISTORICAL ITEMS IN IOWA NEWSPAPERS 

Pioneers in Jackson County, in the Davenport Democrat, April 1, 
1923. 

In the days when Burlington was young, by J. L. Waite, in the 
Burlington Hawk-Eye, April 1, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Daniel SuUivan, in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, 
April 1, 1923. 

Sanford H. Brown, passenger on first train into Sioux City, in the 
Sioux City Tribune, April 4, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. George I. Gardner, in the Decorah Public 
Opinion, April 4, 1923. 



480 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Sketch, of the life of E. W. D. Holway, in the Decorah Public 
Opinion, April 4, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Lydia Adaline Harlow, in the Corning Union 
Bepuhlican, April 4, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Horace Boies, in the Des Moines Tribune, 
April 5, 1923, the Waterloo Tribune and the Des Moines Cap- 
ital, April 6, 1923, the Waterloo Courier, April 10, 1923. 

Old steamboat bell at Webster City, in the Madrid News, April 5, 
1923. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Reeve, in the HopMnton 
Leader, April 5, 1923. 

Railway service of T. R. Hackett, in the Lake City News, April 5, 
1923. 

The White Manual Training Institute, in the Waterloo Courier, 
April 6, 1923. 

Rambles in the west in 1852, edited by Fred A. Bill, in the Burling- 
ton Saturday Evening Post, April 7, 14, 21, 1923, and the 
Clinton Herald, May 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 14, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of D, M. Haskell, in the Burlington Hawk-Eye, 
April 10, 1923. 

Pioneer experiences of Aaron Elson, in the Fort Madison Democrat, 
April 11, 1923. 

C. M. Hubbard, an early settler in Floyd County, in the Bockford 
Register, April 11, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Marion Porter, in the Pella Chronicle, April 
12, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Wm. H. Woods, in the Iowa Falls Sentinel, 
April 12, 1923. 

Coppersmith's store at Dorchester, by Florence L. Clark, in the 
Williamsburg Tribune, April 12, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of John W. Howe, Sr., in the Orient Independent, 
April 12, 1923. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



481 



History of the "Virginia", first power craft to go to Fort Snelling, 
in the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, April 14, 1923. 

City directory of Des Moines fifty years ago, in the Des Moines 
Capital, April 15, 1923, 

Kobert E. Lee in Iowa history, in the Adel Record, April 17, 1923, 
and the Oskaloosa Herald, April 25, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of W. C. Moorehead, in the Ida Grove Record- 
Era, April 18, 1923. 

An event in the history of the Twentieth Iowa Infantry, in the 
Center Point Independent, April 20, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of George W. Wilson, in the Bloomfield Mes- 
senger, April 20, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Frederick Wichman, in the Mason City Ga- 
zette, April 21, May 4, 1923, and the Dubuque Herald, April 
24, 1923. 

Webster City in 1869, in the Webster City Journal, April 21, 1923. 

The Underground Railway at Le-v^is in Cass County, in the Des 
Moines Register, April 22, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Minor McCrary, in the Des Moines Register, 
April 22, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Virginia Linebaugh, in the Keokuk Gate 
City, April 25, 1923. 

Indian school on Yellow River, in the Ottumwa Courier, April 25, 
1923. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. S. H. Hagen, in the Gilman 
Dispatch, April 26, 1923. 

Old settlers at Clear Lake, in the Mason City Globe-Gazette, April 
27, 1923. 

Mrs. L. F. Andrews, Iowa's only real daughter of the American 
Revolution, in the Des Moines News and the Des Moines Cap- 
ital, April 27, 1923. 



482 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

James Glover, pioneer of Manson, in the Manson Journal, April 28, 
1923. 

Ancient skeleton discovered by Frank Ellis at Maquoketa, in the 
Cedar Bapids Republican, April 29, 1923. 

Civil War volunteers, by A. M. Antrobus, in the Burlington Ga- 
zette, May 3, 1923. 

Marker on the Iowa-Minnesota boundary, in the Ossian Herald, 
May 3, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of H. J. Griswold, in the Manson Journal, May 3, 
1923. 

Sketch of the life of J. S. Hunnicutt, in the Tama Herald, May 3, 
1923. 

Some ancient history of Center Point, by R. L. Glass, in the Center 
Point Independent, May 4, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of J. M. Gregg, in the Fairfield Ledger, May 7, 
1923. 

Frederick M. Hubbell, Iowa's wealthiest man, came to Des Moines 
sixty-eight years ago, in the Des Moines Register and the Des 
Moines Tribune, May 8, 1923. 

The John Weare homestead in Cedar Rapids, by Gladys Arne, in 
the Cedar Rapids Gazette, May 8, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Gus Ruley, Mississippi River pilot, in the 
Clinton Herald, May 8, 1923. 

J. W. Flummerfelt, early settler in Buchanan County, in the Inde- 
pendence Conservative, May 9, 1923. 

Early days in Greene County, by Boardman Elliott, in the Jefferson 
Bee, May 9, 1923. 

Iowa in 1838-1839, by Benjamin Morgan, in the Indianola Adver- 
tiser-Tribune, May 10, 1923. 

Steamboating on the Des Moines River, in the Keosauqua Barom- 
eter, May 10, 1923. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 483 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Mathiesen, in the Bing- 
sted Dispatch, May 10, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of J. L. Brown, in the Manson J ournal, May 10, 
1923. 

G. L. Edwards, mail carrier on stage route between Afton and 
Quiney, in the Villisca Review, May 10, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Edward Kennedy, in the Villisca Review, May 
10, 1923. 

Experiences of S. W. Campbell in the Civil War, in the Davenport 
Democrat, May 10, 1923. 

Woman who expressed joy at Lincoln's assassination ducked at 
Mason City, in the Mason City Gazette, May 12, 1923. 

Old Bible at Sioux City owned by Mrs. Charles Hodkinson, great 
granddaughter of Charles Wesley, in the Sioux City Journal, 
May 13, 1923. 

Passing of the Windsor Lutheran Church at Hawkeye, in the 
Cedar Rapids Republican, May 13, 1923. 

The Coalport Home Guards, in the Fairfield Ledger, May 14, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of G. W. Banister, in the Sioux City Journal, 
May 15, 1923. 

Reminiscences of the Spirit Lake Massacre, in the Britt News, May 

16, 1923. 

Early days in Greene County, by Mr. and Mrs. Frank L. Witt and 
Mrs. Jack Miller, in the Jefferson Bee, May 16, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of John Cownie, Sr., in the Des Moines Register, 
May 16, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Henry Roscum, in the Burlington Hawk- 
Eye and the Burlington Gazette, May 16, 1923. 

Worth County in former days and now, by T. C. Rone, in the 

Northwood Anchor, May 16, 1923. 
Sketch of the life of E. A. Richards, in the Manson Journal, May 

17, 1923. 



484 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Sketch of the life of A. E. Huff, in the Oakland Acorn, May 17, 
1923. 

Bodies found in gravel pit near Spirit Lake, in the Fonda Journal 
and Times, May 17, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of "William F. Gilbert, in the Burlington Gazette, 
May 18, 1923, and the Burlington Hawk-Eye, May 19, 1923. 

Crossing the plains in 1866, by William Bates, in the Waterloo 
Courier, May 19, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of W. H. H. Fate, in the Sioux City Journal, 
May 20, 1923. 

William F. Knowles recalls battle of Ash Hollow, in the Sioux City 
Journal, May 20, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Jonathan Foulk, Linn County 's oldest resident, 
in the Cedar Rapids Republican, May 20, 1923. 

Letters of Thomas Gregg, pioneer editor of southeastern Iowa, in 
the Keokuk Gate-City, May 21, 1923. 

Wheat cargo brought to Fulton fifty years ago, in the Clinton 
Herald, May 22, 1923. 

Early days in Greene County, by G. 0. Porter, in the Jefferson 
Bee, May 22, 1923. 

The Amanas, by J. B. Scannell, in the Chariton Leader, May 22, 
1923. 

Former slaves in Iowa, in the Alhia News, May 23, 1923. 

Where Missouri got its name, in the Lacona Ledger, May 24, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of George R. Allison, in the Manson Journal, 
May 24, 1923. 

Pioneer family of Jacob George, in the Iowa Falls Citizen, May 25, 
1923. 

Indian remains at Webster City, in the Webster City Journal, May 
25, 1923. 

The celebration of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
coming of Joliet and Marquette, in the Council Bluffs Non- 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



485 



pareil, May 25, June 22, 1923, the Burlington Eawk-Eye, May 
26, June 7, 12, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 1923, the Du- 
iuque Tribune, June 2, 19, 21, 22, 29, 1923, the Oskaloosa 
Herald, June 4, 1923, the Clinton Herald, June 4, 14, 18, 19, 21, 
22, 27, 1923, the Burlington Gazette, June 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 1923, the Keokuk Gate-City, June 6, 19, 21, 
25, 26, 27, 1923, the Monona Leader, June 7, 1923, the Burling- 
ton Saturday Evening Post, June 9, 16, 23, 1923, the Dubuque 
Journal, June 10, 17, 19, 20, 21, 24, 1923, the Iowa City Press- 
Citizen, June 12, 15, 18, 21, 1923, the Des Moines Register, 
June 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, July 1, 1923, 
the Independence Conservative, June 13, 1923, the Davenport 
Democrat, June 13, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 1923, the Marshalltown 
Times-Republican, June 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 27, 1923, the 
Muscatine Journal, June 13, 14, 21, 22, 25, 1923, the Waterloo 
Courier, June 13, 16, 23, 1923, the Perry Chief, June 15, 1923, 
the Guttenberg Press, June 15, 20, 1923, the Cedar Rapids 
Republican, June 17, 1923, the Dubuque Herald, June 17, 19, 
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 1923, the Cedar Rapids Gazette and the 
Ottumwa Courier, June 18, 1923, the Fort Dodge Messenger, 
June 18, 23, 25, 1923, the Atlantic News and the Webster City 
Journal, June 19, 1923, the Fort Madison Democrat, June 19, 

20, 23, 26, 27, 1923, the McGregor Times and the Newton News, 
June 20, 1923, the Bellevue Leader, June 20, 21, 1923, the Des 
Moines Tribune, June 20, 28, 1923, the Dubuque Tribune, June 

21, 22, 1923, the Cascade Pioneer, June 21, 28, 1923, the 
Clinton Advertiser, June 22, 1923, the Davenport Times, June 

22, 23, 1923, the Waterloo Tribune, June 24, 1923, the Webster 
City News, June 25, 1923, and the Chariton Herald Patriot, 
June 28, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Cranmore W, Gage, in the Davenport Demo- 
crat, May 27, 1923, and the Burlington Gazette, May 29, 1923. 

First railroad train to Muscatine, in the Muscatine Journal, May 
28, 1923, and the Bellevue Leader, May 31, 1923. 

"Flint Hills", the old ferry boat at Burlington, in the Burlington 



486 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Gazette, May 28, 1923, and the Corydon Democrat, June 14, 
1923. 

Sketch of the life of George Horridge, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, 
May 28, 1923. 

George Tyler, Mason City 's oldest Civil War veteran, in the Mason 
City Gazette, May 29, 1923. 

A. J. Woodman's fifty years in business at Russell, in the Russell 
Union, May 30, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Milo Morgan, in the Montezuma Republican, 
May 31, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Michael B. Kelley, in the Manson Journal, 
May 31, 1923. 

Relatives of John Brown in Page County, by Mabel H. Kenea, in 
the Clarinda Journal, May 31, 1923. 

Commencement at Clarinda in 1877, in the Clarinda Journal, May 
31, 1923. 

M. L. Temple's forty-nine years of law practice in Clarke County, 
in the Osceola Sentinel, May 31, 1923. 

Iowa and the Civil War, in the Bloomfield Republican, May 31, 
1923. 

James Carss, the surveyor of the Des Moines Valley Railroad, in 
the Ottumwa Courier, June 1, 1923. 

The farm of E. G. Spencer, by Dean Wheeler, in the Sioux City 
Journal, June 3, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of J. A. Coleman, in the Shenandoah Post, June 
4, 1923. 

Abraham Lincoln once held land in Iowa, in the Titonka Topic and 
the Madrid News, June 7, 1923. 

History of Harrison County, in the Missouri Valley Times, June 7, 
1923. 

Old Indiana newspaper owned by Mrs. Bert Brutsche, in the Coon 
Rapids Enterprise, June 7, 1923. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 487 

Sketch of the life of Benjamin F. Freeburger, in the Manson 

Journal, June 8, 1923. 
The Burlington Gazette, the oldest newspaper in Iowa, in the Cedar 

Bapids Gazette, June 9, 1923, 

Mrs. Matt Parrott a charter member of the Waterloo woman's club, 
in the Waterloo Courier, June 9, 1923. 

Mrs. D. C. Bloomer's part in the Iowa suffrage movement, in the 
Des Moines Tribune, June 9, 1923. 

Ancient clock owned by Mrs. C. W. Hardin, in the Waterloo Cour- 
ier, June 9, 1923. 

Early days in Waterloo, by Flora Washburn, in the Waterloo 
Courier, June 9, 1923. 

Indian curios at Grinnell, in the Des Moines Register, June 10, 
1923. 

Pioneers of Smithland, in the Sioux City Tribune, June 12, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of R. M. Green, in the Burlington Gazette, June 
12, 13, 1923. 

J. J. Manbeck came to Des Moines in a prairie schooner, in the Des 
Moines Register, June 14, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of F. W. Knight, in the Milford Mail, June 14, 
1923. 

Sketch of the life of Robert Glover, in the Manson Journal, June 
14, 1923. 

Recollections of early days in Hancock County, in the Keokuk Gate- 
City, June 15, 1923. 

Pioneers of Waterloo, in the Waterloo Courier, June 16, 1923. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. William H. Jones, in the 
Keokuk Gate-City, June 19, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of J. C. Dahl, the oldest resident of Lewis, in the 
Atlantic News, June 19, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of James Birney Harsh, in the Creston Adver- 
tiser-Gazette, June 20, 1923. 



488 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Career of Phineas M. Casady, in the Des Moines News, June 20, 
1923, and the Des Moines Register, June 26, 1923. 

Inscriptions on stones of the Old Stone Capitol, in the Iowa City 
Press-Citizen, June 20, 1923, the Des Moines Register, June 21, 
1923, and the Ames Tribune, June 23, 1923. 

The Winnebago Indians at Fort Armstrong, in the Davenport 
Times, June 20, 1923. 

Iowa's first school, in the Jefferson Bee, June 21, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of John T, Morris, in the Indianola Herald, June 
21, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Thomas M. Watts, in the Waterloo Courier, 
June 23, 1923. 

Proposal to publish newspaper named "Iowa Morning Star" at 
Keokuk, in the Keokuk Gate-City, June 23, 1923. 

The fiftieth anniversary of Traer, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, 
June 23, 1923. 

Sketch of the life of Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Stoddard, in the Cedar 
Rapids Republican, June 24, 1923. 

Judge Milo P. Smith and the robbery case at Amana, in the Cedar 
Rapids Republican, June 24, 1923. 

Remains of ancient man found in northeastern Iowa, by F. D. 
Wasson, in the Des Moines Register, June 24, 1923. 

The Des Moines Register's seventy-fifth anniversary, in the Des 
Moines Register and the Des Moines Tribune, June 26, 1923. 

Ringgold County beginnings, by H. C. Beard, in the Mt. Ayr 

Record-News, June 27, 1923. 
Jacobsen's tavern at Davenport, in the Davenport Democrat, June 

27, 1923. 

The settlement of Urbana, Benton County, in the Cedar Rapids 
Gazette, June 30, 1923. 

The first Fourth of July in Waterloo, in the Waterloo Courier, 
June 30, 1923. 



HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES 



PUBLICATIONS 

The Office of Sheriff in Scotland, by C. A. Malcolm, is one of the 
contributions to The Scottish Historical Review for April. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography for April con- 
tains the concluding chapter of The True Story of the Virginia and 
the Monitor, by William Tindall. 

A sixth installment of Selections from the Gano Papers makes up 
the January-March number of The Quarterly Publication of the 
Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. 

Lincoln and Ohio, an extensive monograph by Daniel J. Ryan, 
appears in the January number of the Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Quarterly. 

The May issue of The Register of the Kentucky State Historical 
Society contains a continuation of the Certificate Book of the Vir- 
ginia Land Commission, 1779-80. 

The British Army Button in the American Revolution, by Wil- 
liam L. Calver, is one of the papers in the April issue of The New 
York Historical Society Quarterly Bulletin. 

General Baldwin's Congressional Medals, by Thomas F. Dawson, 
and Ruins in Moffat County, by J. A. Jeancon, are two short arti- 
cles in the Bulletin of The State Historical and Natural History 
Society of Colorado for April-May. 

The two articles in the April issue of the Western Pennsylvania 
Historical Magazine are : The Scotch-Irish in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, by Robert Garland, and Western Pennsylvania and the Mor- 
rill Tariff, by I. F. Boughter. 

The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Union County, by Charles F. 
Philhower, and a continuation of A Young Man's Journal of 1800- 
1813 are two contributions in the Proceedings of the New Jersey 
Historical Society for April. 

VOL. XXI— 31 489 



1 



490 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Discovery of the Beat Palatine Ship and a sixth installment 
of The Inscribed Bocks of Narragansett Bay, by Edmund B. Dela- 
barre, are two of the papers in the April number of the Bhode 
Island Historical Society Collections. 

The March number of the Indiana Magazine of History contains 
three articles : Personal Politics in Indiana, 1860 to 1880, by Adam 
A. Leonard; Joseph Baldwin, by J. B. Van Buskirk; and The 
Family History of Bohert Owen, by Arthur H. Estabrook. 

New England Vessels in the Expedition Against Louishourg, 
1745, by Howard Millar Chapin, is concluded in The New England 
Historical and Genealogical Begister for April. 

The Canadian Militia Before the Great War, The Early Choice 
of the Forty-ninth Parallel as a Boundary Line, by Charles 0, 
Paullin, Louis Biel and the Fenian Baid of 1871, by A. H. de 
Tremaudan, and A Treaty and a Signature, by Sir John Willison, 
are four of the contributions in the June number of The Canadian 
Historical Beview. 

McClernand and Grant and a continuation of The Wilderness 
Trail, by George Ives Haight, are two short sketches in the Chicago 
Historical Society Bulletin for April. Lincoln's Lost Grandmother, 
from an address by William E. Barton, and Mrs. Inglis and Andy 
Poe, by George Ives Haight, are two items in the Bulletin for May. 

The Historical Collections of the Essex Institute for July con- 
tains, among others, the following continuations of papers and 
articles: Salem Vessels and Their Voyages, by George Granville 
Putnam, and The Suppression of Piracy in the West Indies, by 
Francis B. C. Bradlee. 

The Journal of The Presbyterian Historical Society is to be is- 
sued twice a year, in an enlarged form, instead of quarterly. The 
April number contains John Currey McKinney : 1856-1923, by 
John Calhoun; A Calvinistic Founder of America: Peter Minuet, 
by James I. Good ; and Presbyterian Churches of Germantown, Mt. 
Airy and Chestnut Hill, by William P. White. 

A pamphlet entitled Centennial of the Maine Historical Society, 
1822-1922 has recently been issued by the Society. It contains two 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



491 



papers: The Maine Historical Society in Brunswick, by Kenneth 
C. M. Sills; and The Maine Historical Society at Portland, by 
Augustus F. Moulton. 

New Light on Pattie and the Southwestern Fur Trade, by Joseph 
J. Hill, a second installment of the Memoirs of Major George Ber- 
nard Erath, edited by Lucy A. Erath, and chapter seven of The 
Bryan-Hayes Correspondence, edited by E. W. Winkler, are the 
three papers in The Southwestern Historical Quarterly for April. 

The Meeting of the American Historical Association at New 
Haven, German Feudalism, by James W. Thompson, and The Sig- 
nificance of the Military Office in America, 1763-1775, by Clarence 
E. Carter, are the three papers in the April number of The Amer- 
ican Historical Review. Grace L. Nute contributes Washington 
and the Potomac: Manuscripts of the Minnesota Historical Society. 

Among the articles and papers in the Maryland Historical Maga- 
zine for March are the following: Some Abstracts of Old Baltimore 
County Records, by McHenry Howard; "News" from the "Mary- 
land Gazette"; a continuation of James Alfred Pearce, by Bernard 
C. Steiner; and Maryland Items from Delaware Records, contrib- 
uted by C. H. B. Turner. 

The Orphan Railroad and the Ram's Horn Right of Way, by 
C. H. Hanford, a continuation of Newspapers of Washington Terri- 
tory, and the Origin of Washington Geographic Names, by Edmond 
S. Meany, Memories of White Salmon and Its Pioneers, by Albert 
J. Thompson, and another installment of The Nisqually Journal, 
edited by Victor J. Farrar, are five of the contributions to The 
Washington Historical Quarterly for April. 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Review for January- April con- 
tains five contributions: The Cahokia Mission Property, by Joseph 
J. Thompson; Colonel Daniel E. McCarthy, U. S. A., by Frederic 
Siedenburg; The Log Chapel at Notre Dame, by Mary E. Sullivan; 
Illinois' First Citizen — Pierre Gibault, by Joseph J. Thompson; 
and A Daughter of the Plains, by A. Zurbonsen, 

Ewing Young in the Fur Trade of the Far Southwest, 1822- 
1834, by Joseph J. Hill, Recollections of Benjamin Franklin Bon- 



492 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ney, by Fred Lockley, and First Newspapers of Southern Oregon 
and Their Editors, by George H. Himes, are the three articles in 
the March issue of The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. 
Among the documents there is a Diary of Reverend George Gary. 

Volume XX of the Collections of the Connecticut Historical So- 
ciety contains the Correspondence of the Brothers Joshua and 
Jedediah Huntington' During the Period of the American Revo- 
lution. This is divided into two parts : one giving a compilation of 
the papers of Joshua Huntington; the second containing the papers 
of Jedediah Huntington. 

Missourians Abroad — Daniel Cowen Jackling, by Grace L. Gil- 
more, Jayhawkers in Missouri, 1858-1863, by Hildegarde Rose 
Herklotz, The New Journalism in Missouri, by Walter B. Stevens, 
and a continuation of A Century of Missouri Music, by Ernest C 
Krohn, The Followers of Duden, by William G. Bek, Shelby's Ex- 
pedition to Mexico, by John N. Edwards, and Pioneer Life in 
Southwest Missouri, by Wiley Britton, are the seven articles and 
papers in the April issue of The Missouri Historical Review. 

The Progress and Possibilities of Mississippi Valley History, by 
Solon J. Buck, Recruiting and Crimping in Canada for the North- 
ern Forces, 1861-1865, by William F. Raney, and The Ranchman's 
Last Frontier, by Edward Everett Dale, are the three articles in 
The Mississippi Valley Historical Review for June. Under the 
heading, Notes and Documents, there is a brief discussion of His- 
torical Material in Washington of Value to the States, by Newton 
D. Mereness, and an account and catalogue of the Lesueur collection 
of American sketches in the Museum of Natural History at Havre, 
Seine-Inferieure, by Waldo G. Leland. 

Skull Creek, Butler County; Whitney Village, Dawes County; 
General John M. Thayer; and Site of Plum Creek Massacre are 
short sketches in Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days for 
July-September, 1922. In the issue for October-December are the 
following sketches: A Pioneer Experience in Butler County, by 
J. P. Dunlap ; Legend of Weeping Water, by J. C. Lindberg ; and 
Otoe Indian Lore, furnished by Richard Shunatona. 



HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES 



493 



Some Aspects of Mid-West America, by Orin G. Libby, Missis- 
sippi Valley Problems and the American Revolution, by Clarence 
"W. Alvord, and Some Changes in Local Boundaries and Names in 
Minnesota, by Calvin L. Brown, are the three papers in the Minne- 
sota History Bulletin for February-May, 1922. In the issue for 
May, 1923, are The Nelson-Kindred Campaign of 1882, by Elmer 
E. Adams, and The 1923 Annual Meeting of the Minnesota His- 
torical Society. 

Cooperation Between State Universities and State Historical So- 
cieties, by Joseph Sehafer, The Battle of Spring Hill, by Thomas 
Robson Hay, Old Blount County Papers, by W. E. Parham, Hap- 
penings in the White Haven Community, Shelby County, Tennes- 
see, Fifty or More Tears Ago, by J. P. Young, and Old Fort 
Loudon, the First English Settlement in What Is Now the State of 
Tennessee and the Fort Loudon Massacre, by Thos. H. Cooke, are 
the articles and papers in the Tennessee Historical Magazine for 
July, 1921. 

The Spoon River Country, by Josephine Craven Chandler, is a 
long article published in the J ournal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society for October, 1921, and January, 1922. This double number 
also contains Some Poets of Illinois, by Stuart Brown ; History of 
the Gallatin County Salines, by Jacob W. Myers ; Camp Butler, by 
WilUam I. Kincaid ; and Early Schools and Churches of Edgar 
County, Illinois, by Rose Moss Scott. 

In addition to the report of the meeting of the New York State 
Historical Association at Lake Mohonlt on September 26-28, 1922, 
The Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Associa- 
tion for January contains the following papers and addresses: 
George Croghan and the Development of Central New York, 1763- 
1800, by A. T. Volwiler; Indians of New York and Vicinity, by 
W. R. Blackie ; and Our Colonial Heritage of Community Medi- 
cine, by Elizabeth Tandy. 

The State Historical Society of Missouri has begun the publica- 
tion of a series entitled The Messages and Proclamations of the 
Governors of the State of Missouri, compiled and edited by Buel 



494 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Leopard and Floyd C. Shoemaker. The three volumes which have 
already been published contain the papers of the first sixteen Gov- 
ernors of the State of Missouri, beginning with those of Alexander 
McNair who was Governor of Missouri from 1820 to 1824. A bio- 
graphical sketch of each Governor precedes his messages and 
proclamations. 

The Proceedings of Fourth Annual Conference on Indiana His- 
tory, held at Indianapolis on December 8 and 9, 1922, has been 
published by the Indiana Historical Commission as Bulletin No. 17. 
Among the papers and addresses included in the bulletin are the 
following: The Question of Pageantry, by George S. Cottman; 
Archeological and Historical Survey, by John W. Oliver ; History 
of the Anthony Wayne Flag, by P. G. Moore; Our Relation to 
History, by Benjamin F. Shambaugh; The Co-operation of the 
Indiana Federation of Cluhs with State Historical Work, by Mrs. 
W. J. Torrance ; Lincoln's Boyhood Days in Indiana, by Roscoe 
Kiper ; Early Northern Indiana History, by Jacob P. Dunn ; and A 
Century of Fort Wayne, by B. J. Griswold. There was also an 
address by Hamlin Garland. 

Spanish Colonial Municipalities, by Herbert I. Priestly, Ceard's 
Case, 1724, edited by Henry Plauche Dart and translated by Mrs. 
H. H. Cruzat, and Pierre Margry, by Bussiere Rouen, are articles 
and papers in The Louisiana Historical Quarterly for April, 1922. 
In the number for July, 1922, Grace King writes on Baron Marc de 
Villiers du Terrage, Henry Plauche Dart contributes Politics in 
Louisiana in 1724, Fairfax Harrison The Yirginians on the Ohio 
and the Mississippi in 1742, and John S. Kendall The Municipal 
Elections of 1858. There is also a biography of George H. Theard, 
by Henry Plauche Dart, The Hunt Family, by James A. Renshaw, 
and Mrs. Louise Livingston, Wife of Edward Livingston, compiled 
by W. 0. Hart. Early Commercial Prestige of New Orleans, by 
Henry E. Chambers, A Gentleman of Pointe Coupee, by Henry 
Plauche Dart, Daniel Webster in Louisiana History, by J. M. 
Pilcher, sketches of the life of J. Sanford Saltus, by E. A. Parsons 
and W. 0. Hart, Andrew Jackson and Judge D. A. Hall, a report 
of the committee of the Louisiana Senate in 1843, and another 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



495 



instaUment of the Records of the Superior Council of Louisiana are 
articles and papers in the number for October, 1922. 

ACTIVITIES 

The Minnesota Historical Society has recently received a collec 
tion of the letters of the late Senator Knute Nelson. 

The twenty-second biennial report of the Minnesota Historical 
Society covering the years 1921 and 1922 has been published as an 
extra number of the Minnesota History Bulletin. 

Harlow Lindley, the head of the department of history, and 
librarian at Earlham College, Indiana, has accepted the position of 
Director of the Indiana Historical Commission, to succeed John W. 
Oliver who resigned to become head of the department of history at 
the University of Pittsburgh, 

The Mississippi State Department of Archives and History has 
in preparation ten volumes entitled Jefferson Davis, Constitutional- 
ist, His Letters, Papers and Speeches. The compilation is edited 
by Dunbar Rowland, the State Historian of Mississippi. 

Officers of the Wapello County Historical Society were chosen at 
a meeting of the directors on May 11, 1923. State Senator Frank 
D. Shane was elected president ; Mrs. H. L. Waterman, vice presi- 
dent ; D. A. Emery, treasurer ; and Mrs. F. B. Thrall, secretary. A 
meeting of the society was held on May 25th. The president spoke 
on the purposes of the association, W. S. Manning discussed * ' His- 
torical Societies in Iowa", and Mrs. John McMillan talked of Garri- 
son Rock and its history. The society will participate in the cele- 
bration of Ottumwa's diamond jubilee, which is to be held on 
August 7-11, 1923. 

The nineteenth annual meeting of the Madison County Historical 
Society was held at Winterset on April 24, 1923. D. J. Shentone 
spoke on the value of historical records; E. R. Zeller read an ac- 
count of the dedication of the Delicious Apple tree ; and Ruth A. 
Gallaher of the State Historical Society gave a talk on "Group 
Settlements in Iowa". The election resulted in the selection of the 
following officers: president, Herman A. Mueller of St. Charles; 



496 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



vice president, Jokn Anderson of Winterset ; and secretary-treas- 
urer, Mrs. T. M. Scott of Winterset. The Society has a museum 
located in the courthouse which contains some interesting and valu- 
able relics of pioneer life. 

At the regular summer meeting of the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety, held at Redwood Falls on June 22 and 23, 1923, the follow- 
ing papers were presented: "The Fisk Expeditions to the Gold 
Country", by Lester Burrell Shippee; "Navigation on the Red 
River of the North, 1858-1879", by Fred A. Bill; "Minnesota's 
Contribution to the Spanish- American War", by Franklin F. Hol- 
brook; "Lawrence Taliaferro and Indian Affairs at the St. Peter's 
Agency, 1820-1840", by Willoughby M. Babcock, Jr.; "Territorial 
Encouragement of Immigration to Minnesota", by Livia Appel; 
"The Long and Beltrami Explorations in Minnesota One Hundred 
Years Ago", by Theodore Christianson ; and "The Causes of the 
Sioux War", by William W. Folwell, read by Solon J. Buck. 

THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

Two volumes on The Food Administration in Iowa, by Ivan L. 
Pollock, are now in press. These form a part of the series issued 
by The State Historical Society of Iowa under the title Iowa 
Chronicles of the World War. Four volumes in this series have 
already been distributed. 

Bruce E. Mahan has been elected Associate Editor of The State 
Historical Society of Iowa, succeeding John C. Parish who re- 
signed a year ago to accept a position in the history department of 
the Southern Branch of the State University of California. 

Dr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, the Superintendent of The State 
Historical Society, gave the high school commencement address at 
Clinton on the subject, "The West and the Pioneers". 

The State Historical Society has now in press a History of the 
Sixth Iowa Infantry. The history was prepared by General Henry 
H. Wright during the period following 1898, but it was not en- 
tirely completed at the time of his death in 1905. In 1922 the 
manuscript was turned over to the Historical Society and prepared 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



497 



for publication. The Sixth Iowa Infantry was mustered into 
United States service on July 17 and 18, 1861, and was finally de- 
mobilized on July 28, 1865. 

The regular biennial meeting of The State Historical Society of 
Iowa was held at Iowa City on June 25, 1923. The principal busi- 
ness transacted was the election of the nine resident members of the 
Board of Curators, the following being chosen: Arthur J. Cox, 
Marvin H. Dey, Henry G. Walker, S. A. Swisher, Charles M. 
Butcher, Morton C. Mumma, W. O, Coast, W. L. Bywater, and 
Thomas Farrell. Nine other members of the Board are appointed 
by the Governor of Iowa. At the first meeting of the new Board, 
held on July 3, 1923, Marvin H. Dey was elected President of the 
Board and- Paul A. Korab Treasurer, These officers are ex officio 
the officers for the Society. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Mr. Birchard Brush, Osage, Iowa; Mrs. Eva Bur- 
nett, Clarinda, Iowa; Mr. Roy H. Chamberlain, Iowa City, Iowa; 
Mr. L. J. Clarke, Eagle Grove, Iowa; Mr. Clark E. Daniels, Des 
Moines, Iowa; Mrs. Lizzie J. McCornack, Traer, Iowa; Mr. Geo. 
Potgeter, Steamboat Rock, Iowa; Mr. J. P. 'Sullivan, Chariton, 
Iowa; Mrs. Cora A. Wahrer, Montrose, Iowa; Mrs. N. B. Ashby, 
Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Chas. C. Deering, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. 
Jacques A. Freeh, Algona, Iowa; Mrs. Willis A. Lomas, Villisca, 
Iowa ; Mr. J esse A. Miller, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. Julian C. Spur- 
geon, Ottumwa, Iowa; Mr. Preston L. Sever, Stuart, Iowa; Mr. 
Geo. A. Letson, Des Moines, Iowa. Mr. C. W. Bond, Burlington, 
Iowa; Rev. Joseph B. Code, Keokuk, Iowa; Miss Lucille Crose, 
Algona, Iowa; Dr. John Downs, Ft. Madison, Iowa; Mrs. J. J. 
Fleming, Burlington, Iowa; Mr. W. A. Jackson, Iowa City, Iowa; 
Miss Anna Stewart, Ft. Madison, Iowa; Mr. W. A. Wilkinson, 
Davenport, Iowa; Mr. Harold D. Hoffman, Mechanicsville, Iowa; 
Dr. Raymond E. Peck, Davenport, Iowa. Mr. W. D. Cannon, Jr., 
Iowa City, Iowa, Mr. Frank E. Landers, Webster City, Iowa, Mr. 
Wm. C. McArthur, Des Moines, Iowa, Miss Ethyl E. Martin, Iowa 
City, Iowa, and Mr. Thomas D. Murphy, Red Oak, Iowa, have been 
enrolled as Hfe members. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 

James L. Hill has a collection of some two thousand Indian 
curios which he has promised to donate to Grinnell College. 

An historical pageant of Jones County was given at Anamosa on 
July 3 and 4, 1923. Episodes in the history of the vicinity were 
portrayed by a large cast. 

Thomas F. Dawson, Historian and Curator of the State His- 
torical and Natural History Society of Colorado was killed in an 
automobile accident in June, 1923. 

The annual memorial service of the Hawkeye Natives was held at 
Burlington on June 3, 1923. Thomas S. Pool of Mt. Pleasant gave 
an address on the history of Iowa from the time Burlington was 
the capital down to the present. 

On the 14th of June, 1923, the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution at Dubuque placed a large boulder of Galena Limestone as a 
marker of the grave of Julien Dubuque and the spot where Zebulon 
M. Pike unfurled the American flag on his visit at Dubuque's 
Mines on September 1, 1805. 

Early settlers of Sioux City met at a dinner on April 10, 1923, 
as the guests of Georgia Barnard Brown who arrived in the city 
forty-two years ago. C. R. Marks spoke on ' ' The First Sioux City 
I Knew" and Kate Hubbard described "The Sioux City My Fa- 
ther, A. W. Hubbard, Knew". 

The annual meeting of the Pioneers of Cedar County was held 
at Tipton on June 9, 1923. The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year : president, Peter McNee ; vice president, Charles 
Swartzlender ; secretary, F. L. Sheldon; and treasurer, J. W. 
Reeder. Talks were given by LI. Grether and Albert M. Sheldon. 

The Iowa Press and Authors' Club held its annual meeting at 
Des Moines on May 7, 1923. Lewis Wortliington Smith was elected 
president ; Detliv Tillisch and Fred Pownall, vice presidents ; Mrs. 

498 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



499 



Jansen Haines, secretary; Margaret Walker, treasurer; Mrs. Fred 
Wertz, librarian; and Mrs. James Le Cron, historian. Arthur 
Davison Ficke was chosen honorary president. Members of the 
executive board in addition to the officers are Harriet Macy, John- 
son Brigham, Lafe Young, Sr., Mrs. J. M. Tomlinson, and J. B. 
"Weaver. 

THE CELEBRATION OF THE TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY 
OF THE ARRIVAL OP JOLIET AND MARQUETTE IN IOWA 

The State Historical Society of Iowa sponsored an historical cele- 
bration and pageant from June 17 to 27, 1923, in commemoration of 
the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of Iowa 
by Monsieur Louis Joliet and Father Jacques Marquette. Ben Hur 
Wilson of Mount Pleasant was the general chairman. Cities along 
the eastern border of Iowa assumed responsibility for different 
features of the celebration: Burlington provided a replica voyage 
down the Mississippi River; Fort Madison, Keokuk, Mount Pleas- 
ant, and Montrose united on an all-day program on June twenty- 
seventh ; and the cities of McGregor, Guttenberg, Dubuque, Belle- 
vue, Clinton, Davenport, Muscatine, Oquawka, Burlington, Fort 
Madison, and Montrose welcomed and entertained the 1923 voy- 
ageurs with appropriate ceremonies. 

On the replica voyage C. W. Bond, Secretary of the Greater 
Burlington Association, interpreted the character of Louis Joliet, 
while Bruce E. Mahan, Associate Editor of the State Historical 
Society of Iowa, enacted the role of Father Marquette. Young 
men from the United States Naval Training Unit at Burlington 
depicted the French boatmen, and representatives from The Bur- 
lington Hawk-Eye, The Burlington Gazette, The Des Moines Regis- 
ter, and the Pathe moving picture corporation accompanied the 
modern explorers in a motor launch. 

Leaving Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, on the afternoon of June 
17th, the voyageurs paid a short visit to McGregor, Iowa. The 
official start began at the mouth of the Wisconsin River late that 
afternoon. A stiff south wind and high waves made progress in the 
canoes almost impossible and an accident to the launch delayed the 



500 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



arrival at Guttenberg until late at night. A cordial welcome by 
hundreds of people at the water front presaged a series of friendly 
greetings throughout the two hundred and fifty mile journey. 

At every stop the modern explorers took part in a program of 
speeches, were feasted and shown places of interest in the vicinity, 
then were wished a bon voyage at their departure much in the same 
spirit as the original travellers were greeted by the Illinois Indians 
on the Iowa shore two hundred and fifty years ago. 

Finally, in a large park at Burlington a pageant enacted by a 
cast of more than two hundred people before a vast audience de- 
picted the meeting of Marquette and Joliet with the Illinois In- 
dians, and an address by Father Christopher Kohne of the Jesuit 
Order was an eloquent tribute to the discoverers of Iowa. This 
program was under the auspices of the Women's Catholic League 
with Mrs. J. J. Fleming as chairman. 

On the next day the celebration at Montrose began with the 
erection of a marker by the Fort Madison Chapter of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution at the grave of Ka-la-we-quois three 
miles north of Montrose. With R. N. Johnson presiding, Miss 
Carmen Brown read Mrs. Sigourney's poem, "The Indian Girl's 
Burial", and J. P. Cruikshank told the story of Ka-la-we-quois. 

Later in the forenoon the Women 's Civic Club of Montrose erect- 
ed a marker at the site of the barrack's well of Fort Des Moines, 
No. I, on the Montrose water front. J. P. Cruikshank presided, the 
Keokuk Municipal Band rendered a medley of patriotic airs, and 
Benj. F. Shambaugh, Superintendent of the State Historical Soci- 
ety of Iowa, delivered an address. Judge William Hamilton of Fort 
Madison being unable to be present. 

A reception to the replica voyageurs at the water front near the 
site of Fort Des Moines No. I was followed by a picnic dinner at 
Bluif Park. 

In the afternoon Benj. F. Shambaugh presided at the program. 
J. P. Kennedy of Montrose delivered an address of welcome and the 
response was made by U. S. Smith, President of Iowa Wesleyan 
College. Father A. J. Zaiser of Fort Madison praised the deeds of 
the original discoverers of Iowa and John Ilammill, Lieutenant 
Governor of Iowa, made the principal address of the afternoon. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



501 



There followed a concert at the Park by the Keokuk Municipal 
Band and then students of Iowa Wesleyan College produced a 
pageant on the water front depicting the landing of Joliet and 
Marquette and their visit to the Indians. 

Late in the afternoon the Keokuk Chapter of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution erected a marker at the site of the first 
school in Iowa, taught by Berryman Jennings in 1830 at Nashville 
(now Galland Station), two and one-half miles south of Montrose. 
Mrs. Elizabeth BalUnger presided. The Keokuk Band played 
"Iowa Beautiful Land" and G. W. Sampson of Cedar Falls ap- 
peared for Miss May E. Francis, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, and read her address. A * ' Pageant Petite ' ' was given 
by school children under the direction of Mrs. Leonard Matless of 
Keokuk. 

The following committees cooperating with the State Historical 
Society of Iowa had charge of various details of the ten day cele- 
bration : 

Central Committee: Ben Hur Wilson, Mount Pleasant, Gen- 
eral Chairman; Mrs. Clare Beard, Montrose; John Ely Briggs, 
Iowa City; Edward F. Carter, Keokuk; J. P. Cruikshank, Fort 
Madison ; John Downs, Fort Madison ; Mrs. J. J. Fleming, Burling- 
ton; Joshua Tracy Garrett, Burlington; Fred C. Huebner, Albia; 
H. E. Jaques, Mount Pleasant; John G. Scott, Keokuk; Benj. F. 
Shambaugh, Iowa City. 

On Program: Fred C. Huebner, Albia; Benj, F. Shambaugh, 
Iowa City ; Ben Hur Wilson, Mount Pleasant ; Mrs. J. J. Fleming, 
Burlington ; Miss Anna Stewart, Fort Madison. 

On Grounds: (Montrose Project) John G. Scott, Keokuk; 
Walter Phillips, Tracy; J. P. Kennedy, Montrose; F. 0. Wilcox, 
Montrose ; Mrs. Kathryn Buck, Montrose. 

On Marking Historic Sites: (Fort Madison Project) J. P. 
Cruikshank, Fort Madison ; Rollin B. Carswell, Fort Madison ; E. H. 
Pollard, Fort Madison; R. V. Jones, Fort Madison; Malcolm Me- 
Farland, Fort Madison. 



502 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



On Replica Voyage: (Burlington Project) Joshua Tracy Gar- 
rett, Burlington; J. J. Fleming, Burlington; E. W. Jackson, Bur- 
lington ; Fred K. Minor, Burlington ; C. W. Bond, Burlington. 

On Entertainment: (Montrose Project) Mrs. Clare Beard, 
Montrose; Mrs. Isadore Duty, Montrose; Mrs. Cora A. Wahrer, 
Montrose ; Mrs. Margaret Kennedy, Montrose ; Mrs. Dorcas Ken- 
nedy, Montrose. 

On Band Music : (Keokuk Project) Edward F. Carter, Keokuk; 
Vernon R. McKay, Keokuk; W. H. Bowers, Keokuk; L. J. Wolf, 
Keokuk; Thomas F. Wettstein, Keokuk. 

On Historical Pageant: (Mount Pleasant Project) H. E. 
Jaques, Mount Pleasant; Ira G. Morrison, Mount Pleasant; G. C. 
Archer, Montrose; Miss Mary Pool, Mount Pleasant; Charles W. 
Mountain, Mount Pleasant. 

On Publicity: John Ely Briggs, Iowa City; Bruce E. Mahan, 
Iowa City ; Frederic C. Smith, Keokuk ; Leon Brown, Des Moines ; 
Bernard Glaha, Fort Madison. 

On Exhibits: John Downs, Fort Madison; Mrs. Sarah Casey, 
Fort Madison, Wm. Reimbold, Nauvoo, 111. ; T. W. McMillan, Mount 
Pleasant ; Edgar R. Harlan, Des Moines. 

HORACE BOIES 

Horace Boies, twice Governor of the State of Iowa and the only 
Democrat to hold that office since Stephen Hempstead whose term 
expired in 1854, died at Long Beach, California, on April 4, 1923. 
He was born at Aurora, Erie County, New York, on December 7, 
1827. After a trip to Wisconsin when he was sixteen years of age 
he returned to Erie County where he studied law and was admitted 
to the bar. 

In 1867 Mr. Boies came to Iowa and located at Waterloo. Al- 
though he had been a Republican in New York, Boies was opposed 
to the attitude of that party on the prohibition question in Iowa 
and he joined the Democratic party. In 1889 he was nominated 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



503 



for Governor and elected, although Iowa was overwhelmingly Re- 
publican. Two years later he was reelected but was defeated by 
Frank D. Jackson in a campaign for a third term. 

Governor Boies was also considered as a candidate for President 
by two national Democratic conventions. When President Cleve- 
land was making up his second cabinet Boies was offered the place 
of Secretary of Agriculture but refused it on the rather unusual 
ground that he felt himself to be unfitted for the position. 

The funeral of the ex-Governor was held at Waterloo on April 
11, 1923. 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Irving Bebdine Richman. Born at Muscatine, Iowa, on Octo- 
ber 27, 1861. Received the B, A. degree from the State 
University of Iowa in 1883 and the M. A. degree in 1886. 
Admitted to the bar in 1885. Author of John Brown Among 
the Quakers and Other Sketches, Rhode Island, Its Making and 
Its Meaning, California Under Spain and Mexico, San Fran- 
cisco Bay and California in 1776, and The Spanish Conquerors. 

Herman Clarence Nixon. Born at Merrellton, Alabama, on 
December 29, 1886. Graduate of Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute and the University of Chicago. Taught history at the 
Alabama State Normal School, 1910-1913, and at Birmingham 
Southern College, 1920-1921, and is now an instructor in his- 
tory at the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts. Did clerical service in the office of the chief ordnance 
officer of the American Expeditionary Forces in 1918 and 
library and research duty with the American Commission to 
Negotiate Peace from December, 1918, to December, 1919. 
Author of Alexander Beaufort Meek in the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute Historical Studies, 1910, and Political Revolt 
in the Middle West in Iowa Agriculturist, January, 1923. 

Ruth Loving Higqins. Born at Columbus, Ohio, on June 21, 
1895. Attended high school at Columbus, received the degree 
of B. A. from the Ohio State University in 1917, and the M. A. 
degree from the same institution in 1921. Taught history and 
civics in the high schools at Bloomingburg, Dover, and Worth- 
ington, Ohio. Scholar in history and political science at the 
Ohio State University in 1920-1921 and fellow for 1921-1922. 



504 



THE STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 



ESTABUSHXD BT LAW IK THOt TlAB 1867 

inoobpoiatxd : 1867 an© 1892 
Located at Iowa Oitt Iowa 



BALPH P. LOWE 
8. J. BaSKWOOD 
F. H. LEE 
W. PENN CLABKE 



FOEMER PRESIDENTS 
JAMES W. GEIMES First President 
EGBERT HUTCHINSON 
M. J. MOBSMAN 
WILLIAM G. HAMMOND 
GEOBGE O. WEIGHT 



JOSIAH L. PICKAED 
PETEE A. DET 
EUOLID 8ANDEES 



OFFICEBS 



BENJAMIN P. SHAMBAUGH Supieintindknt 

P«sn«KT 

PAUL A. KOBAB ^^^^ 



BOARD OF CURATORS 

Elected by the Sootetg Appointed by the Oovemor 

Aethto J. Cox CHABusa M. Dutchke Lillian Clabk Caet Wouam Q Kiee 

Mabtoj H. Drr Mobton C. Mumma Mabt E. Coon Ohas. E Pickktt 

Hknbt G. Walhce W. O. Coast John M. Gbimm a. C. Smith 

S. A. SwiratB W. L. BwATKB Mart H. S. Johnston Helen S. Taylor 

Thomas Pabeell H. O. Weaves 



MEMBERSHIP 

Anj person may become a member of The State Histobioal Soctbtt of 
Iowa upon election by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance 
fee of $3J)0. 

Membership in this Society may be retained after the first year upon the 
payment of $3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shaU be entitled to receive the quarterly and aU other 
pubUcations of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Address all Communications to 
The State Historical Sooibtt Iowa Crrz Iowa 



THE 

Iowa Journal 

i storj^and Politics 



OCTOBER 1923 




Published Quarterly by 

THE STATE fflSTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

lowei City low©^ 



M ItM al I*w» Oitr l0w» M Meimd-alaM awttar sate Mt «f Qmii af Jaljr x% l»94 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 



Vol XXI OCTOBER 19S3 



No 



CONTENTS 



The Legislation of the Fortieth General Assembly of Iowa 

John E. Briggs and Jacob Van Ek 507 

Some Publications 677 

Western Americana ........ 681 

lowana .......... 683 

Historical Societies 697 

Notes and Comment 706 

Contributors 708 

Index 711 



SUBBOBIPTION PBIOK: $2.00 SlNGL> NUUBSB: 60 



Oopyrigia 19t$ 5y The State Hiitoriedl Boeietff of lova 

THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

PUBLISHXD QUABTBBLY 
AT IOWA OITT 

BIPTION PBIOB: $2.00 SiNGLX NUUBXB: 60 

Address aJl Communieatione to 
Thb State Histosical Bocibtt Iowa Ctrz Iowa 



THE IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 

OCTOBER NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY-THREE 

VOLUME TWENTY-ONE NUMBEE FOUE 



VOL. XXI — 32 



THE LEGISLATION OF THE FORTIETH GENERAL 
ASSEMBLY OF IOWA 



It is provided in the Constitution of Iowa that *'the 
sessions of the General Assembly shall be biennial, and 
shall commence on the second Monday in January next 
ensuing the election of its members ' '.^ In accordance with 
this provision the Senate and the House of Representatives 
of the Fortieth General Assembly convened in the State 
House at Des Moines on January 8, 1923. They adjourned 
one hundred days later, on April 17th. With one exception 
this was the longest regular session of the State legislature 
in the history of Iowa : in 1872 one hundred and seven days 
elapsed between the convening and adjournment of the 
General Assembly. 

The length of the session of the Fortieth General As- 
sembly may be contrasted with the eighty-nine days con- 
sumed by the Thirty-ninth General Assembly — which was 
the shortest session since 1909 when the Thirty-third Gen- 
eral Assembly also remained in session eighty-niQe days. 
The Thirty-fourth General Assembly, which met in 1911, 
consumed ninety-four days; while the sessions of the 
Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, Thirty-seventh, and Thirty- 
eighth General Assemblies lasted ninety-seven days each. 
Although one hundred days elapsed between the convening 
and the adjournment of the Fortieth General Assembly, 
both houses were in actual session only seventy-five days. 
Besides the fourteen Sundays and the customary spring 
recess, which was taken from February 24th to March 5th 

1 Constitution of Iowa, Art. Ill, See. 2. 

507 



508 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



inclusive in order that the members might attend to busi- 
ness matters at home, the legislature also recessed on 
January 12th, 13th, and 14th. On the basis of the number 
of days actually in session the members of this General 
Assembly received slightly over $13.33 a day for their 
services.^ 

The total cost of the Fortieth General Assembly, exclu- 
sive of printing, was $241,809.89. This included the salary 
and mileage of members, the salaries of employees during 
the session and after adjournment, chaplains' fees, and 
sums spent for extra help in the administrative depart- 
ments made necessary because the legislature was in ses- 
sion. Thus the session occasioned an expenditure of 
$2418.10 per day. Although the total cost of the Fortieth 
General Assembly was greater than that of its predecessor, 
the cost per day was slightly less. The session of the 
legislature which met in 1921 cost $228,868.70, or $2571.56 
per day. If the cost per day is computed on the basis of the 
number of days actually in session, the daily cost of the 
Fortieth General Assembly was approximately $3224; 
while the cost per day of the Thirty-ninth General Assem- 
bly was $3415.95.3 

THE WORK OF THE SESSION 

Some idea of the work of the Fortieth General Assembly 
may be obtained from a summary of the number of bills 
considered. During the session no less than 1606 measures 

Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, p. 1; Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 162, 
644; House Journal, 1923, pp. 164, 165, 709, 710. 

3 The data on the cost of the legislature was furnished by the office of the 
Auditor of State and the facts from which the statistical information in the 
following paragraphs was compiled were obtained from the bill files and Acts of 
the Fortieth General Assembly, the Senate Journal and House Journal of the 
Fortieth General Assembly, and the Index and History of Senate and House 
Bills, 1923. All tabulations and summaries were carefully checked. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 509 



were introduced.^ Of these, 760 bills and 4 joint resolutions 
originated in the Senate and 832 bills and 10 joint resolu- 
tions originated in the House of Kepresentatives. The un- 
usually large number of bills introduced in both houses can 
be accounted for by the fact that 262 code revision bills were 
introduced as companion bills in both houses on January 
18th and 19th. If allowance is made for these bills it will 
be seen that the number of measures introduced was 1082, 
of which 498 bills and 4 joint resolutions were Senate meas- 
ures and 570 bills and 10 joint resolutions were measures 
originating in the House of Representatives. Thus the 
number of measures introduced in the Fortieth General 
Assembly is not very different from the number introduced 
in the Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth General Assemblies 
when the totals were 1134 and 1147 respectively. 

The fact that the code revision bills were introduced in 
both houses makes exact comparisons of the work of the 
Fortieth General Assembly with the work of other legis- 
latures of recent years impossible in some respects. For 
this reason the code bills will be ignored in the statistical 
statements that follow unless it is specifically stated that 
they are included. At the same time action upon the code 
revision bills did represent an important part of the work 
of the regular session of the Fortieth General Assembly 
and consumed a great amount of time. A statement of 
what happened to the proposed code legislation will there- 
fore not be out of place in this connection. 

Of the 262 code revision bills that were introduced, 54 
passed both houses and were signed by the Governor ; 162 
were lost in committee — of which 116 were lost in the com- 

* Although a total of file numbers and joint resolutions would indicate that 
1607 measures, including the 524 code revision bills, were introduced, there were 
actually only 1606 because Senate File Number 467 was declared void and 
therefore not counted. 



510 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



mittee to which they were originally referred, 33 were re- 
ported to the house by the committee, re-referred to 
another committee, and lost there, and 13 passed one house, 
were sent to the other chamber, and were lost in the com- 
mittee to which they were there referred; 8 code revision 
bills were lost because the originating house to which the 
bill was reported failed to take action ; and 19 were lost be- 
cause the Senate failed to act on bills that had passed the 
House and were reported to the Senate by its committee. 
The House disposed of no code revision bills in the latter 
manner. Moreover, 12 code revision bills were withdrawn 
because they were superseded by legislation of the Thirty- 
ninth or Fortieth General Assemblies, 4 were indefinitely 
postponed in the house in which they originated, 2 were 
indefinitely postponed after having passed one house, and 
1 was lost in conference committee.^ 

Of the 1082 measures that were introduced, exclusive of 
code revision bills, 502 originated in the Senate and 580 
in the House of Eepresentatives. The House took action 
upon 373 of its own measures ; and 212 of these were also 
acted upon by the Senate. The Senate took action upon 
347 of its own measures ; and 206 of these were also acted 
upon by the House." In all, 393 measures (387 acts and 6 

6 In general the odd numbered code revision bills were regarded as Senate 
files and the even numbered ones were regarded as House files. There were 
some exceptions to this rule, however, for at least two odd numbered code 
revision bills that were enacted are listed among the House files. For this 
reason in making the above tabulation the bUls were treated as belonging to the 
files of the house in which they made most progress. 

6 Action in this case is construed to mean that a bill has come to or beyond 
the stage of being placed on the calendar. This means, in most eases, that a 
committee report recommending final action has been adopted or rejected, which 
implies that the whole house has expressed an opinion on the merits of the 
measure. When a bill was merely passed on file, re-referred, or substituted be- 
fore or after a committee report such disposition has not been regarded aa 
action by the house. 



THE FOETIETH GENEBAL ASSEMBLY 



511 



joint resolutions), including tlie 54 code bills enacted, 
passed both houses and 388 of them became laws. In other 
words, five measures were vetoed by the Governor. One 
hundred and seven measures received the executive signa- 
ture after the date of adjournment, all but one being signed 
during the four days following the close of the session and 
that one on April 24th. 

Three of the measures vetoed by the Governor were Sen- 
ate files — the gasoline tax bill, a measure to amend that 
bill, and a bill to change the time for the payment of taxes. 
Two of the vetoed measures originated in the House of 
Representatives — one designed to amend the law relative 
to the powers of the Board of Railroad Commissioners over 
long and short haul rates of common carriers'^ and the other 
proposing State aid to private colleges for teacher training. 
The long and short haul bill received formal executive dis- 
approval on April 4th; the two gasoline tax bills were 
vetoed on April 23rd ; while the other two measures, which 
are listed with proper notations in the session laws as chap- 
ters 64 and 150 respectively, were filed with the Secretary 
of State on May 8th and May 2nd respectively unsigned by 
the Governor and consequently did not become law. 

Exclusive of code revision bills, 160 measures that gained 
enactment originated in the Senate and the remaining 174 
in the House of Representatives. There were 44 Senate 
bills and one Senate joint resolution which failed to pass 
the House; while 79 House bills and 2 House joint resolu- 
tions failed to pass the Senate. During the last two ses- 
sions of the legislature it seems that the Senate has been 
less considerate of measures that have already passed the 

7 Senate PUe Nos. 273, 739, 759; House File Nos. 285, 352. House File No. 
1 of the extra session which was another "follow-up" of the gasoline tax 
measure was also vetoed by the Governor. — See Index and History of Senate 
and Bouse Bills, 1923, p. 4, 



512 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



House than the lower branch of the legislature has been of 
measures originating in the upper chamber. In 1921 the 
Senate failed to pass 103 measures that had passed the 
House; while the House failed to pass only 45 of the meas- 
ures that had passed the Senate.^ In the Thirty-eighth 
General Assembly, however, nearly twice as many Senate 
bills failed to pass the House as House bills failed to pass 
the Senate. 

Slightly more than twenty-four per cent of all measures 
introduced in the Fortieth General Assembly became laws. 
This percentage is much lower than in the two preceding 
General Assemblies when the number of measures enacted 
was approximately thirty-six per cent of the number intro- 
duced. If, however, the code revision bills are not consid- 
ered the percentage of measures passed is raised to over 
thirty per cent. The Senate passed slightly more than 
forty-one per cent of its measures, exclusive of code bills; 
while the House passed slightly more than forty-three per 
cent of the measures it originated. Although the lower 
house passed a somewhat larger percentage of its measures 
than did the Senate, the difference is not so great as was 
the case in the Thirty-ninth General Assembly when the 
Senate passed approximately forty-six per cent of its own 
measures and the House passed nearly fifty-two per cent of 
the House measures. The situation in this regard in the 
Thirty-eighth General Assembly was almost the exact re- 
verse of that in the Thirty-ninth General Assembly. From 
the record made by the two chambers it appears that dur- 
ing the last two sessions of the legislature the House has 
been able to dispose of business with as much or more expe- 
dition than the Senate. Perhaps this may be attributed to 

8 This same tendency is manifest in regard to code revision bUls of wliicli 32 
were lost in the Senate after having passed the House and only 2 were lost in 
the House after having passed the Senate. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 513 



the installation of the electrical voting mechanism which 
was first used in 1921. 

One hundred and twenty -nine acts (including two joint 
resolutions) — a third of all the laws passed by both houses 
and signed by the Governor — were deemed of immediate 
importance and declared to be in effect upon publication. 
Although this number is less than were declared in effect 
on publication by the Thirty-ninth General Assembly when 
no less than 191 acts (over forty-six per cent) were de- 
clared in effect after being published, it is a larger number 
than were treated in this manner by the Thirty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly which deemed 116 measures of immediate 
importance.^ The remaining measures became effective on 
July 4, 1923, unless otherwise provided. It is also signif- 
icant that all except 6 of the 43 legalizing acts passed ia 
1923 were declared in effect upon publication. 

As was the case with the legislation that failed of passage 
in the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, by far the greater 
number of measures were defeated in the chamber where 
they were introduced. Of the 406 House measures that 
failed, 81 were lost in the Senate, 2 were vetoed by the 
Governor, while the remaining 323 were lost in the House 
itself. Of the 342 Senate measures that failed of enact- 
ment, 45 were lost in the House, 1 was lost in conference 
committee, the Governor vetoed 3, while the remaining 293 
were lost in the Senate. 

There was nothing unusual about the methods used by the 
Fortieth General Assembly in defeating measures, except 
perhaps that no bills were defeated by striking out the 
enacting clause. Two hundred and sixteen bills and 3 joint 
resolutions of the 748 measures that failed of enactment 
were withdrawn. Many of these were withdrawn because 

» In three instances a separate act was used to provide for the publication 
of a statute. 



514 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



a companion bill had been introduced in the other house and 
had been substituted for the measure. Moreover, this 
practice has the parliamentary advantage of disposing of a 
bill without prejudice and leaves the way open for reintro- 
duction in the same or another session when the chances for 
its enactment seem more favorable. In the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly more measures were disposed of in this 
way than by any other method ; but in the Fortieth General 
Assembly more measures were lost in committee than in 
any other way. Two hundred and twenty-eight measures 
were disposed of in committee, as compared with 174 by the 
legislature which met in 1921. Moreover, 175 measures 
were indefinitely postponed, and 17 were lost because one 
of the houses failed to take action. Only 55 measures were 
lost by an adverse vote when put on final passage. This is 
14 less than the number of bills which failed to receive the 
constitutional majority on final vote in the Thirty -ninth 
General Assembly. A few bills were lost by being passed 
on file or placed on the calendar and no further action 
taken; while several were lost because other bills on the 
same subject were substituted for them.^" 

Of the total number of measures (exclusive of code re- 
vision bills) introduced in both houses, only 142 were intro- 
duced by committees (80 by Senate committees and 62 by 
House committees) ; while 940, or almost eighty-seven per 
cent, were introduced by individual members. Of these, 422 
were introduced by Senators and 518 by members of the 
House of Representatives. The average number of bills 
per member introduced in the Fortieth General Assembly 
was approximately eight and two-fifths for the Senate, 

10 Judging from the content of the session laws, it appears that in a number 
of instances the substance of a bill was included in another although no formal 
statement of the substitution was made. In these cases the bills were counted 
among those that failed although in substance they really were enacted. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 515 



while for the House the average was approximately four 
and four-fifths. As usual the number of bills introduced by 
individual members was, roughly speaking, inversely pro- 
portional to the size of the house.^^ 

The largest number of bills introduced in the Senate by 
one member was 28 by Senator J. D. Buser, who also holds 
the record of the whole Assembly in the introduction of 
bills. Representative Volney Diltz holds the record in the 
House, having introduced 24 bills, in spite of the fact that 
he was serving his first term in the legislature. Senators 
W. J. Goodwin, B. M. Stoddard, and D. W. Kimberly having 
introduced 17, 16, and 15 bills respectively are entitled to 
second, third, and fourth places on the list of those who 
introduced the largest number of bills in the Senate. Sen- 
ators T. C. Cessna, F. C. Gilchrist, P. C. Holdoegel, B. J. 
Horchem, and E. W. Romkey each introduced fourteen 
measures. Senators William Schmedika, R. P. Scott, and 
J. M. Slosson are each credited with having introduced 
only one bill; while Senators J. K. Hale, W. G. Haskell, 
J. A. Nelson, and Frank Shane introduced two each. As 
has been mentioned Representative Diltz holds first place 
for introducing most bills in the House. Next highest is 
Representative W. C. Children who introduced 22; third. 
Representative A. 0. Hauge with 19 measures ; and fourth. 
Representative L. B, Forsling who introduced 18 measures. 
It is interesting to note that in the last three sessions of the 
legislature the first place for introducing the largest num- 
ber of bills in both houses has been held, with one excep- 
tion, by members from Polk County. In the Thirty-eighth 
and Thirty-ninth General Assemblies the place was held in 
the Senate by Addison M. Parker, but in the Fortieth, as 
has been mentioned, it was held by J. D. Buser from Musca- 

11 Some members introduced measures as committee bills which, of course, 
are not counted in the following summary. 



516 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tine County. In the House of Representatives, first place 
was held by A. 0. Hauge in 1919 and also in 1921. In 1923, 
Mr. Hauge occupied third place; while his colleague from 
Polk County, Mr. Diltz, held first place. Although every 
Senator introduced at least one measure, there were sixteen 
members of the lower house who introduced none and nine- 
teen who introduced only one measure each. 

Only two bills were introduced by request in the Senate 
and only 15 in the House. Of these, four (one Senate meas- 
ure and three House measures) became law. The largest 
number of pages contained in any single bill was 45. One 
bill of this length was introduced in each chamber and an- 
other, containing 44 pages, was introduced in the House. 
Several bills contained between 30 and 40 pages. 

As has usually been the case, most of the legislation of 
the Fortieth General Assembly was passed before the last 
week of the session.^^ Before April 11th action up to the 
stage of enrollment had been taken on 182 measures, exclu- 
sive of code bills — a little over fifty -four per cent of the 
total number of ordinary enactments. This percentage is 
lower than in the case of the Thirty-eighth and Thirty- 
ninth General Assemblies when sixty-eight and fifty-six per 
cent of enactments respectively passed before the last week. 
While 152 measures passed the Fortieth General Assembly 
during the last week, only 71 measures passed both houses 
during that time. In 1921 only 45 out of 179 measures 
enacted during the last week passed both houses during that 
period. Of the 152 measures that passed one or both houses 
during the last week in 1923, it appears that 13 were intro- 
duced in January, 45 in February, 62 in March, and 32 in 
April. From this record it appears that, although almost 
half of the laws enacted passed one or both houses during 

12 The last week of the session lias been taken to include April 11th, 12th, 
13th, 14th, 16th, and 17th. 



I 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 517 

the last week, the great majority of measures that became 
law were under consideration in one or both houses for a 
much longer period of time. The only action on twenty- 
three of the bills that passed one or both houses during the 
last week was to concur in amendments made by the other 
house. Only 16 measures ran the entire course from intro- 
duction through passage after April lOth.^^ 

As usual, sifting committees for the purpose of selecting 
the important measures from the bills remaining in the 
legislative hopper near the close of the session were ap- 
pointed by both houses of the Fortieth General Assembly. 
The committee to act in this capacity for the Senate was 
announced on April 4th and six days later, on April 10th, 
the Speaker of the House announced the members who were 
to act as the House Sifting Committee. Two hundred and 
eighty-one measures were referred to these committees.^* 
One hundred and eighty-seven of these were referred to the 
Senate Sifting Committee — 80 being Senate files, 103 
House files, and 4 House joint resolutions. Of these 80 
Senate files, 12 were reported out, 3 of which became law ; 
while of the 107 House measures (103 House bills and 4 
House joint resolutions), 65 were reported out and 56 were 
enacted. The Sifting Committee in the House had 94 meas- 
ures referred to it — 32 Senate bills and 62 House bills. 
Of the 62 House bills not a single one was reported out ; but 

13 To bring this out more clearly it might be mentioned that the Senate took 
action on 39 House files during the last week (32 of these became law) and of 
these, 19 passed the lower house in March and 20 in April prior to April 11th. 
Likewise the House acted upon 55 Senate files during the last week (48 of 
these became law) and of these, 30 passed the Senate in March and 25 in April 
prior to April 11th. This goes to show that these measures were under consid- 
eration for some time before the last week of the session and final vote. 

1* Senate Journal, 1923, p. 1286; House Journal, 1923, pp. 1607, 1608. This 
number represents four duplications in that four Senate bills were first consid- 
ered by the Senate Sifting Committee and later by the Sifting Committee in 
the House. 



518 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



12 of the 32 Senate bills were reported out, and 6 of these 
became law. It may be inferred from these figures and 
from the experience in previous sessions of the legislature 
that the measures which have already passed one branch of 
the legislature are favored by the sifting committees. This 
fact was brought out more clearly by the action of the Sen- 
ate Sifting Committee in the Thirty-ninth General Assem- 
bly which considered 143 bills and reported out 55, of which 
50 were House bills and only 5 Senate files. 

The character of the statutes enacted by the Fortieth 
General Assembly does not differ materially from the legis- 
lation enacted at other sessions in recent years, even though 
an important part of the accomplishment relates to code 
revision. Only 147 enactments out of a total of 388 meas- 
ures signed by the Governor may be considered new legis- 
lation in the sense that they do not specifically amend or 
repeal existing statutes. Among these 147 there are 43 
legalizing acts and 64 are classed as appropriation acts and 
special acts.^^ Moreover, many of the remaining 40 enact- 
ments, as well as most of the appropriation acts, relate to 
subjects upon which there was previous legislation so that 
the absolutely new legislation consists, in the main, of legal- 
izing acts and of appropriation acts for the purpose of 
settling claims against the State. The number of legalizing 
acts passed by the Fortieth General Assembly is consider- 
ably less than the number passed in 1921 when the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly passed 68 such measures as com- 
pared with 39 by the legislature which met in 1919 and 102 
by the General Assembly in 1917. 

Two hundred and forty-one measures passed by the For- 

15 No separate statement of the number of appropriation acts as distinguished 
from the special acts is given because many classed in the latter category in the 
session laws are in reality appropriation acts. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 519 



tieth General Assembly amend or repeal existing law.^* 
TMs nmnber represents over sixty-two per cent of the total 
output. Slightly more than sixty per cent of the acts of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly may be classed as amenda- 
tory acts in that they specifically repeal or amend other 
statutes. A more accurate idea of the amount of change 
made in the law by the Fortieth General Assembly as well 
as the methods used in making the change may be given by 
summarizing the number of sections that were altered or 
repealed. 

Of the Code of 1897 it appears that one section was re- 
pealed; 26 sections were amended by adding or inserting 
words, phrases, or clauses 2 sections were amended by 
striking out parts ; 15 were amended by the substitution of 
words, phrases, or clauses ; 17 sections were struck out and 
new sections substituted; and in 3 cases one or more sec- 
tions were added to existing law — making a total of 64 
sections amended. 

Of the Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1913, 2 sections 
were repealed; 16 were amended by adding or inserting 
words, phrases, or clauses ; 4 were amended by striking out 
parts; 22 were amended by the substitution of words, 
phrases, or clauses; 5 sections were struck out and new 
ones substituted; and in 3 cases one or more sections were 
added to existing law — making a total of 52 sections 
amended. 

Of the Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 
1915, 7 sections were amended by inserting or adding 
words, phrases, or clauses ; 3 were amended by striking out 

16 This number includes the 54 code revision acts, one joint resolution pro- 
posing an amendment to the Constitution, and two joint resolutions providing 
for the publication of acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, 

IT This statement should be interpreted to mean anything less than a whole 
section. 



520 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 



parts; 13 were amended by the substitution of words, 
phrases, or clauses; and 8 sections were struck out and 
new ones inserted — making a total of 31 sections amended. 

Of the legislation of the Thirty-seventh General Assem- 
bly, 2 sections were amended by adding or inserting words, 
phrases, or clauses ; 2 were amended by striking out parts ; 
5 were amended by the substitution of words, phrases, or 
clauses ; and 15 sections were struck out and new ones sub- 
stituted — making a total of 24 sections amended. 

Of the legislation of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, 
19 sections were amended by inserting or adding words, 
phrases, or clauses ; 2 were amended by striking out parts ; 
24 were amended by the substitution of words, phrases, or 
clauses ; 11 sections were struck out and new ones substi- 
tuted; and in 2 cases one or more sections were added to 
existing law — making a total of 58 sections amended. 

Of the legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, 
15 sections were repealed; 18 were amended by adding or 
inserting words, phrases, or clauses; 4 were amended by 
striking out parts ; 15 were amended by the substitution of 
words, phrases, or clauses ; 33 sections were struck out and 
new ones substituted ; and in one case one or more sections 
were added to existing law — making a total of 86 sections 
amended. 

Moreover the Fortieth General Assembly also made some 
changes in its own enactments. In two instances it added 
one or more sections to its previous enactments ; it amend 
ed one section by adding or inserting words, phrases, or 
clauses ; one by striking out parts ; and another by substi- 
tuting a part of a section for a new part — making a total 
of 5 sections amended. 

In addition to the laws which specifically amend the exist- 
ing statutes, there are three acts which contain sections for 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 521 



indefinite or blanket repeal of all provisions which conflict 
with the new law. It is almost impossible to discover the 
nmnber of sections which were changed or repealed by these 
acts. 

Aside from the indefinite repeals and amendments, 320 
sections of law were specifically affected by the legislation 
of the Fortieth General Assembly.^^ This number is less 
than half of the number of sections amended by the General 
Assembly which met in 1921 when 700 sections were altered. 
It must be remembered, however, that 54 code revision acts 
were also passed by the Fortieth General Assembly and by 
these acts no less than 357 sections were amended, revised, 
and codified.^^ If these are added it is obvious that the 
entire output of the Fortieth General Assembly affects 677 
sections of existing law as compared with 700 sections af- 
fected by the laws of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, 
426 by the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, and 364 by the 
General Assembly which met in 1917. 

The favorite method of amendment used by the Fortieth 
General Assembly was to strike out words, phrases, or 
clauses and insert others, that is, to substitute parts of 
sections. This method was used in 95 instances. This is 
one of the forms of "blind amendment" because, except in 
rare instances, it gives no idea of the change that has been 
made in the law. A better form that was used, though not 
the best possible method, was to repeal a whole section and 

18 This number represents some duplication because in a few instances the 
same section was amended more than once or by different methods, and thus 
counted more than once. 

19 According to the "Table of Sections Repealed or Amended" in the Laws 
of Iowa, 1923, these 357 sections are distributed as follows: Code of 1897, 110 
sections; Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1913, 100 sections; Supplemental 
Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 191S, 46 sections; Acts of the Thirty-seventh 
General Assemhly, 20 sections; Acts of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, 38 
sections; and Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, 43 sections. 

VOL. XXI — 33 



522 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



enact a new one, which was done in 89 instances.^" There 
were also 89 instances of sections which were amended by 
adding or inserting parts of sections ; in 11 instances one or 
more sections were added to existing law; and 18 sections 
were amended by striking out parts. Finally, it is signifi- 
cant to note that only 18 sections of law were completely 
stricken from the statutes by the Fortieth General As- 
sembly. 

CODIFICATION OF THE LAWS 

One of the most important problems confronting the 
Fortieth General Assembly was the codification of the laws 
— an undertaking which has been in progress since 1919. 
Members of the General Assembly hoped that codification 
could be left to a special session, but Governor W. L. 
Harding failed to call an extra session in 1920 and Governor 
N. E. Kendall refrained from taking the step in either 1921 
or 1922. In his biennial message Governor Kendall stated 
that study of the subject had confirmed his conviction that 
code revision could be effected at the regular session with- 
out dislocating other necessary business. He pointed out 
that much of the normal work of the legislature in amend- 
ing and repealing existing statute law was actually code 
revision, and he felt that the magnitude of the task had been 
''vastly exaggerated". 

After a hot debate in both houses it was agreed to under- 
take the work of code revision with the understanding that 
if the work could not be completed during the regular ses- 
sion without detriment to general legislation the Governor 
should call a special session for the purpose of completing 

20 The best method of amendment is to make a statement of the words to be 
omitted or inserted and the place of omission or insertion, and then to reenact 
the section with the changes made. — See Iowa Applied History, Vol. Ill, espe- 
cially pp. 332-342. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 523 



the codification. The 262 code revision bills were intro- 
duced in both houses, and the Senate adopted a resolution 
to give them precedence until February 1st. Long before 
the end of the session it was apparent that code revision 
would not be completed ; and on April 16th Governor Ken- 
dall called a special session of the legislature, which 
convened on April 18th and, after transacting a little emer- 
gency business, adjourned until December 4, 1923. Fifty- 
four code bills were passed at the regular session.^^ 

The first of the code revision acts specifies the form of 
the code bills and designates the proper citation of previous 
codes, code supplements, and session laws. The Compiled 
Code of 1919 and the Supplement to the Compiled Code, 
1921, were adopted as official for the purposes of citation in 
code revision. Wherever practicable, sections in the new 
code are not to exceed sixteen lines in length.^^ 

For the purpose of keeping the work of codification up to 
date the Supreme Court Reporter was directed to prepare a 
supplement to the Compiled Code of 1919 containing the 
legislation of the Thirty-ninth and Fortieth General As- 
semblies arranged according to the titles, chapters, and 
sections of the Compiled Code of 1919. As in 1921 the 
Committee on Retrenchment and Reform was authorized to 
provide for and supervise the preparation of amendments 
to the Code Commission bills to harmonize them with the 
legislation of the Fortieth General Assembly. The former 
Code Commissioners might be called upon to aid in this 
work, and a sum sufficient to cover all expenses was appro- 
priated.^^ 

^■i- Bouse Journal, 1923, pp. 31, 202-215, 218-258; Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 
183, 186, 187, 194-208, 216-256 ; The Des Moines Eegister, April 19, 1923. 

22 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 223. 

^3 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 330. 



524 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



SUFFEAGE AND ELECTIONS 

Any political reform as revolutionary as equal suffrage 
causes considerable disturbance of related legislation. 
Some adjustments were made in 1921 and the Fortieth Gen- 
eral Assembly effected some additional changes in 1923. 
The so-called fifty-fifty bill seems to have interested women 
voters more than any other measure affecting their political 
party activities. According to this act the size of each 
county central committee was doubled and, instead of one 
member being elected from each precinct as heretofore, the 
law now stipulates that one man and one woman shall be 
elected from each precinct. The State central committee 
was also doubled in the same manner. This arrangement is 
presumed to give women an equal share in the control of 
the party organization and activities.^^ 

Before the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment to the 
Federal Constitution women in Iowa were entitled to vote 
on certain financial questions, and separate ballots and bal- 
lot boxes were furnished for that purpose. Since the fran- 
chise is now the same for men and women there is no reason 
for separate ballots and ballot boxes, and so that statute 
was repealed.^^ 

The alphabetical lists of registered voters may now be 
bound in three separate parts if desired.^^ 

Under previous legislation, voters who changed their resi- 
dence from one precinct to another in cities or towns within 
ten days of a municipal election have been thereby disquali- 
fied from participating. So far as the selection of munici- 
pal officers at large is concerned residence in any particular 

ziActs of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 7. 
26 Acts of the Fortieth General Assemily, Ch. 9. 
2fl Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 8. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 525 



part of the city or town has no merit as a proper qualifica- 
tion. To prevent change of residence from entirely dis- 
qualifying a voter, an amendment was adopted to permit 
electors who move to another preciuct within ten days be- 
fore election to vote in the precinct where they are regis- 
tered if ward councilmen are not to be chosen at the 
election. This change affects all elections in towns, com- 
mission governed cities, and in cities not divided into 
wards, but in other cities the amendment applies only to 
special elections.^'^ 

That the county auditor might have more time in which to 
prepare election ballots, the Thirty-ninth General Assembly 
fixed the time for candidates to file withdrawal requests 
with the auditor at twenty days before election. This al- 
lowed ten days before the ballots were to be ready for ab- 
sent voters. The Fortieth General Assembly, however, 
changed the law so that absent voters may apply for a bal- 
lot twenty, instead of fifteen, days before election and the 
auditor may mail the ballots fifteen, instead of ten, days 
before election. This amendment extends the time for 
handling the absent voters, but the time for preparing the 
ballots is reduced to five days as it was before 1921. The 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly, in prescribing the pro- 
cedure for recording absent voters' ballots upon voting 
machines, provided that it might be done any time while the 
polls were open on election day. It was found, however, 
that registering these ballots during polling hours often 
caused delay in the regular voting, and so the law was 
changed to require the registration of the absent voters' 
ballots just after the polls close.^^ 

To make the use of voting machines less confusing a 

21 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch, 115. 
28 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Chs. 10, 11. 



I 



526 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Senate bill proposed that the levers on new machines be 
placed at least an inch nearer the names of the candidates 
to which they refer than to those of the other political 
parties. This bill passed the Senate but was indefinitely 
postponed by the House.^^ 

Three bills relating to election boards and their work 
failed to be enacted. Senator J. A. Mcintosh attempted to 
provide for double election boards in all precincts, not 
merely in those polling three hundred votes or more, but 
the Senate voted negatively. Two measures introduced by 
Senator George S. Banta — one to require the county audi- 
tor to conduct a school of instruction for election clerks and 
judges and the other to repeal the penalty of five years dis- 
franchisement for disclosing election returns before the 
closing of the polls — were passed by the Senate but were 
lost in the House.^" 

The usual attempts were made to change the system of 
primary elections, without success. Senator C. J. Fulton 
sponsored a bill to give political parties more control and 
responsibility in the nomination of candidates for public 
office. According to his plan party members would elect 
delegates to the county convention at precinct elections, the 
county convention would select delegates to district and 
State conventions and nominate one or two candidates for 
each county office, and the district and State conventions 
would nominate one or two candidates for district and State 
offices. Independent candidates could get their names on 
the ballot by petition. The voters, irrespective of party 
affiliation, would then choose the candidates to run in the 
general election at a State-wide primary on the last Mon- 

29 Senate File No. 599; Senate Journal, 1923, p. 1064; House Journal, 1923, 
p. 1648. 

30 Senate File Nos. 264, 501, 502; Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 499, 897-899; 
Home Journal, 1923, p. 1648. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 527 



day in August. Only the two candidates not of the same 
political party, receiving the highest number of votes at the 
primary, would be considered in the general election, thus 
practically eliminating minor parties. This bill failed to 
pass the Senate by a vote of ten to twenty-one.^^ 

In the House J. C. McClune voiced the opinion that voters 
should not be allowed to change their party affiliation within 
two months of the primary election. His bill to that effect 
was reported for indefinite postponement by the majority 
of the Committee on Elections, but the House adopted the 
minority report recommending passage. The measure was 
eventually defeated, however, by a vote of forty-two to 
fifty, a motion to reconsider being lost. Representative 
Fred Himebauch proposed a preferential scheme of voting 
in the primary, but later withdrew the bill.^^ 

Senator J. A. Mcintosh introduced a bill to change the 
date of the primary from the first Monday in June to the 
first Monday in August. The committee recommended its 
passage. Senator J. L. Brookhart then offered an amend- 
ment providing for a presidential preference primary and 
fixing the date of the primary in presidential years on the 
last Monday in April and in other years on the first Monday 
in August. After a spirited debate this amendment was 
defeated by a close vote and a few minutes later the bill was 
lost by a vote of twenty-two to twenty-four. An attempt to 
repeal the requirement that a candidate, to be nominated by 
the primary election, must receive thirty -five per cent of the 
party vote cast for the year also failed.^^ 

81 Senate File No. 410; Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 1409-1411. 

32 House File Nos. 265, 500; House Journal, 1923, pp. 461, 462, 463, 781, 
782, 1543 

33 Senate File Nos. 298, 299; Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 528, 529, 554, 696, 
722-725, 1151, 1152. 



528 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



THE STATE ADMINISTRATION 

Governor Kendall recommended to the Thirty-ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly the reorganization of a number of the State 
administrative offices, boards, and commissions. While 
none of his suggestions were adopted in 1921, he reiterated 
the same program in his message to the Fortieth General 
Assembly. Specifically he proposed that the Board of 
Agriculture should be enlarged to include the Iowa State 
Poultry Association, the Horticultural Society, the "Weather 
and Crop Service, the State Apiarist, the Commission of 
Animal Health, the State Entomologist, the State Dairy 
Association, the Beef Cattle Breeders' Association, the 
State Veterinarian, and the Corn and Small Grain Pro- 
ducers' Association; that the State Board of Health should 
be enlarged to include the State Food and Dairy Commis- 
sion, the Commission of Pharmacy, the State Oil Inspector, 
the State Board of Dental Examiners, the State Mine In- 
spectors, the State Board of Optometry Examiners, the 
State Fire Marshal, and the State Boat Inspectors ; that the 
State Library should be enlarged to include the State His- 
torical Department, the State Library, the Library Com- 
mission, the Bureau of Public Archives, the Academy of 
Sciences, and the State Conservation Commission ; and that 
the Board of Parole should be merged with the Board of 
Control which should be enlarged to four members one of 
whom should be a woman. In addition to administrative 
reorganization the Governor advocated the establishment 
of an effective budget and a thorough audit of aU State 
finances.^* 

Several of these recommendations were incorporated in 
bills, but the only important change accomplished was the 

34 House Journal, 1923, pp. 26-30. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 529 



reorganization of the Department of Agriculture.^^ The 
new Department of Agriculture includes all of the State 
oflScials enumerated by the Governor except the State 
Apiarist and the State Entomologist who retain their con- 
nection with the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts. Moreover, the new Department includes the offices 
of the Food and Dairy Commissioner and the Oil Inspector 
which the Governor had suggested should be in the reorgan- 
ized Department of Health, and the office of the Hotel In- 
spector which he omitted in his recommendations. The 
various agricultural associations, which have hitherto been 
quasi-official independent organizations whose only connec- 
tion with the Department of Agriculture was their partici- 
pation in the election of members of the Board of Agri- 
culture at the annual agricultural convention, were made an 
integral part of the new Department on the same basis as 
the purely public officers. The offices of the State Dairy 
and Food Commissioner, the State Veterinarian, the Com- 
mission of Animal Health, the Inspector of Petroleum 
Products (including the Chief Oil Inspector), and the Hotel 
Inspector were specifically abolished and their functions 
transferred to the Department of Agriculture. The orig- 
inal bill proposed to abolish also the Geological Survey, the 
Board of Conservation, and the Forestry Commission, but 
they were preserved by a Senate amendment. The old 
State Board of Agriculture was not abolished, but its only 
functions now relate to the control of the State Fair 
Grounds and the conduct of the State Fair, over which the 
Department of Agriculture has no jurisdiction. Eepre- 
sentative A. 0. Hauge endeavored without success to keep 
the Oil Inspector and Hotel Inspector out of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. A faction in both houses opposed the 

35 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 46. 



530 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



inclusion of any State inspectors and advocated an alterna- 
tive plan of establishing an inspection department which 
would coordinate the entire State inspection service under 
the Attorney General, but this suggestion was also de- 
feated.^^ 

At the head of the reorganized Department of Agricul- 
ture is the Secretary of Agriculture who is to be elected by 
popular vote and whose salary is fixed at $4000 a year. 
The Governor has appointed R. W. Cassady, a well-known 
stock raiser of Whiting, to serve until January 2, 1925.^'^ 
The duties of the Secretary are to promote the interests of 
agriculture in all of its phases, to devise methods of increas- 
ing production and facilitating distribution, to compile and 
publish oflScial agricultural statistics, to cooperate with the 
agricultural college, and to perform the functions formerly 
performed by the State Dairy and Food Commissioner, the 
State Veterinarian, the Commission of Animal Health, the 
Inspector of Petroleum Products, the Hotel Inspector, and 
the State Board of Agriculture. No attempt was made to 
specifically repeal or coordinate the many pages of existing 
statute law relating to the consolidated offices, boards, and 
commissions. That task was apparently left for code re- 
vision. 

An act which was approved ten days after the one cre- 
ating the Department of Agriculture appropriated $65,000 
to "the Iowa department of agriculture" for improvements 
on the State Fair Grounds, over which the new Department 
of Agriculture has no control. These funds are to be dra^vn 
from the State Treasury, however, "upon the order of the 
state board of agriculture" which still exists with the sole 

36 Senate File No. 594; Senate Journal, pp. 783, 789, 947, 998; Eouse 
Journal, 1923, pp. 1252, 1271, 1272; The Bes Moines Register, March 24, 30, 
1923. 

37 The Bes Moines Register, April 13, 1923. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 531 



function, according to the reorganization law, of maintain- 
ing the State Fair Grounds and managing the Fair.^^ 

One of the significant results of the reorganization was to 
place a representative of the agricultural interests upon the 
Executive Council, for by another act the Secretary of 
Agriculture was made a member of that body. It was with 
this in view that the office was made elective.^^ 

An effort was made in 1921 to place the rooms in the 
State House occupied by the Department of Agriculture 
under the control of the Executive Council, but only one of 
the two sections of the statute assigning the space to the 
Department was repealed so the quarters were retained by 
the Department. The Fortieth General Assembly repealed 
the other provision of the law, however, and the new De- 
partment of Agriculture, like other State officials with of- 
fices in the Capitol, will depend upon the Executive Council 
for an assignment of office space.*** 

The Governor's recommendations and the action of the 
legislature relating to the establishment of an improved 
budget system are discussed below in connection with the 
topic of taxation and finance. 

Senator J. D. Buser sponsored a bill requiring the State 
Auditor to examine the accounts of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, the Board of Education, the Board of Control, and the 
Highway Commission. The measure passed the Senate, but 
after having been substituted for a similar House bill it 
failed by three votes to receive a majority in the House.*^ 

38 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Chs. 46, 287. 

39 Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 1003, 1004; Acts of the Fortieth General As- 
sembly, Ch. 3. 

*o Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 134; Acts of the Fortieth 
General Assembly, Ch. 45. 

« Senate File No. 375; Senate Journal, 1923, pp. 603, 676, 1143, 1144; 
House Journal, 1923, pp. 1662, 1663. 



532 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Thirty-ninth General Assembly passed a law re- 
quiring all public officers, boards, commissions, depart- 
ments, and institutions of the State, counties, townships, 
municipalities, school corporations, and public libraries to 
file an annual inventory of all public property under their 
control. This statute was unpopular among those affected 
by its provisions. It was criticized because the inventory 
consumed much time, was inevitably inaccurate, was out of 
date as soon as it was filed, and served no useful purpose 
afterward. The only visible benefits were said to be derived 
by the book-makers who supplied the required blank forms. 
Many public officials found the law quite impracticable, and 
so it was repealed by the Fortieth General Assembly.*^ 

A bill to abolish the Board of Parole and impose its du- 
ties on the Board of Control was indefinitely postponed. 
Another bill providing that the Board of Parole be com- 
posed of one member of the Board of Control, the Warden 
of the Penitentiary or Eeformatory in which the person 
proposed to be paroled is an inmate, and a citizen of the 
State to be appointed by the Governor was withdrawn by 
the author.*^ 

Several significant changes in State educational adminis- 
trative agencies were proposed though none gained enact- 
ment. Senator B. J. Horchem wanted to consolidate the 
Board of Educational Examiners, the Board for Vocational 
Education, and the Department of Public Instruction with 
the Board of Education, but his bill was lost in the Sifting 
Committee. A bill to reorganize the Board of Educational 
Examiners passed the House but was indefinitely postponed 
in the Senate. Companion bills to establish a department 

*2 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 13 ; The Bes Moines Begister, 
January 20, 1923. 

"Senate File No. 693; House File No. 648; Senate Journal, 1923, p. 1271; 
House Journal, 1923, p. 885. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 533 



of physical education were both withdrawn ; an attempt to 
reduce the term of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
from four to two years was indefinitely postponed; and a 
bill to make the State Board of Education elective and re- 
duce the number of members from nine to seven met the 
same f ate.^* 

Formerly the term of the Commissioner of Insurance, 
whose appointment must be confirmed by the Senate, ex- 
pired on January 31st of every second odd numbered year. 
Chapter 169 of the 1923 legislation extends the tenure of the 
present Commissioner to June 30, 1927, and makes June 
30th the date when the term of the Commissioner of Insur- 
ance shall expire thereafter. This change was made be- 
cause it was found that a new Commissioner who took office 
during the session of the legislature was not able to furnish 
the advice and counsel which the General Assembly needed 
ia respect to proposed insurance legislation.^^ 

The annual appropriation for the State Entomologist was 
increased from $4500 to $6500 and the maximum fee that 
may be charged for the inspection of a nursery or fruit 
farm was raised from $15 to $40.^^ 

The Missouri Eiver has always been notorious for its 
meandering and there are tracts of land which are first on 
one side of the river and then on the other. The people who 
Kve there are sometimes uncertain whether they are inhab- 
itants of Iowa or Nebraska, and so are the tax assessors. 
To settle the question the Fortieth General Assembly cre- 
ated a Boundary Commission to draft a compact definitely 
locating the boundary between the two States. This com- 

*4 Senate File Nos. 426, 445, 541; House File Nos. 463, 550, 555; Senate 
Journal, 1923, pp. 786, 1060 ; House Journal, 1923, pp. 982, 1051. 

« Acts of the Fortieth General Assemtly, Ch. 169. 

*6 Acts of the Fortieth General Assemtly, Ch. 65. 



534 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



pact is to be submitted to the Governors and General As- 
semblies of Iowa and Nebraska for approval.*'^ 

For the maintenance of the office of the State Fire Mar- 
shal, the annual appropriation, which in 1921 was reduced 
from $13,500 to $6500 because that sum was to be used 
only for the payment of expenses and not for salaries, was 
increased to $7500 by the Fortieth General Assembly. A 
technical amendment in regard to the reporting of fires 
makes it clear that township clerks may collect mileage 
from as well as to the place of the fire.*^ 

The salary of each member of the Board of Dental Ex- 
aminers, including the secretary and treasurer, has been 
fixed at $7.50 a day, while the sum of $600 is provided for 
the treasurer, presumably in addition to his per diem. The 
statute has been thus construed, but to remove any possible 
ambiguity Chapter 40 of the Acts of the Fortieth General 
Assembly specifically provides that the $600 shall be in 
addition to the per diem.*^ 

The Secretary of the Executive Council was made ex 
officio the secretary of the State Board of Engineering Ex- 
aminers and may designate one of his assistants to do the 
work. Formerly one of the members of the Board served 
as secretary. The change was made because of criticism of 
the conduct of the office, caused mainly by the fact that the 
secretary had no permanent quarters in which to maintain 
his office and was compelled to find accommodations in his 
own residence. The opposition went so far as to propose 
the abolition of the Board of Engineering Examiners, and 
such a bUl passed the House. In order to preserve the 

47 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 313. 
isActs of the Fortieth General Assembly, Chs. 26, 27. 

49 Executive Council's Eeport of Expenses, 1920-1922, p. 50; Acts of the 
Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 40. 



THE FORTIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 535 



Board and at the same time to allay criticism and provide 
permanent quarters for the records of the organization, the 
present arrangement was effected.^" 

An act to prevent nepotism in public offices was placed 
on the statute books by the Fortieth General Assembly. It 
is now unlawful for any elected or appointed officer to em- 
ploy as deputy or clerk in his office any relative of closer 
consanguinity than the third degree, unless the appoint- 
ment is approved by the officials whose duty it is to approve 
of the bond of the principal. This law does not vacate any 
position nor does it apply to persons whose compensation is 
less than $600 a year.^^ 

THE STATE LEGISLATURE 

The only public office for which women are constitution- 
ally ineligible in Iowa is that of membership in the General 
Assembly. With equal suffrage has come a demand that 
women be allowed to serve as State Senators and Eepre- 
sentatives. The Fortieth General Assembly, without a dis- 
senting vote in either house, took the first step toward 
removing the restriction in the Constitution that only male 
citizens are qualified for the legislative branch of the State 
government. Before becoming effective as a part of the 
Constitution, the amendment proposed in the joint resolu- 
tion of the Fortieth General Assembly must be passed by 
the Forty-first General Assembly and approved by a ma- 
jority of the people voting on the question at an election 
thereafter.^2 

50 House File No. 58; House Journal, 1923, pp. 686, 724, 725; Acts of the 
Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 35. 

81 Acts of the Fortieth General Assembly, Ch. 15. 

''^ Senate Journal, 1923, p. 504; House Journal, 1923, p. 284; Acts of the 
Fortieth General Assemily, Ch. 387. 



536 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Another constitutional amendment relating to the legis- 
lative branch of the State government was proposed by 
Senator J. 0. Shaff of Camanche. He wanted to make the 
regular session of the General Assembly quadrennial and 
increase the term of Eepresentatives to four years and that 
of Senators to eight. The report of the Committee on 
Judiciary, recommending indefinite postponement of the 
resolution, was adopted without debate.^^ 

Each house is the judge of the qualification, election, and 
return of its own members. In case a seat is contested the 
law specifies the method of conducting the contest and se- 
curing evidence, but the General Assembly may reach a 
decision in any manner it pleases. Though many contested 
elections to the General Assembly have occurred in the past 
there have been relatively few in recent years. In the 
Fortieth General Assembly R. L. Eumley of Decatur Coun- 
ty contested the election of M. F. Springer to the House as 
Representative by a majority of nine votes. A recount was 
made which resulted in a tie, each candidate having received 
2730 votes — the first tie for a seat in the legislature in the 
history of Iowa. In such a contingency the law provides 
that the decision shall be made by lot. In this instance ten 
slips of paper of uniform size, one of them bearing the 
name of the contestant and another the name of the incum- 
bent, were placed in a box. The box was then held above 
the Speaker's head while he drew out the slips, one by one. 
Dead silence prevailed in the chamber as the drawing be- 
gan. The first three slips were blank. Then Speaker 
Anderson accidentally drew two slips. They were returned 
to the box and reshuffled. Two more blanks were drawn and 
then the Speaker drew out the sixth slip and read the name 
of Rumley ; and so Mr. Rumley was seated on January 30th. 

as Senate Journal, 1923, p. 1083; The Des Moines Register, March 21, 1923. 



THE FOETIETH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 537 



The contest, including $500 salary for Mr. Springer, cost 
the State $1254.85." 

The Fortieth General Assembly provided for the usual 
number of extra janitors and other assistants. To the list 
employed by the Thirty-ninth General Assembly were 
added one extra elevator tender, an assistant doorkeeper, 
and a page. The compensation of the officers, employees, 
and the extra help was fixed at the same wages as that pro- 
vided by the previous Assembly, except that the salary of 
the assistant sergeant-at-arms was made $5 a day on ac- 
count of additional duties assigned to him, the salary of the 
elevator tenders was raised from $80 a month to $100, and 
the wages of the assistant to the State House postmaster 
were changed from $75 a month to $3 a day."*** 

One of the chief duties of the Committee on Retrench- 
ment and Reform is to examine the reports and activities of 
the administrative officers and report its findings to the 
General Assembly. There seems to have been some dis- 
satisfaction with this work of the Committee as expressed 
in a bill introduced by Senator Fulton to transfer the func- 
tion to the Executive Council. The measure encountered 
stormy weather. On the first vote in the Senate the bill 
failed to pass, but on the following day the vote was recon- 
sidered and the bill received a bare constitutional majority. 
Later it was recalled from the House and a publication 
clause added to give the act immediate effect ; but the House 
killed the whole proposition by indefinite postponement.**' 

Two bills calculated to regulate lobbying were introduced 
— one in each house. One of these bills was indefinitely 

niEouse Journal, 1923, pp. 303-305, 340-345; Acts of the Fortieth General 
Assemlly, Ch. 298; The Des Moines Register, January 31, 1923. 

«5 Acts of the F